Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 305)

Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics

The complex communities of microorganisms that colonise the human gastrointestinal tract play an important role in human health. The development of culture-independent molecular techniques has provided new insights in the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota. Here, we summarise the present state of the art on the intestinal microbiota with specific attention for...

Maternal protein and folic acid intake during gestation does not program leptin transcription or serum concentration in rat progeny

Maternal nutrition during gestation influences the development of the fetus, thereby determining its phenotype, including nutrient metabolism, appetite, and feeding behavior. The control of appetite is a very complex process and can be modulated by orexigenic and anorexigenic mediators such as leptin, which is involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling food...

Antibiotic resistance determinants in the interplay between food and gut microbiota

A complex and heterogeneous microflora performs sugar and lactic acid fermentations in food products. Depending on the fermentable food matrix (dairy, meat, vegetable etc.) as well as on the species composition of the microbiota, specific combinations of molecules are produced that confer unique flavor, texture, and taste to each product. Bacterial populations within such...

Microarray analysis revealed different gene expression patterns in HepG2 cells treated with low and high concentrations of the extracts of Anacardium occidentale shoots

In this study, the effects of low and high concentrations of the Anacardium occidentale shoot extracts on gene expression in liver HepG2 cells were investigated. From MTT assays, the concentration of the shoot extracts that maintained 50% cell viability (IC50) was 1.7 mg/ml. Cell viability was kept above 90% at both 0.4 mg/ml and 0.6 mg/ml of the extracts. The three...

Relationship between the paraoxonase (PON1) L55M and Q192R polymorphisms and obesity in a Mexican population: a pilot study

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the L55M and Q192R paraoxonase (PON1) polymorphisms and obesity in a population of adult Mexican workers. The study population included 127 adult individuals from the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, ranging in age from 20 to 56 years and representing both sexes. Based on body mass index, 63 individuals were...

Carbohydrate metabolism in Bifidobacteria

Members of the genus Bifidobacterium can be found as components of the gastrointestinal microbiota, and are believed to play an important role in maintaining and promoting human health by eliciting a number of beneficial properties. Bifidobacteria can utilize a diverse range of dietary carbohydrates that escape degradation in the upper parts of the intestine, many of which are...

Modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways by phytochemicals in ovarian cancer

Inflammation has been suggested to be involved in cancer development and progression. Many clinical and experimental studies have shown that inflammation could contribute to ovarian carcinogenesis through activation of the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways by chronic inflammatory mediators. Phytochemicals, which are natural compounds derived from fruits and vegetables, have shown anti...

Chocolate: (un)healthy source of polyphenols?

There is recent epidemiological evidence that chocolate consumption may improve vascular health. Furthermore, several small-scale human intervention studies indicate that habitual chocolate intake enhances the production of vasodilative nitric oxide and may lower blood pressure. It is hypothesized that potential beneficial effects of chocolate on vascular health are at least...

Answering biological questions: querying a systems biology database for nutrigenomics

The requirement of systems biology for connecting different levels of biological research leads directly to a need for integrating vast amounts of diverse information in general and of omics data in particular. The nutritional phenotype database addresses this challenge for nutrigenomics. A particularly urgent objective in coping with the data avalanche is making biologically...

Abstracts

Gene expression profiles in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells as biomarkers for nutritional in vitro and in vivo investigations

Identification of chemopreventive substances may be achieved by measuring biological endpoints in human cells in vitro. Since generally only tumour cells are available for such investigations, our aim was to test the applicability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as an in vitro primary cell model since they mimic the human in vivo situation and are relatively easily...

The effects of betaine treatment on rats fed an acute bolus of ethanol at 3 and 12 h post bolus: a microarray analysis

Betaine, a methyl donor active in methionine metabolism, is effective in preventing and reversing experimental alcohol liver disease. The metabolic and molecular biologic mechanisms involved in this prevention are only partially known. To further investigate how betaine modifies the effects of ethanol on the liver, rats were given an acute ethanol bolus with or without betaine...

Gender differences in Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ-induced food intake in strains derived from rats prone (WOKW) and resistant (Dark Agouti) to metabolic syndrome: a possible involvement of the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript system

Our previous study found that when injected with Nociceptin/Orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) into the brain, male Dark Agouti (DA) rats, which are resistant to metabolic syndrome, have greater hyperphagia than male Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (WOKW) animals, which are prone to this disease. We attributed this difference to the fact that these two strains have different cocaine-amphetamine...

The Micronutrient Genomics Project: a community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it is becoming feasible to assess the activity of single and multiple micronutrients...

Gene expression profiles in human HepG2 cells treated with extracts of the Tamarindus indica fruit pulp

Tamarindus indicaL. (T. indica) or locally known as asam jawa belongs to the family of Leguminosae. The fruit pulp had been reported to have antioxidant activities and possess hypolipidaemic effects. In this study, we attempted to investigate the gene expression patterns in human hepatoma HepG2 cell line in response to treatment with low concentration of the fruit pulp extracts...

Connecting the Human Variome Project to nutrigenomics

Nutrigenomics is the science of analyzing and understanding gene–nutrient interactions, which because of the genetic heterogeneity, varying degrees of interaction among gene products, and the environmental diversity is a complex science. Although much knowledge of human diversity has been accumulated, estimates suggest that ~90% of genetic variation has not yet been characterized...

Assessment of dietary intake: NuGO symposium report

Advances in genomics science and associated bioinformatics and technology mean that excellent tools are available for characterising human genotypes. At the same time, approaches for characterising individual phenotypes are developing rapidly. In contrast, there has been much less investment in novel methodology for measuring dietary exposures so that there is now a significant...

Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has...