Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 305)

Obesity and microbiota: an example of an intricate relationship

It is widely accepted that metabolic disorders, such as obesity, are closely linked to lifestyle and diet. Recently, the central role played by the intestinal microbiota in human metabolism and in progression of metabolic disorders has become evident. In this context, animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that alterations of the intestinal microbiota towards enhanced...

Folate deficiency as predisposing factor for childhood leukaemia: a review of the literature

Background Folic acid and its derivates, known as folates, are chemoprotective micronutrients of great interest because of their essential role in the maintenance of health and genomic integrity. The supplementation of folic acid during pregnancy has long been known to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the foetus. Folate metabolism can be altered by many factors...

Enrichment of in vivo transcription data from dietary intervention studies with in vitro data provides improved insight into gene regulation mechanisms in the intestinal mucosa

Background Gene expression profiles of intestinal mucosa of chickens and pigs fed over long-term periods (days/weeks) with a diet rich in rye and a diet supplemented with zinc, respectively, or of chickens after a one-day amoxicillin treatment of chickens, were recorded recently. Such dietary interventions are frequently used to modulate animal performance or therapeutically for...

Transcriptomic responses of the liver and adipose tissues to altered carbohydrate-fat ratio in diet: an isoenergetic study in young rats

Background To elucidate the effects of altered dietary carbohydrate and fat balance on liver and adipose tissue transcriptomes, 3-week-old rats were fed three kinds of diets: low-, moderate-, and high-fat diets (L, M, and H) containing a different ratio of carbohydrate-fat (C-F) (65:15, 60:20, and 35:45 in energy percent, respectively). Methods The rats consumed the diets for 9...

Brain xanthophyll content and exploratory gene expression analysis: subspecies differences in rhesus macaque

Background The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in primate retina and brain, and emerging evidence indicates neural lutein content may be beneficial for cognition. Neural xanthophyll content in primates varies greatly among individuals, and genetic factors are likely to be significant contributors. Subspecies of rhesus macaques originating from different...

Gene expression is differentially regulated in skeletal muscle and circulating immune cells in response to an acute bout of high-load strength exercise

Background High-intensity exercise induces many metabolic responses. In is unknown whether the response in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) reflects the response in skeletal muscle and whether mRNA expression after exercise can be modulated by nutritional intake. The aims were to (i) investigate the effect of dairy proteins on acute responses to exercise in skeletal...

Effect of different concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids on stimulated THP-1 macrophages

BackgroundInflammation plays a central role in chronic diseases occurring in the contemporary society. The health benefits of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs), mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported. However, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We explored dose and time effects of EPA, DHA, and a mixture of EPA + DHA on...

Food components and contaminants as (anti)androgenic molecules

Androgens, the main male sex steroids, are the critical factors responsible for the development of the male phenotype during embryogenesis and for the achievement of sexual maturation and puberty. In adulthood, androgens remain essential for the maintenance of male reproductive function and behavior. Androgens, acting through the androgen receptor (AR), regulate male sexual...

The impact of micronutrient status on health: correlation network analysis to understand the role of micronutrients in metabolic-inflammatory processes regulating homeostasis and phenotypic flexibility

BackgroundVitamins and carotenoids are key micronutrients facilitating the maintenance of health, as evidenced by the increased risk of disease with low intake. Optimal phenotypic flexibility, i.e., the ability to respond to a physiological challenge, is an essential indicator of health status. Therefore, health can be measured by applying a challenge test and monitoring the...

A porcine gluteus medius muscle genome-wide transcriptome analysis: dietary effects of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on biological mechanisms

Background The level of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids can affect many cellular systems and function via nuclear receptors or the bioactive lipid regulation of gene expression. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in the muscle transcriptome and the biological functions regulated by increased consumption of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the...

Propelling the paradigm shift from reductionism to systems nutrition

The complex physiology of living organisms represents a challenge for mechanistic understanding of the action of dietary bioactives in the human body and of their possible role in health and disease. Animal, cell, and microbial models have been extensively used to address questions that could not be pursued experimentally in humans, posing an additional level of complexity in...

Effect of high carbohydrate diet on elongase and desaturase activity and accompanying gene expression in rat’s liver

Background Hepatic fatty acids (FAs) are modified through different metabolic pathways including elongation and desaturation. These processes are catalyzed by elongases and desaturases, respectively. Glucose, by transcription factors, regulates these processes. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of high carbohydrate diet (68%) on the expression of elongase (Elovl...

Protein-restricted diet during pregnancy after insemination alters behavioral phenotypes of the progeny

Background Epidemiological studies suggest that hyponutrition during the fetal period increases the risk of mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism-spectrum disorder, which has been experimentally supported using animal models. However, previous experimental hyponutrition or protein-restricted (PR) diets affected stages other than the fetal...

Tocotrienols induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

Background We have previously reported that γ- and δ-tocotrienols (γ- and δ-T3) induce gene expression and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7). This effect is mediated, at least in part, by a specific binding and activation of the estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Transcriptomic data obtained within our previous studies, interrogated by different bioinformatic...

Time-course microarray analysis for identifying candidate genes involved in obesity-associated pathological changes in the mouse colon

BackgroundObesity is known to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. However, mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of obesity-induced colorectal cancer are not completely understood. The purposes of this study were to identify differentially expressed genes in the colon of mice with diet-induced obesity and to select candidate genes as early markers of obesity-associated...

Hepatic transcriptome implications for palm fruit juice deterrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in young male Nile rats

Background The Nile rat (NR, Arvicanthis niloticus) is a model of carbohydrate-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the metabolic syndrome. A previous study found that palm fruit juice (PFJ) delayed or prevented diabetes and in some cases even reversed its early stages in young NRs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PFJ exerts these anti-diabetic effects are...

Improper hydration induces global gene expression changes associated with renal development in infant mice

Background The kidney is a major organ in which fluid balance and waste excretion is regulated. For the kidney to achieve maturity with functions, normal renal developmental processes need to occur. Comprehensive genetic programs underlying renal development during the prenatal period have been widely studied. However, postnatal renal development, from infancy to the juvenile...

The effect of maternal undernutrition on the rat placental transcriptome: protein restriction up-regulates cholesterol transport

Background Fetal exposure to a maternal low protein diet during rat pregnancy is associated with hypertension, renal dysfunction and metabolic disturbance in adult life. These effects are present when dietary manipulations target only the first half of pregnancy. It was hypothesised that early gestation protein restriction would impact upon placental gene expression and that this...

Effect of diets supplemented with different conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on protein expression in C57/BL6 mice

Background The individual genetic variations, as a response to diet, have recently caught the attention of several researchers. In addition, there is also a trend to assume food containing beneficial substances, or to supplement food with specific compounds. Among these, there is the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which has been demonstrated to reduce fat mass and to increase...

The impact of MTHFR 677C → T risk knowledge on changes in folate intake: findings from the Food4Me study

Background It is hypothesised that individuals with knowledge of their genetic risk are more likely to make health-promoting dietary and lifestyle changes. The present study aims to test this hypothesis using data from the Food4Me study. This was a 6-month Internet-based randomised controlled trial conducted across seven centres in Europe where individuals received either general...

Linkage and association analysis of circulating vitamin D and parathyroid hormone identifies novel loci in Alaska Native Yup’ik people

Background Vitamin D deficiency is a well-documented public health issue with both genetic and environmental determinants. Populations living at far northern latitudes are vulnerable to vitamin D deficiency and its health sequelae, although consumption of traditional native dietary pattern rich in fish and marine mammals may buffer the effects of reduced sunlight exposure. To...

Fatty acid extract from CLA-enriched egg yolks can mediate transcriptome reprogramming of MCF-7 cancer cells to prevent their growth and proliferation

Background Our previous study showed that fatty acids extract obtained from CLA-enriched egg yolks (EFA-CLA) suppressed the viability of MCF-7 cancer cell line more effectively than extract from non-enriched egg yolks (EFA). In this study, we analysed the effect of EFA-CLA and EFA on transcriptome profile of MCF-7 cells by applying the whole Human Genome Microarray technology...

Coordinated regulation of hepatic and adipose tissue transcriptomes by the oral administration of an amino acid mixture simulating the larval saliva of Vespa species

Background VAAM is an amino acid mixture that simulates the composition of Vespa larval saliva. VAAM enhanced physical endurance of mice and have been used by athletes as a supplementary drink before exercise. However, there is no information on the effect of VAAM on the physiology of freely moving animals. The purpose of this study was to obtain information about the VAAM...