Genes & Nutrition

http://link.springer.com/journal/12263

List of Papers (Total 304)

Polymorphism in miR-31 and miR-584 binding site in the angiotensinogen gene differentially influences body fat distribution in both sexes

Angiotensinogen (AGT), its active fragments and microRNA-31 (miR-31) play an important role in adipocyte differentiation. AGT contains a miR-31 polymorphic binding site. We hypothesize that the rs7079 polymorphism in the miR-31/584 binding site of the AGT gene could influence body fat distribution. A total of 751 subjects (195 men, 556 women) were enrolled in the study. The...

Integrative network-based analysis of mRNA and microRNA expression in 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-treated cancer cells

Nutritional systems biology is an evolving research field aimed at understanding nutritional processes at a systems level. It is known that the development of cancer can be influenced by the nutritional status, and the link between vitamin D status and different cancer types is widely investigated. In this study, we performed an integrative network-based analysis using a publicly...

Polymorphisms in sweet taste genes (TAS1R2 and GLUT2), sweet liking, and dental caries prevalence in an adult Italian population

The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sweet taste genes and dental caries prevalence in a large sample of adults. In addition, the association between sweet liking and sugar intake with dental caries was investigated. Caries was measured by the decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index in 647 Caucasian subjects (285 males and 362 females, aged 18–65 years...

Use of miRNAs in biofluids as biomarkers in dietary and lifestyle intervention studies

The selection of biomarkers in nutrigenomics needs to reflect subtle changes in homoeostasis representing the relation between nutrition and health, or nutrition and disease. It is believed that noncoding RNAs, such as circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), may represent such a new class of integrative biomarkers. Until now, the most relevant body fluids for miRNA quantification in...

Nutritional systems biology of type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become an increasingly challenging health burden due to its high morbidity, mortality, and heightened prevalence worldwide. Although dietary and nutritional imbalances have long been recognized as key risk factors for T2D, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The advent of nutritional systems biology, a field that aims to elucidate the interactions...

Low fruit consumption and folate deficiency are associated with LINE-1 hypomethylation in women of a cancer-free population

Several dietary agents, such as micronutrient and non-nutrient components, the so-called bioactive food components, have been shown to display anticancer properties and influence genetic processes. The most common epigenetic change is DNA methylation. Hypomethylation of long interspersed elements (LINE-1) has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers, although...

Identification of Mest/Peg1 gene expression as a predictive biomarker of adipose tissue expansion sensitive to dietary anti-obesity interventions

Food components with anti-obesity properties are commonly evaluated using mouse models of diet-induced obesity. The ability of these components to reduce or prevent white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation is usually tested in feeding trials of several weeks duration in order to detect significant effects on fat mass expansion. Here, we aimed to identify early, predictive...

Estrogen and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation have a synergistic hypotriglyceridemic effect in ovariectomized rats

The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), EPA and DHA, as well as estrogen have been shown to decrease circulating levels of triglyceride (TG), but their underlying mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of n-3 PUFA consumption and estrogen injection on TG metabolism. Rats (n = 48) were fed a modified AIN-93G diet with 0, 1, or 2...

Association of genetic variants with response to iron supplements in pregnancy

The incidence of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy is high in India where iron supplementation is a regular practice. The response to oral iron is influenced by several factors such as age, body mass index, gravida, socioeconomic status, food, vitamin deficiency and compliance to supplements. The major challenge is to understand the various modulators of iron status in this...

Network-based integration of molecular and physiological data elucidates regulatory mechanisms underlying adaptation to high-fat diet

Health is influenced by interplay of molecular, physiological and environmental factors. To effectively maintain health and prevent disease, health-relevant relations need to be understood at multiple levels of biological complexity. Network-based methods provide a powerful platform for integration and mining of data and knowledge characterizing different aspects of health...

Direct comparison of metabolic health effects of the flavonoids quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in high-fat-diet-fed mice

Dietary flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases, possibly by affecting metabolic health. The relative potency of different flavonoids in causing beneficial effects on energy and lipid metabolism has not been investigated. Effects of quercetin, hesperetin, epicatechin, apigenin and anthocyanins in mice fed a high-fat diet (HF) for 12 weeks were...

The genomics of micronutrient requirements

Healthy nutrition is accepted as a cornerstone of public health strategies for reducing the risk of noncommunicable conditions such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and related morbidities. However, many research studies continue to focus on single or at most a few factors that may elicit a metabolic effect. These reductionist approaches resulted in: (1) exaggerated claims for...

β-Carotene-induced apoptosis is mediated with loss of Ku proteins in gastric cancer AGS cells

High dietary intakes and high blood levels of β-carotene are associated with a decreased incidence of various cancers. The anticancer effect of β-carotene is related to its pro-oxidant activity. DNA repair Ku proteins, as a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80, play a crucial role in DNA double-strand break repair. Reductions in Ku70/80 contribute to apoptosis. Previously, we showed that...

Olfactory receptor genes cooperate with protocadherin genes in human extreme obesity

Worldwide, the incidence of obesity has increased dramatically over the past decades. More knowledge about the complex etiology of obesity is needed in order to find additional approaches for treatment and prevention. Investigating the exome sequencing data of 30 extremely obese subjects (BMI 45–65 kg/m2) shows that predicted damaging missense variants in olfactory receptor genes...

Phenotypic flexibility as a measure of health: the optimal nutritional stress response test

Nutrition research is struggling to demonstrate beneficial health effects, since nutritional effects are often subtle and long term. Health has been redefined as the ability of our body to cope with daily-life challenges. Physiology acts as a well-orchestrated machinery to adapt to the continuously changing environment. We term this adaptive capacity “phenotypic flexibility.” The...

Enabling nutrient security and sustainability through systems research

Human and companion animal health depends upon nutritional quality of foods. Seed varieties, seasonal and local growing conditions, transportation, food processing, and storage, and local food customs can influence the nutrient content of food. A new and intensive area of investigation is emerging that recognizes many factors in these agri-food systems that influence the...

Peripheral mononuclear blood cells contribute to the obesity-associated inflammatory state independently of glycemic status: involvement of the novel proinflammatory adipokines chemerin, chitinase-3-like protein 1, lipocalin-2 and osteopontin

Inflammation is a critical contributor to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders with adipose tissue being crucial in the inflammatory response by releasing multiple adipokines with either pro- or anti-inflammatory activities with potential functions as metabolic regulators. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been proposed as representative of the inflammatory status...

Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v modulates gene expression in the ileum of pigs: prediction of crosstalk between intestinal immune cells and sub-mucosal adipocytes

To study host–probiotic interactions in parts of the intestine only accessible in humans by surgery (jejunum, ileum and colon), pigs were used as model for humans. Groups of eight 6-week-old pigs were repeatedly orally administered with 5 × 1012 CFU Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (L. plantarum 299v) or PBS, starting with a single dose followed by three consecutive daily dosings 10...

Chronic stress aggravates glucose intolerance in leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice

Genetic predisposition and environmental challenges interact to determine individual vulnerability to obesity and type 2 diabetes. We previously established a mouse model of chronic subordination stress-induced hyperphagia, obesity, metabolic like-syndrome and insulin resistance in the presence of a high-fat diet. However, it remains to be established if social stress could also...

Effect of genetic polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on the concentration of serum folate and plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy) in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation: a randomized, double blind, crossover study

Data on the effect of combined genetic polymorphisms, involved in folate metabolism, on the concentration of serum folate after folic acid supplementation are scarce. Therefore, we investigated the impact of seven gene polymorphisms on the concentration of serum folate and p-tHcy in healthy subjects after short-term folic acid supplementation. In a randomized, double blind...

The rs340874 PROX1 type 2 diabetes mellitus risk variant is associated with visceral fat accumulation and alterations in postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism

Large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies have recently confirmed that the rs340874 single-nucleotide polymorphism in PROX1 gene is associated with fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, the mechanism of this link was not well established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the functional/phenotypic differences related to rs340874 PROX1...

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in one-carbon metabolism genes, Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk: a case–control study in the Greek-Cypriot female population

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within genes of the one-carbon metabolism pathway have been shown to interact with dietary folate intake to modify breast cancer (BC) risk. Our group has previously demonstrated that the Mediterranean dietary pattern, rich in beneficial one-carbon metabolism micronutrients, protects against BC in Greek-Cypriot women. We aimed to investigate...