Clinical Pharmacokinetics

https://link.springer.com/journal/40262

List of Papers (Total 238)

Population Pharmacokinetics of Alemtuzumab (Campath) in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Towards Individualized Dosing to Improve Outcome

Background and ObjectiveAlemtuzumab (Campath®) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease and graft failure following pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The main toxicity includes delayed immune reconstitution, subsequent viral reactivations, and leukemia relapse. Exposure to alemtuzumab is highly variable upon empirical milligram/kilogram dosing.MethodsA...

Viral Hepatitis C Therapy: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Considerations: A 2019 Update

It has been estimated by the World Health Organization (WHO) that over 71 million people were infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in 2015. Since then, a number of highly effective direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens have been licensed for the treatment of chronic HCV infection: sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, elbasvir/grazoprevir, sofosbuvir/velpatasvir...

Apixaban: A Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Review

Apixaban is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor that inhibits both free and clot-bound factor Xa, and has been approved for clinical use in several thromboembolic disorders, including reduction of stroke risk in non-valvular atrial fibrillation, thromboprophylaxis following hip or knee replacement surgery, the treatment of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, and...

A Prospective Clinical Study Characterizing the Influence of Morbid Obesity on the Pharmacokinetics of Gentamicin: Towards Individualized Dosing in Obese Patients

Background and ObjectiveGentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic predominantly used in bloodstream infections. Although the prevalence of obesity is increasing dramatically, there is no consensus on how to adjust the dose in obese individuals. In this prospective clinical study, we study the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in morbidly obese and non-obese individuals to develop a...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Nintedanib

Nintedanib is an oral, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and patients with advanced non-small cell cancer of adenocarcinoma tumour histology. Nintedanib competitively binds to the kinase domains of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF...

Optimal Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of First-Line Tuberculosis Drugs in Patients with Tuberculosis

BackgroundThe 24-h area under the concentration–time curve (AUC24)/minimal inhibitory concentration ratio is the best predictive pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameter of the efficacy of first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs. An optimal sampling strategy (OSS) is useful for accurately estimating AUC24; however, OSS has not been developed in the fed state or in the...

Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Analysis of GLPG1690, an Autotaxin Inhibitor, in Healthy Volunteers and Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

Background and ObjectivesGLPG1690 is an autotaxin inhibitor in development for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Several publications suggested a role of autotaxin in the control of disease-affected lung function and of lysophosphatidic acid in lung remodeling processes. The aim of the current article was to describe the exposure–response relationship of GLPG1690...

Effect of Oral Semaglutide on the Pharmacokinetics of Lisinopril, Warfarin, Digoxin, and Metformin in Healthy Subjects

BackgroundOral semaglutide is a tablet co-formulation of the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog semaglutide with the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC). The absorption of coadministered oral drugs may be altered due to enhancement by SNAC, potential gastric emptying delay by semaglutide, or other mechanisms. Two one-sequence...

Population Pharmacokinetics of Upadacitinib Using the Immediate-Release and Extended-Release Formulations in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Analyses of Phase I–III Clinical Trials

Background and ObjectivesUpadacitinib is a selective Janus kinase (JAK) 1 inhibitor being developed as an orally administered treatment for patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders. These analyses characterized the population pharmacokinetics of upadacitinib across phase I–III clinical trials using data for immediate-release (IR...

Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Benralizumab in Adult and Adolescent Patients with Asthma

IntroductionBenralizumab, an interleukin-5 receptor alpha–directed cytolytic anti-eosinophil monoclonal antibody, was recently approved as add-on maintenance treatment for patients aged 12 years and older with uncontrolled asthma with eosinophilic inflammation.MethodsPharmacokinetic (PK) data from nine clinical trials for patients with asthma were pooled and analyzed to further...

Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have demonstrated significant clinical impact in improving overall survival of several malignancies associated with poor outcomes; however, only 20–40% of patients will show long-lasting survival. Further clarification of factors related to treatment response can support improvements in clinical outcome and guide the development of novel immune...

Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Eculizumab, and Possibilities for an Individualized Approach to Eculizumab

Eculizumab is the first drug approved for the treatment of complement-mediated diseases, and current dosage schedules result in large interindividual drug concentrations. This review provides insight into the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of eculizumab, both for reported on-label (paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome...

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling for First-In-Human Predictions: An Updated Model Building Strategy Illustrated with Challenging Industry Case Studies

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling is well established in the pharmaceutical industry and is accepted by regulatory agencies for the prediction of drug–drug interactions. However, physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling is valuable to address a much wider range of pharmaceutical applications, and a new regulatory impact is expected as its full power is...

Voriconazole: A Review of Population Pharmacokinetic Analyses

Numerous population pharmacokinetic studies on voriconazole have been conducted in recent years. This review aimed to comprehensively summarize the population pharmacokinetic models for voriconazole and to determine which covariates have been identified and which remain to be explored. We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases from inception to March 2018 for population...

Personalized Tuberculosis Treatment Through Model-Informed Dosing of Rifampicin

Background and objectiveThis study proposes a model-informed approach for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of rifampicin to improve tuberculosis (TB) treatment.MethodsTwo datasets from pulmonary TB patients were used: a pharmacokinetic study (34 patients, 373 samples), and TDM data (96 patients, 391 samples) collected at Radboud University Medical Center, The Netherlands. Nine...

Vancomycin Pharmacokinetics Throughout Life: Results from a Pooled Population Analysis and Evaluation of Current Dosing Recommendations

Background and ObjectivesUncertainty exists regarding the optimal dosing regimen for vancomycin in different patient populations, leading to a plethora of subgroup-specific pharmacokinetic models and derived dosing regimens. We aimed to investigate whether a single model for vancomycin could be developed based on a broad dataset covering the extremes of patient characteristics...

Updated Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Oxycodone

Global oxycodone consumption has increased sharply during the last two decades, and, in 2008, oxycodone consumption surpassed that of morphine. As oxycodone was synthesized in 1916 and taken to clinical use a year later, it has not undergone the same approval process required by today’s standards. Most of the basic oxycodone pharmacokinetic (PK) data are from the 1990s and from...

Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Single and Multiple Ascending Doses of the Novel Oral Human GLP-1 Analogue, Oral Semaglutide, in Healthy Subjects and Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

BackgroundOral semaglutide is a novel tablet containing the human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP‑1) analogue semaglutide, co-formulated with the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC). The safety and pharmacokinetics of oral semaglutide were investigated in two randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.MethodsIn a single-dose, first-in...

Impact of CYP3A4*22 on Pazopanib Pharmacokinetics in Cancer Patients

Background and ObjectiveAs pazopanib plasma trough concentrations are correlated with treatment outcome, we explored whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the elimination pathway of pazopanib affect systemic pazopanib concentrations.MethodsThe decreased function alleles CYP3A4 15389 C > T (*22), ABCB1 3435 C >T, ABCG2 421 C >A, and ABCG2 34G >A were analyzed within a...

Population Pharmacokinetics of Fludarabine in Children and Adults during Conditioning Prior to Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

BackgroundFludarabine is often used as an important drug in reduced toxicity conditioning regimens prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). As no definitive pharmacokinetic (PK) basis for HCT dosing for the wide age and weight range in HCT is available, linear body surface area (BSA)-based dosing is still used.ObjectiveWe sought to describe the population PK of...

Cardiovascular Risk Management and Hepatitis C: Combining Drugs

Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are known victims (substrate) and perpetrators (cause) of drug–drug interactions (DDIs). These DAAs are used for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections and are highly effective drugs. Drugs used for cardiovascular risk management are frequently used by HCV-infected patients, whom also are treated with DAAs. Therefore, the aim of this...