Applied Petrochemical Research

http://link.springer.com/journal/13203

List of Papers (Total 211)

Transition metal-substituted Keggin-type polyoxometalates as catalysts for adipic acid production

The adipic acid (AA) production was carried out in two stages: oxidation of cyclohexanone (-one) by Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM), followed by oxidation of this latter by hydrogen peroxide. The process lasts 20 h and the temperature is maintained at 90 °C. AA is then recovered by cold crystallization (4 °C). The POMs have as formula HMPMo12O40 (M:Co, Ni, Mn, Cu or Zn). The...

High-quality fuel distillates produced from oligomerization of light olefin over supported phosphoric acid on H-Zeolite-Y

Oligomerization of isobutene to produce high-quality fuel distillates in the range of gasoline, jet fuel and diesel free of sulfur, nitrogen and aromatic hydrocarbons has been investigated over a new environmental-friendly, clean and long-lifetime supported phosphoric acid on H-Zeolite-Y catalyst with SiO2/Al2O3 mol ratio of 60. The catalyst was obtained by acid impregnation and...

Enhancement of mesophase formation in paraffinic-rich clarified oil using transition metal catalysts (Cr and Cu)

In the present work, we have made attempts to prepare petroleum pitches from paraffinic-rich clarified oil (CLO) by giving thermal treatment at 370 °C in the presence of Cu and Cr catalysts. The feed CLO is predominantly paraffinic in nature, so it takes fairly large thermal soaking time (21 h) to convert into pitch having mesophase content below countable limits. To increase the...

Ethylene glycol dry reforming for syngas generation on Ce-promoted Co/Al2O3 catalysts

Ethylene glycol dry reforming (EGDR) was investigated for the first time on 10% Co/Al2O3 and 3% Ce–10% Co/Al2O3 catalysts at stoichiometric feed composition under atmospheric pressure and 923–998 K for syngas production. Catalysts were characterized using BET, H2-TPR, XRD and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The addition of Ce promoter eased the reduction of Co3O4 with lower...

Heat strengthening of double-field coupling demulsification of industrial waste oil emulsion

Demulsification of highly aqueous waste oil is difficult to complete by a single process efficiently. The dewatering-type hydrocyclone is used as the unit body and includes the high-voltage electrode to realize demulsification and dewatering ability of the coupling of high-voltage electric and swirling centrifugal fields in waste oil emulsion efficiently. This study considers the...

Water effect on the new catalyst of high temperature shift conversion during first reduction

The water–gas shift reaction plays a major ro le in ammonia and hydrogen plant design and operation. Good performance of the shift catalysts, and attainment of a close approach to equilibrium and, hence, minimization of the CO slip from the catalyst system is critical to the efficient and economic operation of the plant and ensures maximum hydrogen production from the hydrocarbon...

A review of mechanistic and mathematical modeling of n-heptane and cyclohexane pyrolysis

An extensive literature review of the mechanistic modeling of n-heptane and cyclohexane pyrolysis was carried out. It was shown that Rice–Kossiakoff free radical theory does not adequately account for product distributions of n-heptane pyrolysis in the high conversion regime. Secondary reactions of alpha higher olefins and di-olefins accounted for the major products (ethene...

Modelling and simulation of an industrial RFCCU-riser reactor for catalytic cracking of vacuum residue

A one-dimensional adiabatic mathematical model was developed for the riser reactor of an industrial residue fluid catalytic cracking unit (RFCCU). A seven-lump kinetic model was presented for the catalytic cracking of vacuum residue, taking cognisance of diffusion resistance, which is a departure from the general norm in the literature. Also, heat transfer resistance between the...

Refining in Nigeria: history, challenges and prospects

There are four major existing refineries as follows: Old Port Harcourt Refinery; capacity 60,000 bpsd commissioned in 1965. Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company; capacity 125,000 bpsd commissioned in 1978. Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company; capacity 110,000 bpsd commissioned in 1980. New Port Harcourt Refinery; capacity 150,000 bpsd commissioned in 1989. Thus, the...

Determination of limit of stability profiles for liquified natural gas: a thermodynamic approach

Efficient design, operation, handling, and transportation of natural gas as liquefied natural gas (LNG) are controlled by its phase behavior. A phase, in a non-reacting system, is known to be stable when it is at its lowest Gibbs energy; an alternative criterion to the minimization of the Gibbs energy is presented for phase stability status determination of pure systems and...

Combined influence of alkaline earth metals and CO2 on performance of hierarchical zeolite Beta in n-hexane isomerization

The present work deals with isomerization of straight chain paraffin, n-hexane with an aim to make up loss in gasoline quantity as well as octane. This is due to its reduced benzene content warranted by its carcinogenic nature. Performance of impregnation of alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba) on Pt/desilicated (and dealuminated) zeolites Beta was studied and found that...

CO2 Adsorption by Several Types of Pillared Montmorillonite Clays

CO2 has been found to be the main anthropogenic contributor to the greenhouse gas effect, thus, the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology is extremely urgent. In this work, two kinds of Al2O3 pillared montmorillonite, one ZrO2-pillared montmorillonite and one TiO2 + SiO2 pillared montmorillonite were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) for...

Study of dual-phase drive synchronization method and temperature measurement algorithm for measuring external surface temperatures of ethylene cracking furnace tubes

Currently, the manual method using hand-held infrared temperature measurement instruments for measuring temperatures on the external surfaces of ethylene cracking furnace tubes is highly subjective and is affected by a number of prominent issues, such as the high temperature working environments, which leads to low efficiency and poor measurement accuracy. Hence, an automatic...

New trends in improving gasoline quality and octane through naphtha isomerization: a short review

The octane enhancement of light straight run naphtha is one of the significant solid acid catalyzed processes in the modern oil refineries due to limitations of benzene, aromatics, and olefin content in gasoline. This paper aims to examine the role of various catalysts that are being utilized for the isomerization of light naphtha with an ambition to give an insight into the...

Two-step sol–gel synthesis of mesoporous aluminosilicates: highly efficient catalysts for the preparation of 3,5-dialkylpyridines

The microstructure, acid properties and characteristics of the porous structure of sol–gel-synthesized mesoporous aluminosilicates with Si/Al ratios of 40, 80, and 120 have been investigated. It was illustrated that the main reason for the formation of a narrow mesopore size distribution in the investigated aluminosilicates is related to the close size of the secondary particles...

Hydrogenation of levulinic acid with and without external hydrogen over Ni/SBA-15 catalyst

A series of Ni/SBA-15 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid (LA) to γ-valerolactone in a fixed bed reactor at atmospheric pressure. The catalysts were characterized by XRD, TPR, AAS, Pulse chemisorption, SEM-EDAX, TEM, BET Surface area and XPS. The catalyst 30 wt% Ni/SBA-15 exhibited excellent catalytic performance (97% yield) at...

Catalytic cracking of naphtha: The effect of Fe and Cr impregnated ZSM-5 on olefin selectivity

This study focuses on the modification of ZSM-5 in order to enhance the catalytic cracking of refinery naphtha to produce light olefins. ZSM-5 was metal modified using different loadings (0.5–5 wt%) of Fe and Cr via the impregnation method. The metal modified ZSM-5 samples are compared and the effect of metal loading on the physicochemical properties and catalytic performance is...

Acetalization of glycerol with acetone over various metal-modified SBA-15 catalysts

Several catalysts containing metals such as Al, Zr, Ti and Nb were incorporated in SBA-15 with Si/M ratio = 20 using the hydrothermal process. These catalysts were evaluated for their reactivity during acid-catalyzed condensation of glycerol with acetone to yield a mixture of branched compounds, namely (2,2-dimethyl- [1,3] dioxane-4-yl)-methanol (solketal) and 2,2-dimethyl- [1,3...

Autoxidation of aromatics

Autoxidation is a conversion pathway that has the potential to add value to multinuclear aromatic-rich coal liquids, heavy oils and bitumens, which are typically considered low-value liquids. In particular, autoxidation of these heavy materials could lead to products that may have petrochemical values, e.g., lubricity improvers and emulsifiers. Proper assessment of an oxidative...

Response surface models for synthetic jet fuel properties

Jet fuel is a mixture of different hydrocarbon groups, and the mass contribution of each of these groups toward the overall chemical composition of the fuel dictates the bulk physical properties of the fuel after completion of the refining and blending processes. The fluidity properties of jet fuel mixtures at low temperatures are critical in understanding and mitigating the...

Reaction kinetics of ethane partial oxidation to acetic acid

The partial oxidation of ethane to ethylene and acetic acid on supported MoVNbPd/TiO2 (P25 of Degussa) has been investigated. Pd was added in a nano-metallic form. The catalyst composition was also different from similar studied catalysts. This results in a better selectivity towards acetic acid formation. The reaction was carried out in a tubular reactor at temperature range 225...

An experimental investigation on effective parameters of batch impregnation systems: a case study on Pt–Sn/Al2O3 catalyst

The adsorption of hexachloroplatinic acid on Sn-impregnated γ-alumina support in the presence of the competitive chloride ion, as a step in preparation of multi-metallic Pt-based catalyst (such as Pt–Sn/Al2O3), was studied. The transient adsorption data were obtained by studying the impregnation of Sn/Al2O3 with H2PtCl6 in an external recycle packed-bed impregnation system. The...

Synthesis of SAPO-34 catalysts via sonochemically prepared method and its catalytic performance in methanol conversion to light olefins

Methanol-to-olefin (MTO) reaction was investigated over sonochemically (SAPO-34-U40, SAPO-34-U70, SAPO-34-U100) and hydrothermally (SAPO-34-HT) prepared nanocatalysts. The catalytic performance of prepared samples was investigated over all samples at 450 °C and over SAPO-34-U40 at 350–450 °C temperature range. The higher yield ~ 97 wt% (31.4 wt% C2=, 49.4 wt% C3= and 16.1 wt...

Comparative investigation on radical polymerization of methyl and ethyl methacrylate under multi-site phase-transfer catalytic conditions

Methyl and ethyl methacrylate was polymerized in heterogeneous system with the help of newly synthesized multi-site phase-transfer catalyst and using water-soluble initiator at 60 ± 1 °C under unstirred inert atmospheric condition. Polymer yield was increased with increasing molar concentrations of monomer, initiator, catalyst and temperature. Polymerization follows first-order...

Synthesis and crystal structure of N,N-dimethylformamide solvate of thiocyanuric acid

Considerable attention has been paid recently to crystal engineering; which involves the design and preparation of new crystalline molecular solids with desired properties [1–4]. Crystalline materials with specific properties find applications in petrochemical industry for separation and purification. Moreover, crystal engineering provides products designed for manufacturing...