Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica

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List of Papers (Total 1,687)

Sobre o debate freqüentista versus probabilista: "sorte de tolo

A debate between Kahneman and Tversky and their associates, on the one hand, and Gigerenzer and his associates and Cosmides and her associates, on the other hand, has been fought in the area of reasoning about conditional probabilities. Kahneman and Tversky proposed that people typically represent information in terms of individual exemplars, and thus people make judgments using...

Programa "PERCEP

A computer program - "PERCEP" - was developed for accomplishing the experimental procedures of verbal estimation, time production and reproduction in human beings. Besides the collection of data, the program allows the researcher to manipulate different parameters of tasks and to evaluate the impact of those manipulations on acquisition and performance. Once the configuration of...

Reorganization of equivalence classes: analysis of reversed baseline relations

The reorganization of equivalence classes may depend on the number of reversed baseline relations. To investigate this hypothesis, 28 undergraduate students distributed in four groups were exposed to a matching-to-sample procedure to establish conditional relations between stimuli and the emergence of five equivalence classes with five stimuli each. The procedure for each group...

Socio-emotional well-being and academic achievement: evidence from a multilevel approach

Even though social and emotional well-being has been proposed as a main goal of education, its association with academic achievement is usually overlooked, particularly considering that educational institutions are requested to show academic outcomes, and thus their focus is on cognitive development and academic training. This study adopts a multilevel perspective to test this...

Evaluation of the Brazilian Family Grant Program: a quasi-experimental study in the State of Rio de Janeiro

This study aimed to evaluate a program of income distribution in Brazil (Family Grant Program, FGP) using a quasi experiment in shantytowns in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro. Questionnaires, which contained questions regarding the three main axes of the program, were personally administered to 281 program participants and 249 non-participants (control group) in either...

Tradução e adaptação para o português do Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - BRIEF

The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the BRIEF into Portuguese. The process of translation and adaptation followed the steps recommended in the international literature. Besides that, an initial analysis of psychometric properties was performed. The final version was administered in a sample of 277 parents, 282 teachers of children between 5 and 11 years old, and 112...

Impacto de un programa de psicología positiva en sintomatologia depresiva y satisfaccion vital en adultos mayores

This research examines the effectiveness of workshops based on positive psychology for the elderly by analyzing pre-post changes in levels of life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Three groups were formed: the first, a quasi-experimental group based on positive psychology; the second, a quasi-active control group based on recreational activities; and the third, a quasi...

Caretaking behavior among siblings in children's shelters

This study analyzed 742 events involving caretaking behavior among sheltered children with or without siblings in the same institution. Statistical tests were used for intergroup evaluation in comparison to focal subjects. Children with siblings showed a greater number of those behaviors and they were primarily directed to non-sibling peers (roommates) or adults (caretakers). The...

El desarrollo de la inferencia analógica en niños que viven en sectores urbanos pobres

The development of analogical inference is described through the study of 405 children aged 3, 4 and 5 years old, living in poor urban neighborhoods in two Colombian cities - Cali (204) and Santa Marta (201). In order to accomplish the objective, children were asked to individually solve an inference problem based on analogical relations. Independently of their age, children were...

Cognitive style and learning strategies as factors which affect academic achievement of brazilian university students

In the present study, the influence of the cognitive style called field dependence-independence on academic achievement of Brazilian university students was explored as well as the mediating effect of learning strategies on that influence. Learning strategies of 313 first-year university students (189 women and 124 men; M age = 20.86, SD = 3.86) from different fields, with upper...

Narrative and dialogical reflexivity: an approach between writing and inner speech

This study investigated the presence of dialogical reflexivity indicators in compositions (written texts) and established possible links between those indicators and narrative structures. A group of 23 children, between eight and ten years old, wrote two compositions on the themes "Tell your story" and "How do I talk to myself?". The results suggest that the dialogicality of...

Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011) databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers...

Inter-item associations for the Brazilian version of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm

The emotional content of words can affect both true and false memory performance. One hypothesis suggests that the effects of emotion on memory stem from the semantic cohesion of these words. Emotional words are better remembered because they are more inter-related than neutral words (semantic cohesion hypothesis). Although support for this assumption has been found in tasks that...

Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version) by the Rasch Rating Scale model

Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women), aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85). Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait...

Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real

The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi...

Relationship between neuropsychological and clinical aspects and suicide attempts in euthymic bipolar patients

Some studies have investigated the possible relationship between suicide attempts and impulsivity in patients with bipolar disorder. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neuro-psychological and clinical aspects and suicide behavior in euthymic bipolar patients. The Iowa Gambling Task and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test evaluated impulsivity...

Copenhagen Burnout Inventory - student version: adaptation and transcultural validation for Portugal and Brazil

The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory for college students (CBI-S) was adapted to the Portuguese language and its reliability and validity studied in a sample of both Brazilian (n=958) and Portuguese (n=556) college students. The confirmatory factor analysis of the CBI-S showed good fit but two items were removed since they lack individual reliability (λ<.50). The new structure showed...

Resolução Anafórica e Foco do Discurso: O Caso do Pronome Demonstrativo Francês "Híbrido

In the tradition of centering theory, many studies have shown a significant sensitivity of anaphoric pronouns to refer to focus entities in a discourse representation. This sensitivity would be absent with more explicit expressions like the repeated nouns. According to the principles of this theory, we present an experiment aiming at studying the function of the referential...

Programa "PERCEP

A computer program - "PERCEP" - was developed for accomplishing the experimental procedures of verbal estimation, time production and reproduction in human beings. Besides the collection of data, the program allows the researcher to manipulate different parameters of tasks and to evaluate the impact of those manipulations on acquisition and performance. Once the configuration of...