Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica

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List of Papers (Total 1,687)

The psychological synthesis evaluated by the interactive model

The purpose of this article was to elaborate a model to evaluate the synthesis process resulting from the interaction which is established between opposing constructs, like gender schemas. In social psychology, the existence of opposites is possible to be detecting in contemporary theories, such as individualism versus collectivism and masculinity versus femininity. In all these...

Emoções nas ruas: uso do "Test of Emotions Comprehension

The goal of the current research was to examine the development of nine components of emotions. For this purpose, 67 children, between 4 and 12 years old, who were found informally working on the streets of two cities in the Northeast of Brazil were interviewed. Children were given a version of the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) to assess their understanding of nine...

Children's labour as a risky pathways to resilience: children's growth in contexts of poor resources

In this paper we explore children's labor as a complex phenomenon encompassing risk factors on one hand and possible positive outcomes on the other. Based on the theory of resilience and on literature review that details children's own experiences of work, we show that children who are inserted in environments which are poor in social and physical resources may report labor as...

Contributions from Gallese's neurophysiology and Bruner's psychology to the understanding of social learning

The current article makes an articulation between recent findings from neurophysiology such as the mirror neurons and neural plasticity, and others which were originated in psychology in order to achieve a better understanding of human social learning. Several of those recent findings provide support for concepts of psychology such as the relevance of inter-subjectivity, language...

Pediatricians

In Andalusia (Spain), pediatricians are the main formal counseling source about children's development and education. Unfortunately, there is a limited knowledge about their ideas, practices and skills to guide parents. In this study, through the content analysis of 26 pediatrician interviews, we describe their ideas and goals about anticipatory guidance. We also analyze their...

Beyond politeness: the expression of gratitude in children and adolescents

We present results from a study about the expression of gratitude in children and adolescents. Four hundred and thirty children, aged 7 to 14 years old (58% female), answered the questions: "What is your greatest wish?" and "What would you do for the person who granted you this wish?" The responses to the second question were content-analyzed and coded into four types of...

Attentional performance and executive functions in children with learning difficulties

Studies have described changes in visual attention and executive function in children with developmental dyslexia. This study intended to compare the performance of children with and without learning difficulties on tasks of visual attention and executive functions. The participants were 23 students, aged between 9 and 14 years old, with a mean age of 10.8 years. They were...

Rorschach Comprehensive System norms in Brazilian children from public and private schools

The objective of this study was to construct normative tables for the Rorschach Comprehensive System for Brazilian children from public and private schools. The sample was selected using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Raven Test. The Rorschach was administered to children from 7 to 10 years old, both genders, from public schools (N=110) and private schools (N=101) in the...

Reorganization of equivalence classes: analysis of reversed baseline relations

The reorganization of equivalence classes may depend on the number of reversed baseline relations. To investigate this hypothesis, 28 undergraduate students distributed in four groups were exposed to a matching-to-sample procedure to establish conditional relations between stimuli and the emergence of five equivalence classes with five stimuli each. The procedure for each group...

Subjective well-being in socially vulnerable children and adolescents

Subjective well-being has been defined as an association among positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the subjective well-being of children and adolescents attending school and living with their families as compared to those living in youth offenders institutions. Two hundred ninety-seven children and adolescents in situations of...

Salud en la adolescencia: propiedades psicométricas del perfil de salud y enfermedad (CHIP-AE) en adolescentes chilenos

We evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted version for Chile of Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) in a sample of 527 adolescents from public and private institutions. Internal consistency, seen as a factorial structure of the scale, and its ability to distinguish the groups were assessed. The findings confirmed the factorial structure of...

Vygotsky and the Theories of Emotions: in search of a possible dialogue

The purpose of this article is to articulate Vygotsky's theoretical conceptualizations on Historical-Cultural Psychology with studies on emotions. The text emphasizes Vygotsky's theories on the development of higher psychological processes and mediation of signs in its constitution. We propose a way of understanding emotions based on the historical-cultural approach, starting...

Impacto de un programa de psicología positiva en sintomatologia depresiva y satisfaccion vital en adultos mayores

This research examines the effectiveness of workshops based on positive psychology for the elderly by analyzing pre-post changes in levels of life satisfaction and depressive symptomatology. Three groups were formed: the first, a quasi-experimental group based on positive psychology; the second, a quasi-active control group based on recreational activities; and the third, a quasi...

Effects of selection tasks on naming emergence in children

The aim of the present work - which was divided into two studies - was to investigate if, from teaching selection tasks, naming responses would be emitted without direct teaching. Nine children aged between 7 and 12 participated in the study. In each study, 12 abstract pictures and 12 pseudo words were utilized. The procedures were comprised of six sessions that encompassed...

Memories and prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder in intensive care units

The present study evaluated the prevalence of PTSD indicators in patients who had to be hospitalized in ICU six months after being discharged and examined the relationship between PTSD and mnemonic memories. Participants were 41 adult patients with different diseases who answered questionnaires about PTSD, memory and clinical information. It was identified that 24.4% of the...

Cognitive style and learning strategies as factors which affect academic achievement of brazilian university students

In the present study, the influence of the cognitive style called field dependence-independence on academic achievement of Brazilian university students was explored as well as the mediating effect of learning strategies on that influence. Learning strategies of 313 first-year university students (189 women and 124 men; M age = 20.86, SD = 3.86) from different fields, with upper...

Intelligence, age and schooling: data from the Battery of Reasoning Tests (BRT-5)

Intelligence is commonly divided into two distinctive areas: fluid intelligence (Gf), which is understood as the skill of reasoning or intelligence as a process, and crystallized intelligence (Gc) that involves skills that are more related to learning and experience (knowledge-based skills). The objective of the present work was to investigate the effects that schooling and age...

Validity study of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (Portuguese version) by the Rasch Rating Scale model

Our objective was to conduct a validation study of the Portuguese version of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, and then compare it with the most used scales of anxiety in Portugal. The sample consisted of 1,160 adults (427 men and 733 women), aged 18-82 years old (M=33.39; SD=11.85). Instruments were Beck Anxiety Inventory, State-Trait...

Early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants

The aim of the present study was to assess the very early neurobehavioral development of preterm infants and to examine differences regarding sex. Two-hundred and two preterm infants were assessed by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI), which was carried out at 32-37 weeks post-conceptional age in the hospital setting. The infants' performance was compared...

Envolvimento paterno durante o nascimento dos filhos: pai "real

The father is a major figure on mother's support network during childbirth transition. This study aims to report father's participation and support during the pregnancy and the birth of their children, according to the point of view of 45 pregnant women and 42 women with six-month-old children. Data was collected through the administration of a family questionnaire and a semi...

Relationship between neuropsychological and clinical aspects and suicide attempts in euthymic bipolar patients

Some studies have investigated the possible relationship between suicide attempts and impulsivity in patients with bipolar disorder. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between neuro-psychological and clinical aspects and suicide behavior in euthymic bipolar patients. The Iowa Gambling Task and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test evaluated impulsivity...

Escala de bienestar de Ryff: análisis comparativo de los modelos teóricos en distintos grupos de edad

The scale of psychological well-being arises from the multidimensional model proposed by Ryff (1989). Despite its wide use, its initial theoretical structure has not been completely confirmed because other factorial solutions which are different from those 6 dimensions proposed by the author have been found. These differences may be related to the type of sample and population...

Copenhagen Burnout Inventory - student version: adaptation and transcultural validation for Portugal and Brazil

The Copenhagen Burnout Inventory for college students (CBI-S) was adapted to the Portuguese language and its reliability and validity studied in a sample of both Brazilian (n=958) and Portuguese (n=556) college students. The confirmatory factor analysis of the CBI-S showed good fit but two items were removed since they lack individual reliability (λ<.50). The new structure showed...

Dependence module of the MINI plus adapted for sugar dependence: psychometric properties

This study aimed to analyze the factorial structure and the scale of measurement of the items for dependence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) adapted for sugar consumption in order to verify if the structural characteristics can be applied to sugar dependence. The questionnaire was applied to a sample of 500 subjects in Brazil (67% female...