Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica

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List of Papers (Total 1,671)

Resolução Anafórica e Foco do Discurso: O Caso do Pronome Demonstrativo Francês "Híbrido

In the tradition of centering theory, many studies have shown a significant sensitivity of anaphoric pronouns to refer to focus entities in a discourse representation. This sensitivity would be absent with more explicit expressions like the repeated nouns. According to the principles of this theory, we present an experiment aiming at studying the function of the referential...

Sobre o debate freqüentista versus probabilista: "sorte de tolo

A debate between Kahneman and Tversky and their associates, on the one hand, and Gigerenzer and his associates and Cosmides and her associates, on the other hand, has been fought in the area of reasoning about conditional probabilities. Kahneman and Tversky proposed that people typically represent information in terms of individual exemplars, and thus people make judgments using...

Programa "DRL

"DRL" is a software that was developed for controlling and collecting data for experiments involving temporal judgment related to attention and memory. This paper presents its applications, how to configure it for different experiments and how to access the recorded data.

Usos do glossário do risco em revistas: contrastando "tempo

This paper is a contribution to the understanding of risk-talk in the media from a theoretical perspective of discursive Social Psychology. Two complementary strategies were used: diachronic analysis of a sample of a magazine of general interest (210 issues of Veja) and synchronic analysis of magazines directed to various types of people (101 magazines). For Veja, the analysis...

La dialéctica en la psicologia del desarrollo: relevancia y significacion en la investigacion

The present article analyses the signficance and relevance of dialectic in Piaget's and Vigotsky's psychological studies. On one hand, it highlights the common dialectical methodology present in units of analysis in research. On the other hand, it focuses on the peculiar features dialectic acquires within both authors' explanation of psychological development. Lastly, a...

Análisis bibliométrico de las revistas multidisciplinares de psicología recientemente incorporadas en la Web of Science (2008-2009)

It was done a bibliometric analysis of the multidisciplinary journals of psychology recently incorporated in the Web of Science (WoS) in 2008 and 2009. A total of 448 "articles" and "revisions" was analyzed, where the nationality of the authors, the index of responsibility and the contents of the works were examined. The results show that Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica is the...

Emoções nas ruas: uso do "Test of Emotions Comprehension

The goal of the current research was to examine the development of nine components of emotions. For this purpose, 67 children, between 4 and 12 years old, who were found informally working on the streets of two cities in the Northeast of Brazil were interviewed. Children were given a version of the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) to assess their understanding of nine...

Children's labour as a risky pathways to resilience: children's growth in contexts of poor resources

In this paper we explore children's labor as a complex phenomenon encompassing risk factors on one hand and possible positive outcomes on the other. Based on the theory of resilience and on literature review that details children's own experiences of work, we show that children who are inserted in environments which are poor in social and physical resources may report labor as...

Pediatricians

In Andalusia (Spain), pediatricians are the main formal counseling source about children's development and education. Unfortunately, there is a limited knowledge about their ideas, practices and skills to guide parents. In this study, through the content analysis of 26 pediatrician interviews, we describe their ideas and goals about anticipatory guidance. We also analyze their...

Beyond politeness: the expression of gratitude in children and adolescents

We present results from a study about the expression of gratitude in children and adolescents. Four hundred and thirty children, aged 7 to 14 years old (58% female), answered the questions: "What is your greatest wish?" and "What would you do for the person who granted you this wish?" The responses to the second question were content-analyzed and coded into four types of...

Rorschach Comprehensive System norms in Brazilian children from public and private schools

The objective of this study was to construct normative tables for the Rorschach Comprehensive System for Brazilian children from public and private schools. The sample was selected using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Raven Test. The Rorschach was administered to children from 7 to 10 years old, both genders, from public schools (N=110) and private schools (N=101) in the...

Adaptation and validation of The Hope Index for Brazilian adolescents

This study aimed at adapting and validating the Staats Hope Index for Brazilian adolescents. Participants were 450 high school students aged from 14 to 18 years old being 56% females. They responded to the Staats Hope Index, Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A factor analysis extracted two factors, replicating...

Culture, cognition and language in the constitution of reading and writing practices in an adult literacy classroom

In this article we analyze a discursive interaction between a researcher and an Youth and Adult Education student intending to show the meanings and uses of reading and writing taken by him. We take as our basis for discussion the theoretical-methodological contributions from Historical-Cultural Psychology and Paulo Freire's theories, which are combined with Bakhtin's concept of...

Italian students

In various countries there are studies aimed at characterizing social representations on aging, but little is known about their relations with other representations. The present study proposes to characterize those relations through the notion of representational systems. An exploratory survey has been conducted with 151 Italian undergraduate students. They have completed...

Development and validation of a short-form version of the Brazilian state-trait anxiety inventory

The Brazilian State-Trait Anxiety Inventory has been widely used to measure state (STAI-S) and trait (STAI-T) components of anxiety. The present work developed and evaluated a short version of the STAI-S and STAI-T in a large sample of Brazilian subjects. The first study selected short-form scales. The second one employed factor analyses to investigate whether each of the two...

Subjective well-being in socially vulnerable children and adolescents

Subjective well-being has been defined as an association among positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction. This study aimed to investigate the subjective well-being of children and adolescents attending school and living with their families as compared to those living in youth offenders institutions. Two hundred ninety-seven children and adolescents in situations of...

Alcohol, emotion and attention: revisiting the Alcohol Myopia Theory

Among the known effects of alcohol on behavior, the modulation of cognitive functions (such as attention and memory), emotion, risk-taking and aggressive behavior are noteworthy. Here, we performed literature review in order to reinterpret alcohol effects on behavior according to the Alcohol Myopia Theory. According to this construct, there is a reduction of attentional resources...

Socio-emotional well-being and academic achievement: evidence from a multilevel approach

Even though social and emotional well-being has been proposed as a main goal of education, its association with academic achievement is usually overlooked, particularly considering that educational institutions are requested to show academic outcomes, and thus their focus is on cognitive development and academic training. This study adopts a multilevel perspective to test this...

Coping strategies and caregiver's anxiety in pediatric oncohematology

The main goal of this paper was to investigate associations between sociodemographic data, patient's clinical condition, indicators of anxiety, and coping strategies adopted by caregivers during leukemia diagnosis in order to indicate which factors may influence anxiety and the adopted coping strategies. In this study, 44 caregivers were enrolled and submitted to the Ways of...

Salud en la adolescencia: propiedades psicométricas del perfil de salud y enfermedad (CHIP-AE) en adolescentes chilenos

We evaluated the psychometric properties of the adapted version for Chile of Child Health and Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition (CHIP-AE) in a sample of 527 adolescents from public and private institutions. Internal consistency, seen as a factorial structure of the scale, and its ability to distinguish the groups were assessed. The findings confirmed the factorial structure of...

Distribution of visual attention within a cued area: evidence based on temporal order judgments

Three experiments were performed to investigate the distribution of attention across the visual field and the possibility of attentional resources to be more concentrated inside an abrupt onset frame (cue). The participants performed a temporal order judgment task of two letters presented in sequence; one letter presented inside and the other outside the frame. The results showed...

Rorschach and the WAIS-III after one and two years of psychotherapy

This study aimed at identifying what aspects of personality are modified after one and two years of psychoanalytic psychotherapy in adults attending a free university healthcare service in São Paulo, Brazil. The instruments were the Rorschach and the WAIS-III tests which were administered before and after one and two years of treatment. The participants were 34 adult individuals...

Cognitive errors and anxiety in school aged children

Cognitive models of emotional disorders emphasize the role of biased information processing in the psychological functioning of anxious individuals. So far, the role of cognitive errors in problems of childhood anxiety disorders has received little empirical attention. This study analyzes the relations between cognitive errors and symptoms of anxiety in a sample of school aged...

Vygotsky and the Theories of Emotions: in search of a possible dialogue

The purpose of this article is to articulate Vygotsky's theoretical conceptualizations on Historical-Cultural Psychology with studies on emotions. The text emphasizes Vygotsky's theories on the development of higher psychological processes and mediation of signs in its constitution. We propose a way of understanding emotions based on the historical-cultural approach, starting...