Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease

Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications, Sep 2012

Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease C Botti, C Maione, A Coppola, V Sica, G CobellisDepartment of General Pathology, Second University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Inadequate blood supply to tissues caused by obstruction of arterioles and/or capillaries results in ischemic injuries – these injuries can range from mild (eg, leg ischemia) to severe conditions (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke). Surgical and/or endovascular procedures provide cutting-edge treatment for patients with vascular disorders; however, a high percentage of patients are currently not treatable, owing to high operative risk or unfavorable vascular involvement. Therapeutic angiogenesis has recently emerged as a promising new therapy, promoting the formation of new blood vessels by the introduction of bone marrow–derived stem and progenitor cells. These cells participate in the development of new blood vessels, the enlargement of existing blood vessels, and sprouting new capillaries from existing blood vessels, providing evidence of the therapeutic utility of these cells in ischemic tissues. In this review, the authors describe peripheral arterial disease, an ischemic condition affecting the lower extremities, summarizing different aspects of vascular regeneration and discussing which and how stem cells restore the blood flow. The authors also present an overview of encouraging results from early-phase clinical trials using stem cells to treat peripheral arterial disease. The authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will allow the results of these investigations to develop best clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many clinical trials have been not registered on databases such as ClinicalTrials.gov or EudraCT. Therefore, more rigorous clinical trials are required to confirm the first hopeful results and to address the challenging issues.Keywords: adult stem cells, critical limb ischemia, bone marrow transplantation, therapeutic angiogenesis

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Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease

Stem Cells and Cloning:Advances and Applications Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease C Botti 0 C Maione 0 A Coppola 0 V Sica 0 G Cobellis 0 0 Department of General Pathology, Second University of Naples , Naples , Italy Inadequate blood supply to tissues caused by obstruction of arterioles and/or capillaries results in ischemic injuries - these injuries can range from mild (eg, leg ischemia) to severe conditions (eg, myocardial infarction, stroke). Surgical and/or endovascular procedures provide cutting-edge treatment for patients with vascular disorders; however, a high percentage of patients are currently not treatable, owing to high operative risk or unfavorable vascular involvement. Therapeutic angiogenesis has recently emerged as a promising new therapy, promoting the formation of new blood vessels by the introduction of bone marrow-derived stem and progenitor cells. These cells participate in the development of new blood vessels, the enlargement of existing blood vessels, and sprouting new capillaries from existing blood vessels, providing evidence of the therapeutic utility of these cells in ischemic tissues. In this review, the authors describe peripheral arterial disease, an ischemic condition affecting the lower extremities, summarizing different aspects of vascular regeneration and discussing which and how stem cells restore the blood flow. The authors also present an overview of encouraging results from early-phase clinical trials using stem cells to treat peripheral arterial disease. The authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will allow the results of these investigations to develop best clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many clinical trials have been not registered on databases such as ClinicalTrials.gov or EudraCT. Therefore, more rigorous clinical trials are required to confirm the first hopeful results and to address the challenging issues. adult stem cells; critical limb ischemia; bone marrow transplantation; therapeutic - d s n o it a c li p p A d n a s e c n a v d A : g n i n o l C d n a s ll e C m e t S open access to scientific and medical research Fontaine Stage I Clinical Asymptomatic Rutherford Grade Category 0 0 IIa IIb III IV Intermittent claudication I Moderate or severe claudication Ischemic rest pain Critical limb ischemia Ischemic ulceration Tissue loss and gangrene III I I II III 1 2 3 4 5 6 Clinical Asymptomatic Intermittent claudication Moderate claudication Severe claudication Ischemic rest pain Critical limb ischemia Minor tissue loss Major tissue loss 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF d s n o it a c il p p A d n a s e c n a v d A : g n i n o l C d n a s ll e C m e t S PAD Symptoms Pathophysiology Fortuitous discovery of ATS plaques aortic and iliac calcifications Plaques at risk (inflammation of ATS plaques) Atherothrombosis ACD . 200 m Discrepancy between oxygen Recovery time , 2 minutes demand and arterial supply ACD # 200 m Higher discrepancy between Recovery time . 2 minutes oxygen demand and arterial supply ACD , 100 m Higher discrepancy between oxygen Recovery time . 2 minutes demand and arterial supply Acidosis Ischemic rest pain Severe skin hypoxia and acidosis Necrosis Severe skin hypoxia and acidosis Infection Gangrene Severe skin hypoxia and acidosis Infection Abbreviations: ACD, absolute claudication distance; ATS, atherosclerotic. Disease staging and classification systems are important for clinical management of these patients. Based on the severity of symptoms, usually two distinct clinical presentations are distinguished in PAD patients: ( 1 ) intermittent claudication, characterized by intermittent pain in leg muscles when the person walks, and ( 2 ) critical limb ischemia (CLI), a more severe form of PAD, characterized by pain at rest, nonhealing wounds, and gangrene. After 1 year, 30% of patients with CLI will lose their leg and 25% will die.2 The incidence of CLI in Western societies is approximately 220 new cases per million people per year, and, with an aging population, the population at risk is expected to increase because of persistent rates of tobacco abuse and an increase in diabetes.2 Fifty percent of diabetics (7% of the world population in 2010) suffer from PAD, which may lead to amputation due to CLI.3 Moreover, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, a sedentary lifestyle, and a genetic predisposition all contribute to the development of PAD.4,5 Current treatments for PAD Revascularization, either surgical or endovascular, is the gold standard treatment for patients with severe PAD. However, despite advances in surgical and endovascular techniques,6 more than 30% of patients do not qualify as candidates for revascularization because of excessive operative risk or adverse vascular involvement. Furthermore, the presence of extensive atherosclerotic plaques in the tibial and/or peroneal arteries renders revascularization unsuccessful. These patients are left to medical therapy, which may only slow disease 6 progression, and the only remaining alternative for relief of rest pain or gangrene is amputation of the affected leg. An estimated 120–500 amputations are performed per million people per year, and one-quarter of these patients require long-term institutional care or professional assistance at home.2 Medical therapy is limited to antithrombotic therapy,7 the prostaglandin analogue iloprost,8 or recently to cilostazol. Cilostazol has been found to be effective for the treatment of intermittent claudication. This compound has several beneficial effects on platelet aggregation, serum lipids, and endothelial cells (ECs), but how these might relate to improvements in walking is not entirely understood.9 Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel strategies to promote neovascularization in patients with CLI who are not candidates for conventional treatments. In 1997, Asahara et al10 made a big step forward when they identified a class of bone marrow–derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) that contribute to angiogenesis and/or vasculogenesis in ischemic tissues.11 Since then, several studies have reported the capability of stem and progenitor cells to promote neovascularization, reducing ischemic damages.12,13 Encouraging results of several clinical studies have rapidly demonstrated the beneficial effects of autologous stem cell transplantation in patients affected by CLI. Clinical improvements were observed in objective and subjective measurements of perfusion (ie, transcutaneous oxygen tension [TcPO2] and laser Doppler flowmetry [LDF]), pain reduction, increased pain-free total walking distance, and decreased rate of amputation.3,14–69 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF d s n o it a c il p p A d n a s e c n a v d A : g n i n o l C d n a s ll e C m e t S What is vascular regeneration? Vascular regeneration involves the restoration of normal vascular function and structure and the growth of new blood vessels. This includes a plethora of processes, such as the distribution of blood flow via the formation of collateral networks; the response of newly generated vessels to hemodynamic, humoral, and local tissue factors; the modulation of the immune response and the trafficking of circulating cells; and the permeation of nutrients and macromolecules through the microvasculature, which can in turn have trophic effects on blood fluidity and hemostasis.9 Vascular regeneration is also important in a variety of processes: during embryonic organogenesis and organ growth in born individuals, in the course of restoration of blood supply to ischemic tissues, and in the establishment of blood supply to tumours.70 Neovascularization involves the growth of new structures from preexisting vessels by migration, proliferation, and differentiation of progenitor cells and the interplay between growth factors and cytokines.The process of neovascularization comprises three distinct phenomena: ( 1 ) vasculogenesis, ( 2 ) angiogenesis, and ( 3 ) arteriogenesis.70 The essential mechanism responsible for new blood vessel formation in adults is based on neoangiogenesis. During angiogenesis, ECs present in vessel walls are activated in response to various stimuli and begin to relase various growth factors, the angiopoietins (Ang1 and Ang2) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), which play a crucial role in this process. While Ang1 and Ang2 participate in the “stabilization” of the newly formed vessels, VEGF exerts its pro-angiogenic function by binding to one of its receptors, specifically the VEGF receptor 2 or kinase (VEGFR2 or KDR) insert domain receptor, expressed exclusively by ECs and their precursors. This binding triggers a cascade of events that leads to the formation of new blood vessels and which comprises the migration of ECs into the surrounding tissue in response to angiogenic chemokines; proliferation and differentiation of EPCs; and recruitment of support cells such as pericytes for small capillaries and smooth muscle cells for larger vessels. The main factor inducing angiogenesis in adults is the availability of oxygen, through the activation of hypoxiainducible factors.71,72 Stem cells with angiogenic potential Stem cells are defined as cells with the capacity to self-renew and to generate differentiated cells and are divided into two types: embryonic and adult stem cells.73 Adult stem cells are partially lineage-committed cells and have the capacity to give rise to specialized cells. For this feature, adult stem cells are so-called multipotent cells – as opposed to pluripotent cells (ie, embryonic stem cells), which can give rise to all the cell types in the body. Adult stem cells include three different groups: ( 1 ) the bone marrow stem cells, ( 2 ) the circulating pool of stem/progenitor cells (also derived from the bone marrow), and ( 3 ) the tissue-resident stem cells.74 Bone marrow stem cells include different types of progenitor cells, such as multipotent adult progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem cells. The circulating pool of stem and progenitor cells contains a variety of cells, but the most relevant for vascular regeneration are the EPCs. Finally, the tissue-resident stem cells are present in almost all tissues in a quiescent state and can respond efficiently to different stimuli.74 Both EPCs and MSCs show promise for potential utility in therapeutic neovascularization. MSCs are reported to promote angiogenesis because of their capacity to stimulate EC migration and tube formation; furthermore, MSCs support neoangiogenesis, releasing soluble factors that contribute to stimulate angiogenesis.75 what are the features of these cells? MSCs are a subset of cells that express on their surface specific molecules such as CD73, CD90, and CD105; MSCs also express CD54/CD102, CD166, and CD49 (alpha integrin), which regulate cell-to-cell interactions, and they do not express any hematopoietic and/or EPC surface markers.76 MSCs can be found in many fetal and adult tissues and are generally isolated from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, and compact bone. Furthermore, MSCs are able to migrate to and home to injured sites, where they act by differentiating into specific cells and by secreting trophic factors, which activate paracrine signaling.77 Moreover, these cells interact with the immune system, particularly modulating the immune response, apparently by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFa) and interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and by increasing interleukin 10 (IL-10).78 This unique immunomodulatory property makes these cells suitable for both autologous and heterologous transplants, since they avoid and/or actively suppress eventual rejection of transplants.79 MSCs display a great therapeutic potential because of their capability to differentiate into muscle, neural precursors, cardiomyocytes, and perivascular cells. Perivascular cells (herein referred to as pericytes) are critical cells in vascular biology. Pericytes typically express alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGF-β), and nerve/glial antigen-2 (NG-2) proteoglycan. They are branched cells embedded within the basement membrane of capillaries and postcapillary venules, stabilizing the vessel wall.80 Pericytes are considered cells that control 8 EC proliferation and migration, and thereby also the growth 021 of new capillaries. In turn, ECs stimulate expansion and l--Ju activation of the pericyte precursor cell population. The balance 12n between ECs and pericytes is highly controlled by a series of 7o signaling pathway mechanisms operating in an autocrine and/ .260 or a paracrine manner. In pathological conditions in which ..945 angiogenic activity is impaired, pericytes and ECs could be y37 partly responsible for abnormalities in blood vessels. /b EPCs are adult hemangioblast-derived cells characterized .com by the expression of CD34, VEGF receptor 2, and CD133. s rse These markers are expressed by precursor cells, but not vpeo by differentiated ones.81 In fact, as the hemangioblasts .dw differentiate to become ECs, they downregulate the //ww . hematopoietic stem cell marker CD133 expression.81 EPCs tt:sp lyon can be isolated from human peripheral or umbilical cord blood frodedhm lrssuaone sahnodwcnaninavlistorobaellftohuenfdunicntiboonnaelpmroaprerortwiesnoicfhEeCs.sE;mPCorseohvaevre, a e EPCs have direct angiogenic action, supporting angiogenesis lnoow rpoF through their ability to secrete paracrine mediators. In this sd respect, several studies have shown that these cells release itno interleukins, growth factors, and chemokines that altogether a c li p p A d n a s e c n a v d A : g n i n o l C d lltseaneSCm (G-CGS(IrFLo,C-w6Vy,EttIhLoG-kfF8ai,,ncFIeLtGo-s1Fr0s,)NO) regulate CD14-positive cells, accelerate vascular network formation, and enhance healing processes.82 Adult stem cells with angiogenic potential such as EPCs and MSCs will stimulate the production of new blood vessels, as shown in Figure 1. Cell therapy in PAD: clinical results Promotion of collateral vessel formation and angiogenesis in PAD patients is an important therapeutic strategy to minimize tissue injury associated with severe ischemia. The Therapeutic Angiogenesis using Cell Transplantation trial was the first report on the use of bone marrow–derived mononuclear cells in the treatment of PAD.14 Starting from this, the search of the literature yielded a total of 57 earlyphase clinical trials for a total of 1997 enrolled patients. The safety and feasibility of autologous cell transplantation has been reported in 1667 treated patients (Tables 2 and 3). Among these, a total of 303 diabetic patients with CLI and foot ulcers underwent cell therapy. The degree of ischemia varied throughout the groups, ranging from Rutherford category 4/Fontaine stage III through to severe CLI classified as Rutherford category 6/Fontaine stage IV. Only a minority of trials (n = 13) included appropriate controls (Table 4). In these studies, the follow-up of the untreated or placebo group did not differ from that observed MSCs and EPCs Proliferation Differentiation Mobilization MSCs and EPCs Bone marrow Peripheral circulation Recruitment and homing Endothelium Sprouting from pre-existing blood vessel In situ differentiation and proliferation Ischemic organs submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF Tateishi-Yuyama et al14 Esato et al15 Saigawa et al16 Higashi et al17 Miyamoto et al18 Huang et al19 Kawamura et al20 Lenk et al21 Huang et al22 Ishida et al23 Durdu et al24 Koshikawa et al25 Arai et al26 Miyamoto et al27 Kawamura et al28 Bartsch et al29 Huang et al30 Kajiguchi et al31 Hernández et al32 Saito et al33 Matoba et al34 Napoli et al35 Gu et al36 Chochola et al37 wester et al 38 Van Tongeren et al39 De Vriese et al40 Cobellis et al41 Motukuru et al42 Amann et al43 Amann et al44 Capiod et al45 Franz et al46 Franz et al47 Zafarghandi et al48 Procházka et al49 Procházka et al3 Lara-Hernandez et al50 Iso et al51 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress 9 Improved functional outcomes Limb salvage, ulcers, rest pain, ABI, TcPO2 First-toe pressure and toebrachial index increase, perfusion index by computed tomography, rest pain ABI, ulcer healing, rest pain Limb salvage, pain, ABI, Rutherford classification, quality of life ABI, TcPO2, pain, amputation-free survival rate Rutherford classification, diabetic wound scales, ABI, mortality rate Pain-free walking time, ABI, TcPO2, ulcers, limb salvage walking distance, rest pain, skin condition, ABI Limb salvage, Rutherford classification, ABI, pain Limb salvage, TTF, wound healing Rutherford classification, ABI, TcPO2, quality of life, pain TcPO2, wound healing, limb salvage TTF, limb salvage Rutherford classification, ABI, TcPO2, pain, limb salvage, wound healing LDF, TcPO2, limb salvage CLI, DM BM-MNCs, BMSCs 6 and 24 weeks Schiavetta et al66 in several large population studies.2,83–87 In addition, the Edinburgh Ar ter y Study def ined the prevalence of asymptomatic and symptomatic PAD and related comorbidities in the general population.87 Therefore, since the progression of disease is well defined in CLI patients, the lack of an untreated or a placebo group – even if scientifically compelling – cannot diminish the significance of the studies. Two sources of cells were used in these trials: ( 1 ) bone marrow aspiration (n = 46) and ( 2 ) apheresis of peripheral blood with or without GSF stimulation (n = 11). The route of cell administration was intramuscular in 39 trials, intra-arterial in nine trials, and combined intra-arterial plus intramuscular in four trials (Table 2). Furthermore, two studies compared the therapeutic effects of intramuscular or intra-arterial delivery of bone marrow cells in patients with lower limb ischemia, showing similar beneficial results.36,65 To prevent clot formation, harvested cells were collected in the presence of anticoagulant.3,14–69 Intramuscular administration is usually performed through multiple injections at the level of limb muscles, while intra-arterial infusion is usually performed via classic femoral access. Three studies reported the use of intralesional administration of bone marrow–derived stem cells in 31 diabetic patients with foot ulcers, showing encouraging results (Table 3). In general, bone marrow aspiration was well tolerated, and the most frequent adverse reaction was local pain or mild anemia. However, serious adverse reactions such as angina with ST segment depression were observed in a small number of patients.55 The average follow-up of these clinical studies was 8.4 ± 9.55 months. Considering all studies, the reported outcomes for therapeutic efficacy of cell therapy involved the ankle-brachial index, TcPO2, LDF, pain-free walking distance, ulcer healing, and amputation-free survival. In all studies, symptoms improved after the procedure, as evidenced by clinical evaluation, relief of rest pain, and improvement by at least one level in Rutherford and Fontaine classifications. Furthermore, autologous cell therapy promoted amputationfree survival with an average of 7.8 months and promoted complete wound healing within 3 months in most patients with ulcers prior to bone marrow stem cell transplantation, in comparison with the natural history of PAD patients. Therefore, autologous transplantation of bone marrow–derived 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF d s n o it a c li p p A d n a s e c n a v d A : g n i n o l C d n a s ll e C m e t S cells significantly improved both the objective and the subjective endpoints. Conclusion Herein, the authors provide the most comprehensive review of cell therapy trials describing the background and first results of stem and progenitor cell therapy in patients with CLI who are not suitable for revascularization. Both the principle, as far as it is understood, and the methods are described. Compelling evidence suggests that stem cell therapy may become a useful adjunct to the current treatment options. Because of poor prognosis and the increasing number of patients, there is a need for new therapeutic methods. About 1997 patients without revascularization options were enrolled in these trials and 1667 patients were treated. Cell therapy significantly improved functional outcomes such as ankle-brachial index, TcPO2 or LDF, rest pain, pain-free walking distance, ulcer healing, and limb salvage. Although it is generally agreed that controlled trials yield more reliable results, the authors also included noncontrolled studies, which are the majority of published reports. The authors believe the main reason for this majority is that the authorized studies have chosen to treat end-stage patients, without other therapeutic options. The procedures are generally safe and well tolerated. Reported deaths were expected, given the severe underlying disease, and could not be directly attributed to cell therapy. Challenges in this new therapeutic option still include open questions regarding cell number, phenotype, processing, route of optimal delivery, and frequency of application. The number of injected cells ranged from 4 × 106 to 109 for bone marrow cells and from 7 × 107 to 3 × 109 for peripheral blood–derived mononuclear cells, with positive effects on blood perfusion, even when low cells were used. Nevertheless, no correlation study between clinical response and cell number has been performed so far, and no proven correlation exists between the phenotype of used cells and efficacy of neoangiogenesis. Answering these two points is critical to understanding which and how many cells are needed to obtain a clinical response. The question of optimal delivery route remains open. The rationale behind the intramuscular injection is to generate a reservoir of cells near the ischemic area, which can be recruited by active paracrine mechanisms. The intra-arterial injection relies on the fact that the blood flow transports cells up to the ischemia site; however, it is not known how many cells are able to leave the blood stream to reach the ischemic area. Again, no correlation study between the two routes of administration has been performed, although the present trend is for intramuscular administration. It has been reported that the combination of both routes (intramuscular plus intra-arterial)39 has given substantial improvements in clinical outcomes, but this must be confirmed in exhaustive experiments in preclinical models. In summary, over the past 10 years there has been considerable interest in stem cells, including extensive clinical activity involving stem cells. Unfortunately, the rationale for the clinical application of adult stem cells, particularly in regenerative medicine, has lagged behind initial laboratory observations. At this point, the authors believe that additional research initiatives should be undertaken to better identify the nature of stem cells and that an intensive cooperation between laboratory and clinical investigators is needed to optimize the design of cell therapy trials and to maximize their scientific rigor. Only this will clinical practices. Additionally, although a number of stem cell therapies exist, many treatments are performed outside international and national regulations and many clinical trials have been not registered on databases such as ClinicalTrials.gov or EudraCT. Therefore, more rigorous clinical trials are required to confirm the first hopeful results and to address the challenging issues. Acknowledgments The authors are grateful to Fondazione Luigi Califano, Fondazione Banco di Napoli, and Istituto Superiore di Sanità. The authors thank Prof Anna Maria Molinari and Prof Ferdinando Auricchio for helpful discussions. Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. 12 submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF submit your manuscript | www.dovepress.com Dovepress 13 8 1 0 2 l u J 2 1 n o 7 0 2 . 6 4 . 9 5 . 7 3 y b / m o c . s s e r p e v o d . w w w // . tt:sp lyon h e from lsua ded rson a e lnoow rpoF Publish your work in this journal Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications is an international, peer-reviewed, open access journal. Areas of interest in stem cell research include: Embryonic stem cells; Adult stem cells; Blastocysts; Cordblood stem cells; Stem cell transformation and culture; Therapeutic cloning; Umbilical cord blood and bone marrow cells; Laboratory, animal and human therapeutic studies; Philosophical and ethical issues related to stem cell research. This journal is indexed on CAS. The manuscript management system is completely online and includes a quick and fair peer-review system. Visit http://www.dovepress.com/ testimonials.php to read real quotes from published authors. 1. Hirsch AT , Haskal ZJ , Hertzer NR , et al; for American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions; Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology; Society of Interventional Radiology; ACC/ AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 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C Botti, C Maione, A Coppola, V Sica, G Cobellis. Autologous bone marrow cell therapy for peripheral arterial disease, Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications, 2012, 5-14, DOI: 10.2147/SCCAA.S28121