A revised catalogue of δ Sct stars

Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Jul 2018

An extensive and up-dated list of δ Sct stars is presented here. More than 500 papers, published during the last few years, have been revised and 341 new variables have been added to our last list, six years ago. This catalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review on the observational characteristics of all the δ Sct stars known until now, including stars contained in earlier catalogues together with other new discovered variables, covering information published until January 2000. In summary, 636 variables, 1149 references and 182 individual notes are presented in this new list.

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A revised catalogue of δ Sct stars

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. Sct stars? E. Rodr guez 0 M.J. Lopez-Gonzalez 0 P. Lopez de Coca 0 0 Instituto de Astrof sica de Andaluc a, CSIC , P.O. Box 3004, E-18080 Granada , Spain An extensive and up-dated list of Sct stars is Kurtz (1994, 1996), Rodr guez et al. (1994; hereafter R94), presented here. More than 500 papers, published during Garc a et al. (1995), Garrido (2000), Jiang et al. (2000). the last few years, have been revised and 341 new variables have been added to our last list, six years ago. This During the last few years the number of new varicatalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review on the ables is enormously increasing. Additionally to the imobservational characteristics of all the Sct stars known mense e ort developed by individual groups, a number of until now, including stars contained in earlier catalogues long-term monitoring projects are being carried out leadtogether with other new discovered variables, covering in- ing to the discovery of a lot of new variables including formation published until January 2000. In summary, 636 Sct pulsating stars. Several of these projects are still variables, 1149 references and 182 individual notes are pre- in progress as, e.g., EROS (Aubourg et al. 1995), DUO sented in this new list. (Alard 1996), PLANET (Albrow 2000), etc., and their results will be available in the next future. In other cases, - Sct stars are regularly pulsating variables located in the lower part of the Cepheids instability strip showing short periods (<0d:3) and visual amplitudes ranging from a few thousandths of a magnitude to several tenths, with typical amplitude of about 0m:02. The majority of these stars belong to Population I, however a few variables show low metallicities and high spatial motions typical of Population II. This second small group may be astrophysically di erent from the normal Population I Sct variables. They are called SX Phe stars and very few are known in the eld. Recently, a large number of these variables are being discovered in globular clusters. A number of reviews on Sct variables are available in the literature, e.g. Breger (1979 , 1995, 1999, 2000), Eggen (1979) , Wol (1983) , Tsvetkov (1990) , Lopez de Coca et al. (1990 ), Send o print requests to: E. Rodr guez, e-mail: ? Tables 1 and 2 will be accessible only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or via http://cdsweb.ustrasbg.fr/Abstract.html Additionally to new variables, new catalogues on different parameters have been recently published. This information has been used to up-date each variable in our list, using the most recent catalogues available in the bibliography on photometry (Stro¨mgren and Johnson systems), spectral types, rotational and radial velocities, multiplicity and parallaxes. The aim of this work is to present an extensive and up-dated list of Sct stars. This catalogue is intended to be a comprehensive review on the observational characteristics of all known Sct stars, including stars contained in earlier catalogues together with other new discovered variables, covering information published until January 2000. Field SX Phe stars have been also included in our list. A catalogue on SX Phe variables in globular clusters will be the subject of another work (Rodr guez & Lopez-Gonzalez in preparation). 2. The catalogue this active binary. Another possibility might be γ Dor-like variations in the primary component. 2.1. Description Hence, 295 variables were already listed in the R94 catalogue and 341 are new. Nearly all of these new variables (337) have been discovered through the years 1994 The stars and their most signi cant parameters are listed to 2000. The main contributions come from the Hipparcos in Table 1 together with references to studies of individual mission (88 new variables; ESA 1997, Kazarovets et al. stars and notes for a number of variables. Table 2 lists our 1999) and the OGLE (54; Udalski et al. 1994, 1995a,b, identi cation for the Sct variables observed by MACHO 1996, 1997) and MACHO (84; Alcock et al. 2000) projects. project. In the present paper only the rst page of Table 1 In the case of OGLE project, 56 variables of this type have is printed as an example. The full Table 1 together with been observed but only 54 are new. The variables BWCTable 2 are accessible in electronic form and can also be re- V82 and BW1-V23 were already known as V4117 Sgr quested from the authors. In summary, the new catalogue and V1363 Sgr, respectively (Blanco 1984) . In the case contains 636 variables, 1149 references and 182 individual of MACHO project, 90 Sct variables are listed but notes. Each star in the list has been carefully examined only 84 are new. The variables MACHO-58 and MACHObefore being included in Table 1. Several tens of stars were 59 are V1363 Sgr and V4117 Sgr, respectively. In addirejected mainly because either time scales of variation or tion, the variables MACHO-56, MACHO-57, MACHO-62 signal/noise ratio of their light curves do not allow us to and MACHO-63 were previously identi ed by the OGLE de nitively classify them as Sct variables and they are project as BW10-V141, BW1-V109, BW7-V79 and BW3not listed in the table. In fact, most of them have been V93. Thus, even avoiding the contributions from these previously considered only as suspected Sct variables by three main projects, a large number (111) of new variearlier authors. ables have been discovered since 1994. These mean the The list is given according to their 2000.0 equinox 17% of the total sample of Sct pulsating stars known equatorial coordinates ordered by increasing right ascen- up to date. The last variable included in our catalogue sion. Several catalogue identi cations appear for each star is HD 81882, discovered by Rodr guez & Rolland (2000 ) according to the source: HD (Henry Draper Catalogue), during the night of January 29, 2000. On the other hand, HR (Bright Star Catalogue), SAO (Smithsonian more than 500 papers, published during the last few years, Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalogue), BD (Bonner have been revised and 282 new references have been added Durchmusterung), CD (Cordoba Durchmusterung), CPD to the corresponding list. (Cape Photographic Durchmusterung), HIP (Hipparcos The main source of information for Stro¨mgren phoCatalogue), CCDM (Catalogue of the Components tometry has been the catalogue of Hauck & Mermilliod of Double and Multiple Stars) and GCVS (General (1998). In the case of Johnson photometry, the catalogues Catalogue of Variable Stars). In some cases, when it is of Mermilliod et al. (1997) and Hipparcos (ESA 1997) known, another designation has been also used (Other). have been mainly used. Sometimes, individual valuable Similarly to the R94 catalogue, periods correspond to the papers have been used to determine the Str¨omgren indominant pulsation mode in every case while amplitudes dices, especially for variables with large amplitudes. In correspond to the mean full visual amplitude of the light a few cases, the visual V magnitudes come from Simbad curve. The main sources of information have been the Database (1999). The main source for Spectral Types have Name Lists of Variable Stars Nos. 72, 73 (Kazarovets & been the Michigan ( Houk & Cowley 1975 (Vol. 1); Houk Samus 1995, 1997) and 74 (Kazarovets et al. 1999) . In 1978 (Vol. 2); Houk 1982 (Vol. 3); Houk & Smith-Moore addition, the Hipparcos catalogue (ESA, 1997) has been 1988 (Vol. 4)) and Hipparcos (ESA 1997) catalogues. also taken into account, together with all the available In addition, the lists of Gray (1988) , Gray & Garrison bibliography in the last few years. (1989), Gray & Corbally (1993) , Abt & Morrell (1995) In this new catalogue, more than 50% of the variables and Simbad Database (1999 ) have been also used. are new in relation to our last list (R94 catalogue). The list In the case of rotational velocities (vsini), the catof R94 contained 298 variables, three of them have been alogue of Uesugi & Fukuda (1982) has been the most eliminated (UW CVn, V879 Aql and UX Mon). UW CVn used. In addition, the lists of McNamara (1985) , Abt & and V879 Aql seem to be W UMa-type binary systems Morrell (1995), Solano & Fernley (1997) and Medeiros & with periods of 0d:292 and 0d:271, respectively (Kopacki Mayor (1999) have been also taken into account. The main & Pigulski 1995, 1998). In the case of UX Mon, it was sources for radial velocities have been the lists of Duflot thought to be an Algol-type binary system (P = 5d:9) et al. (1995), Fehrenbach et al. (1997) and Grenier et al. where the primary component is a Sct pulsating star (1999a,b). Finally, in all cases, the parallaxes come from with a period of about 1 hour. However, later observations the Hipparcos catalogue (ESA 1997) . by Olson & Etzel (1995) do not con rm the Sct-like vari- These sources have been used to up-date the data catations. These authors found variability with a time scale alogued in the new list, including values already availof several hours (>8 hours) as due to mass transfer in able in the R94 catalogue. However, in the majority of the cases, the old values do not change. The main sources for changes have been V and B − V from the Hipparcos catalogue (ESA, 1997) and rotational velocities from Solano & Fernley (1997) , but no trends are shown with the new values. 2.2. Content Figures 1 to 6 give us some insight about the content of the catalogue. Figures 1 to 4 show the corresponding distributions as functions of the spectral type, rotational velocity, visual amplitude and period, respectively. Figures 5 and 6 display some interesting cross-correlations found between these parameters. In Fig. 1, only variables with well de ned available spectral types have been taken into account, hence peculiar stars were not included in the sample. As it can be seen, the majority of these stars have spectral types between A6 to F2, with a peak at F0. In relation to Fig. 2, by comparing this gure with Fig. 7 of the R94 catalogue, the peak corresponding to the interval 60−80 km s−1 has disappeared. Now, the distribution is more smoothed and the stars seem to be uniformly distributed in all the range for rotational velocities lesser than 180 km s−1. Only a peak remains for very low values of vsini. This peak is due to the variables with high amplitudes of luminosity variation. This is con rmed when we plot Fig. 5, where the visual amplitudes versus rotational velocities are shown. Similarly to R94, these two gures point out that stars with large rotational velocities do not exhibit large amplitudes, that is, the variables displaying large amplitudes are very slow rotators. In fact, the mean value of vsini for Sct variables with V 0m:03 is found to be of 109( 58) km s−1 whereas this is much smaller for the large amplitude pulsators (< vsini > = 22( 10) km s−1 for the variables with V 0m:1 and a very similar value is found for the variables with V 0m:3). s s e e c c n n e e r r e e f f e e R R s e T t S o ) 1 − V s R m k ( ) 1 iin −s 1 s c v m k ( ) V y ( P I H ) s , R N 251 251 -IIIV 531 5Fm 5FV 215 251 II 361 II V 471 0 32 0 32 I2 20 -3 30 0 53 -3 32 2 32 I7 27 I2 28 I7 34 5m F 1 F 1 F 0 A 0 F 1 F 1 F 1 A 0 F 1 A 1 A n F V V 0 0 9 F F F A 0 3 4 1 6 9 9 7 7 8 8 3 7 45 .84 .7 70 .92 18 . 0 1 0 0 2 8 1 This agrees well when considering the parametric resonance as a mechanism to limit the amplitude of the pulsations, as mentioned in R94. In relation to Fig. 3, the distribution is similar to that found from the R94 sample. These stars show visual amplitudes from a few thousandths of a magnitude to several tenths. The majority of them present small amplitudes (a few hundredths) with a typical value of about 0m:02. Moreover, the number of low amplitude variables increases nearly exponentially as decreasing the amplitude. In particular, nearly 30% of them show amplitudes smaller than 0m:02. It suggests we cannot exclude the possibility that many of the apparently nonvarying stars in the Sct region vary but with undetectable amplitudes. On the other hand, the distribution shown in our Fig. 4 resembles the corresponding one found from the R94 list. Similarly to the earlier catalogue, Fig. 4 point out that the majority of these variables show short periods (about 80% of them have periods shorter than 0d:15) and the number of variables decreases as the period is increasing. It can be due to stars with longer periods are more evolved, hence the probability of nding one star in this region of the H−R diagram is smaller. Other reasons can be the selection effects mentioned in the R94 catalogue. Additionally to the correlation found between the visual amplitudes and rotational velocities, another interesting result is displayed in Fig. 6 where the mean periods are shown versus the spectral type. As it can be seen, the periods of the variables tend to increase when the spectral types are later. It can be explained as an evolutionary effect due to the hotter Sct stars tend to be near the main sequence while the variables presenting the latest spectral types are more evolved (spectral class II and III). However, no correlations are found for vsini versus spectral type or vsini versus period. From an observational point of view, it seems to be that stars in main sequence rotate faster than evolved stars, however no correlation is found between vsini and spectral types for the Sct-type variables. It might be due to a selection e ect because there are few Sct stars with long periods and available vsini values. It might also be that other parameters have to be taken into account. Acknowledgements. This catalogue is dedicated to the memory of our great friend and observer in the eld of Sct stars Salvador F. Gonzalez-Bedolla deceased November 1, 1996. The authors are in debt to many people who have contributed to improve this catalogue. Some of them are Dr. Balona, Beaulieu, Breger, Frandsen, Hintz, Jiang, Liu, Mantegazza, Minniti, Paunzen, Piquard, Sasselov, Udalski. Especial acknowledgements are made to Dr. Handler, Kaluzny, Kim, Koen, Templeton and Zhou. Acknowledgements are also especially made to M.C. Romero for making available many papers used in this investigation and V. Costa for proofreading. This research was supported by the Junta de Andaluc a and the Direccion General de Ensen~anza Superior e Investigacion Cient ca (DGESIC) under project PB98-0499. This work has made use of the Simbad database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. 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E. Rodríguez, M. J. López-González, . A revised catalogue of δ Sct stars, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, 469-474, DOI: 10.1051/aas:2000221