Review on Analytical and Biological Applications of Hydrazones and their Metal Complexes
E-Journal of Chemistry
Review on Analytical and Biological applications of Hydrazones and their Metal Complexes
LAKSHMI NARAYANA SUVARAPU 0
YOUNG KYO SEO 0
SUNG OK BAEK 0
VARADA REDDY AMMIREDDY 1
0 Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University , Gyeongsan-si Republic of Korea -712 749
1 Analytical Division, Department of Chemistry, S.V. University , Tirupati , India - 517 502
Hydrazones are very important group of analytical regents for the determination of various metal ions by using various analytical techniques. Besides this use of hydrazones are also having biological activities also. In this paper we first discussed about the chemical nature of hydrazones and their biological activities. We mainly focused on the papers which were published during 1980-2011 on analytical applications (spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric) of hydrazones. We gave the total established conditions for the determination of various metal ions with hydrazones.
Hydrazones; metal ions; Spectrophotometry; Spectrofluorimetry; Biological applications
Hydrazones as Analytical Reagents
Many organic compounds react with metal ions and form colored precipitates or solutions.
Hence, they are extensively used as analytical reagents, even though it is difficult to
predict with certainity which organic compound is suitable for the analysis of a particular
metal ion. Yoe1 gave a list of more than twenty ways in which they are used. It has been
observed that the reactivity of organic reagents with metal ions in the use of the former as
analytical reagents requires the presence of certain acidic or basic groupings2 and
The aim of research in this field is the discovery of compounds possessing a high
degree of selectivity and identification of the causes underlying such selectivity. While
most of the reagents are not selective, various means are known where by the selectivity of a
reagent may be improved. These include adjustment of the pH, and the use of masking
agents which form complexes with the interfering elements in the determination of the test
ion. Within the organic reagent molecule, there is generally a single acidic or basic group,
or a combination of these two, which is the key to the reactivity of the reagent.
Literature survey has revealed that organic compounds capable of forming chelates or
inner complex salts give better results than those containing only acidic or basic groupings,
in the field of inorganic analysis. The element in the organic molecule through which the
metal is bonded is generally oxygen or nitrogen, less usually it is sulphur. The oxygen
containing groups most often met in organic reagents were -OH, -CHO, -COOH, >CO. The
nitrogen containing groups (-NH2, =NH, heterocyclic N) met with in general functional
groups are amines (usually aliphatic), heterocyclic rings (usually pyridine), oximes (in
which bonding tends to be coordinated to the nitrogen instead of replacement of
hydrogen) and azo groupings. The aromatic orthohydroxy carbonyl compounds form stable
six membered rings with the metal ions. Hydroxy carbonyl compounds derived from
benzene and naphthalene, hydroxy quinones of naphthalene and anthracene series have been
introduced as analytical reagents.
It is observed, that in many cases the formation of a precipitate or a soluble colored
product is dependent on the presence of definite atomic groupings. Such compounds are
therefore designated as metal binding groups with specific or selective action. But, it cannot
be over looked that the reaction conditions play a definite role in this direction. Hence,
proper choice of solvent and other factors are to be given equal importance. Organic
compounds can undergo extensive alteration in their structure as a result of condensation
and substitution reactions. These may bring in the useful changes in the reagent to make
them better organic reagents. A survey of literature3 shows, that organic compounds
containing a phenolic or enolic group and a coordinating group containing nitrogen, oxygen
or sulphur forms a variety of complexes with different metal ions.
It is found that -SH group of an organic compound exhibits a higher acidic character
than similarly bound ?OH group. Thio-keto group (>C=S) also plays an important role
compared to its counterpart, keto group (>C=O)4.
It is observed that aromatic compounds containing nitroso (-N=O) as well as phenolic ?
OH groups are also useful as analytical reagents. It is clear from the above brief review
presented, that many organic compounds containing acidic or basic groups, besides the
coordinating groups form chelates easily and have been used extensively as analytical
reagents. However, these investigations reveal that sensitivity and selectivity of the reagent
should be established, even though a few general guidelines are available to predict the
potentialities of a reagent for the said purpose. In view of large and varied demand for the
new methods to determine the metal ions, under specific conditions, the search for new
reagents is a continuous process. This exercise of finding new and novel reagents as
well as methods for inorganic analysis has a special significance in these days in view of
the alarming and complex problem of environmental pollution.
Isonicotinoylhydrazones of carbonyl compounds act as good analytical reagents, but
they have not been fully exploited. Hence, in the present investigation a detailed study of
these reagents has been made with a view to find out their potentialities in inorganic
analysis. Hydrazones are usually named after the carbonyl compounds from which they are
obtained. Isonicotinoyl hydrazones are the condensation products of isonicotinic acid
hydrazide and the carbonyl compounds. These isonicotinoyl hydrazones are prepared by
refluxing a mixture of isonicotinicacidhydrazide and the desired carbonyl compound for 2-3
h in slightly alkaline medium. The compound usually crystallizes out on cooling.
Many of physiologically active hydrazones find application5 in the treatment of
diseases like tuberculosis, leprosy and mental disorders. Hydrazones also act as herbicides,
insecticides, nematocides, rodenticides and plant growth regulators.
Isonicotinicacidhydrazide (INH) is an important antitubercular agent and has potential sites
for formation of complexes with metal ions. It is also observed, that isonicotinoyl
hydrazones and their metal complexes possess higher activity and lower resistivity to
tuberculosis bacteria. These reagents, apart from those specified above are also potential
analytical reagents for the determination of several metal ions by different physico-chemical
techniques, of which the spectrophotometric determination occupies a special place.
The analytical applications of hydrazones have reviewed by Singh6 and Katyal7. The
latest review was published in this area on 1982. In this, the author reviewed the papers
published on analytical potentialities of hydrazones up to 1980. After 1980 so many
researchers have worked on the analytical potentialities of hydrazones. Hydrazones have
both analytical and biological applications, which attract so many researchers. Because of so
much of work published in this area, we are interested to review the papers published on
analytical applications of hydrazones from 1980 to 2011. We have so much confidence that
this three decades survey is very useful to the scientists who are working in this area.
Biological Applications of Hydrazones and Their Metal Complexes
Interest in the study of hydrazones has been growing because of their antimicrobial,
antituberculosis and antitumor activities8,9. Hydrazones play an important role in inorganic
chemistry, as they easily form stable complexes with most of the transition metal ions. The
development of the field of bioinorganic chemistry has increased the interest in hydrazone
complexes, since it has been recognized that many of these complexes may serve as models
for biological important species10. Coordination compounds derived from aroylhydrazones
have been reported to act as enzyme inhibitors and are useful due to their pharmacological
applications11,12. Hydrazones possessing an azomethine ?NHN=CH- proton constitute an
important class of compounds for new drug development. Therefore, many researchers have
synthesized these compounds as target structures and evaluated their biological activities.
Hydrazones and their metal complexes are biologically very active compounds. For example
Ragavendran et al13 have reported anticonvulsant activity of 4-aminobutyricacidhydrazone,
Abdel-Aal et al14 have reported antiviral activity of N-arylaminoacetyl hydrazones against
Herper simplex virus-1 and Hepatitis-A virus(HAV), Walcourt et al15 have reported
antimalarial activity of 2-hydroxy-1-naphth-aldehydeisonicotinoyl hydrazone and Savini et
al16 have reported antitumor activity of 3- and 5-methyl -thiophene-2-carboxaldehyde
?-(N)heterocyclic hydrazone derivatives.
Some important hydrazones and their complexes with antibacterial activity reported
earlier are discussed here under.
Singh et al17 have reported the antibacterial activity of cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II),
copper(II) and cadmium(II) complexes of acetophe- none-4-aminobenzoylhydrazone and
4hydroxyacetophenone-4-aminobenzoylhydra- zone. The authors have evaluated the
antibacterial activity of these complexes against Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger.
They reported that at each concentration, copper(II) complexes are more active than zinc(II)
complexes with both the hydrazones. The antifungal activity of the metal complexes is less
than their parent ligands. Nora H. Al-Sha?alan18 has reported the antibacterial activity of
7chloro-4-(benzylidenehydrazo)quinoline and its complexes with copper(II), nickel(II),
cobalt(II), manganese(II) and iron(III). The author has evaluated the antibacterial activity
against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative bacteria (Escherichia
coli) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The ligand is also proved to be
biologically active. The author reported that chelation tends to make ligand to act as more
powerful and potent bactericidal agent.
Kucukguzel et al19 have reported antibacterial activity of 2,3,4-pent
aneotrione-3[4[[(5-nitro-2-furyl)methylenehydrazide]carbonyl]phenyl]-hydrazone against Staph -ylococcus
aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a concentration of 3.13 ?g mL-1. Gulerman et al20
have reported the in vivo metabolism of 4-fluorobenzoic acid (5-nitro-2-furyl)methylene
hydrazide which is effective against Staphylococcus aureus.
Sah and Peoples21 synthesized hydrazones by reacting isonicotinicacid hydrazide(INH)
with various aldehydes and ketones. These compounds are reported to have inhibitory
activity in mice infected by various strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ersan S et al22
have reported antimicrobial activity of N-[(?-methyl) benzilidene]-(3-substittuted
1,2,4triazol-5-yl-thio) acetohydrazides. The authors synthesized eighteen new hydrazones by
reacting ortho- or para- substituted acetophenones with
(3-substituted-1,2,4-triazol-5ylthio)acetohydrazide in ethanol.
The synthesized hydrazones are tested for antimicrobial activity. These compounds
exhibits only poor activity against gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and
Enterococcus faecalis) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas
aeruginosa). Moderate activity is observed against fungi Candida albicans, Candida
parapsilosis and Candida krusei. Ulusoy et al23 have reported the synthesis and antimicrobial
activity of N2-substituted alkylidene /arylidene-6-phenylimidazothiazole-3-aceticacidhydrazides.
These compounds show antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and
Staphylococcus epidermidis. (MIC is 25.0 ?g mL-1). Kucukguzel et al24 have reported the
synthesis and antibacterial activity of ethyl-2-arylhydrazone-3-oxobytyrates. These
compounds show significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus.
Rodriguez-Arguelles et al25 have reported the antibacterial activities of cobalt(II),
copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of 2-thiophenecarbonyl hydrazone and
isonicotinoylhydrazones of 3-(N-methyl)isatin. 2-thiophene carbonyl hydrazone metal
complexes exhibits a strong inhibition on the growth of Haemophilus infrenzae (MIC is
0.15-1.50 ?g mL-1) and good antibacterial activity towards Bacillus subtilis (MIC is 3.0-25.0
?g mL-1). The authors have reported that the antimicrobial activity of thiophene carbonyl
hydrazone derivatives is greater than that of the isonicotinoyl hydrazone derivatives. Loncle
et al26 have reported the antifungal activity of tosylhydrazone-cholesterol derivatives against
Candida albicans at a concentration of 1.0-5.0 ?g mL-1. Recently critical reviews have been
published by various authors on antibacterial activity of hydrazones27,28.
Analytical Applications of Hydrazones
Katiyer et al29 employed Orthohydroxybenzaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone for its chelatometric
properties with several metal ions. It precipitates nickel(II), zinc(II), palladium(II),
cerium(II) and copper(II) and also form soluble complexes with lead(II), iron(II),
cobalt(II), tin(II), vanadium(II), stabium(III), aluminium(III), iron(III), zinconium(IV) and
Salicylaldehydeisonicotinoylhydrazone30 is used for the spectrophotometric
determination of gallium(III) and indium(III). Dimethylaminobenzaldehydeisonicoti -noyl
hydrazone31 was employed for its selective detection of mercury(I) and mercury(II). All the
reagents which were used for the spectrophotometric determination of metals ions and the
established conditions like ?max, pH, validity of Beer?s law, molar absorptivity and the
composition are presented in Table 132-103. In this table we described about the reagents
which were used in the period of 1980 - 2011. Kavlentis employed Phthalaldehyde
bisguanylhydrazone104 for the determination of Co(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), 4-Dimethyl
aminobenzaldehdye isonicotinoylhydrazone105 for Arsenic(III) and Antimony(III),
Salicylaldehyde isonicotinoylhydrazone106 for Molybdenum(VI). Hydrazones were
extensively used for the spectrophotometric determination of metal ions during this period.
We gave the total description about all the papers published during this period about the
spectrophotometric determination of metal ions by using hydrazones as analytical reagents.
Chlorofor 85 m
Chlorofor 87 m
Chlorof orm 1296 Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu hydrazone
Most of the researchers were used the hydrazones as analytical reagents for the
determination of metal ions by using spectrophotometer, but few researchers considered
these hydrazones as spectrofluorimetric reagents also. ?- cyclodextrin-o-vanilinfurfural
hydrazone107 was used as spectrofluorimetric reagent for the determination of traces of
cadmium(II). Di-2-pyridylketone-2-furoylhydrazone was used for the determination of
gallium(III) by Salgado et al108. Orthovanillin furfural -hydrazone109 and
Orthovanilinfuroylhydrazone110 were used for the spectrofluori -metric determination of
Os(VIII) and Cd(II), respectively.
Based on the above information about the biological and analytical applications of
hydrazones it is concluded that the hydrazones are precious reagents in the determination of
metal ions in various environmental matrices. We believe that the three decades survey is
very useful to the future studies in this respect.
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