Novel Two-Dimensional (2-D) Defected Ground Array for Planar Circuits

Active and Passive Electronic Components, Jul 2018

This paper presents a novel two-dimensional (2-D) defected ground array (DGA) for planar circuits, which has horizontal and vertical periodicities of defect structure. The defected unit cell of DGA is composed of a Sierpinski carpet structure to improve the effective inductance. Measurements show that the proposed DGA provides steeper cutoff characteristics, lower cutoff frequency, and higher slow-wave factors than the conventional periodic defected ground structure in the same occupied surface.

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Novel Two-Dimensional (2-D) Defected Ground Array for Planar Circuits

International Journal of 0882-7516 NOVEL TWO-DIMENSIONAL (2-D) DEFECTED GROUND ARRAY FOR PLANAR CIRCUITS HAIWEN LIU = 0 1 XIAOWEI SUN 1 ZHENGFAN LI 0 0 Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University , P.O. Box 006, No. 1954, Huashan Rd., Shanghai 200030 , China 1 Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Shanghai 200050 , China This paper presents a novel two-dimensional (2-D) defected ground array (DGA) for planar circuits, which has horizontal and vertical periodicities of defect structure. The defected unit cell of DGA is composed of a Sierpinski carpet structure to improve the effective inductance. Measurements show that the proposed DGA provides steeper cutoff characteristics, lower cutoff frequency, and higher slow-wave factors than the conventional periodic defected ground structure in the same occupied surface. Defected ground array; Defected ground structure (DGS); Fractal; Cutoff frequency; Slow-wave factor INTRODUCTION The rapid development of three-dimensional microwave integrated circuits (MICs), microwave monolithic integrated circuits (MMICs), and multiplayer-oriented low-temperature cofired-ceramic (LTCC) fabrication and processing techniques in recent years has led to great interest being directed towards the design of high-quality planar circuits [ 1, 2 ]. Defected ground structure (DGS) for the microstrip line, which has etched defects in the backside metallic ground plane, is one recent hotspot of microwave circuit design [ 3, 4 ]. Compared to photonic bandgap (PBG) [5], DGS has a simple structure and potentially great applicability to design microwave circuits. Two of the most important characteristics of DGS are bandgap and high slow-wave effects, which are caused by the equivalent L-C components [ 3 ]. The microstrip lines with DGS have much higher impedance and increased slow-wave factor than conventional lines. Thus, the planar circuits can be reduced greatly while their performances keep well. One-dimensional (1-D) periodic DGS have been reported and applied to amplifiers [ 6 ], oscillators [ 7 ] and coplanar waveguide [ 8 ]. In this letter, a novel two-dimensional (2-D) defected-ground array (DGA) for planar circuits is proposed. The defected unit cell of DGA is composed of a Sierpinski carpet structure to improve the effective inductance. The proposed DGA is true 2-D structure which has vertical and horizontal periodicities of defected structure. Therefore, it has more degrees of freedom in terms of dimensions than the previous 1-D DGS. Measurements show that more excellent bandgap characteristics and higher slow-wave factors can be obtained from the proposed DGA than the existing periodic DGS in the same occupied surface. 2 FRACTAL DEFECTED GROUND STRUCTURE AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS Electromagnetic simulation for the fractal and dumbbell DGS. Microstrip line with DGA on the ground plane. defected unit cell possesses some self-similarity, just like a Sierpinski carpet, and shows some fractal characteristics [ 5 ]. The substrate for simulation is RT=Duroid 5880 with 31 mil of thickness and a dielectric constant er of 2.22. The line width w is chosen for the characteristics impendance of 50 O microstrip line. Figure 2 shows the electromagnetic (EM) simulation of transmission characteristics of microstrip lines with DGS described in Figure 1. The simulation shows the attenuation poles of the fractal DGS shift lower than that of the dumbbell DGS in the same occupied surface. Moreover, the slope of cutoff characteristics of the fractal DGS is steeper than that of the dumbbell DGS. So, the proposed fractal DGS has better bandgap characteristics. Additionally, the bandgap characteristics can be adjusted by the ratio of a1:a2. Electromagnetic simulation is using Sonnet 8.0. STRUCTURE OF DEFECTED-GROUND ARRAY The above analysis shows that the proposed DGA can provide the size reduction of microstrip structure and bandgap characteristics more efficiently than the conventional periodic DGS. 5 CONCLUSIONS A new 2-D DGA for planar circuits has been proposed in this paper, and has horizontal and vertical periodicities of defected structure. The defected unit cell of DGA is composed of a Sierpinski carpet structure to improve the effective inductance. Results show that the proposed DGA provides steep cutoff characteristics, low cutoff frequency, and high slowwave factors for planar circuits. 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Haiwen Liu, Xiaowei Sun, Zhengfan Li. Novel Two-Dimensional (2-D) Defected Ground Array for Planar Circuits, Active and Passive Electronic Components, DOI: 10.1080/08827510310001616876