Creating Multicultural Music Opportunities in Teacher Education: Sharing Diversity through Songs
Creating Multicultural Music Opportunities in Teacher Education: Sharing Diversity through
Deakin University 0 1
Alberto Cabedo Mas 0 1
0 RMIT University
1 Universitat Jaume I of Castello? , Spain
Creating Multicultural Music Opportunities in Teacher Education:
Sharing diversity through Songs
Alberto Cabedo Mas
Universitat Jaume I of Castell?, Spain
Abstract: This paper contributes to the knowledge base for preparing
pre-service teachers (PSTs) for contemporary multicultural
classrooms. To do so, we refer to our ongoing project ?See, Listen
and Share: Exploring intercultural music education in a transnational
experience? across three Higher Education sites (Australia and
Spain). Drawing on our narrative, and PSTs? questionnaire data,
using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to analyze and code
the PST data, we report on our initial experience and findings across
the three sites and cultural contexts. Generalisations to other
institutions cannot be made. We discuss what was taught and how it
was taught in our three settings, highlighting some key highs in
relation to enjoyment, and learning from culture bearers and some
lows in relation to language and accompaniment. We contend that
music education in teacher education courses may serve as an
effective vehicle to explore cultural expressions, enabling positive
attitudes towards cultural diversity.
Higher education institutions across the globe are increasingly becoming more
regulated on a number of fronts in relation to new forms of knowledge, pedagogies,
assessment, learning engagement and quality assurance
. Hence, academics are
challenged to strike the right balance between higher education governance, and curriculum
and pedagogy matters regarding their teacher education courses (programs/degrees). Tertiary
teacher educators are expected to consider the quality of their work in relation to
contemporary classrooms practice intersecting with 21st century innovation and diverse
student needs. In the mix, society and schools are becoming increasingly multicultural and
multilingual as globalization contributes to our diverse classrooms. In Australia for example,
the Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL) and Initial Teacher
Education (ITE) providers ensure that teacher education program standards are met and relate
to the Professional Standards for Teachers
. These standards include quality
teaching for diverse multicultural classrooms. Therefore, as tertiary music educators we are
called to prepare pre-service teachers (PSTs) to be culturally responsive through our music
units (subjects) as they will face multicultural classrooms. The notion of multiculturalism and
multicultural education is not a new phenomenon. Broadly, the term multiculturalism
personifies respect for diversity and acceptance of difference
(Henry & Kurzak, 2013;
. Almost two decades ago, Gay and Howard (2000) outlined the need for
professional preparation for multicultural teacher education and suggested approaches to
better accomplish them which we still draw on today. Although it is beyond the scope of this
paper to debate issues concerning multiculturalism, we concur with
Banks and Banks (2002)
that multiculturalism is an essential component of quality teacher education.
In the process of preparing quality teachers it is essential to provide quality education
to PSTs where standards are met and maintained
. In a recent
report for the Australian Council for Education Research,
Ingvarson et al. (2014)
that ITE has a central and crucial role to play in providing high quality teaching in
classrooms. In this, teacher education institutions are the starting point for quality teachers
(McArdle, 2010; Mayer et al., 2015;)
, and teacher educators play a major role in this process
as experts in the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and attributes required for
preparing good teachers (McArdle, 2010). An essential part of our remit as tertiary educators
is preparing our pre-service teachers? (PSTs) for tomorrow?s classrooms, raising awareness
about diversity, discrimination and differences. Through education we have the capacity to
raise awareness of difference and strengthen ?the foundations of tolerance, reducing
discrimination and violence, and learning to live together
. We contend that
music as a language and a cultural expression may contribute to interpersonal and social
. Research in music education undertaken by the authors have
shown that music contributes towards intercultural understanding in education settings
(Joseph, 2012; Cabedo-Mas, 2015; Cabedo-Mas, Nethsinghe & Forrest, 2017)
. In addition a
plethora of research has been undertaken globally that shows that music fosters a sense of
community, celebrating diversity and positive coexistence. As tertiary educators, we see our
role as agents of change through our discipline of music education, and we include
multicultural music as an important aspect of teacher education in relation to curriculum
development, its relevance and representation
, one of the major roles for music and arts education is
the need to ?support and enhance the role of arts education [music] in the promotion of social
responsibility, social cohesion, cultural diversity and intercultural dialogue? (p. 10). Through
music making, intercultural awareness can be celebrated as a positive way to promote
cultural understandings of difference, equipping our PSTs for future multicultural
classrooms. Music is a form of cultural expression
and learning music
with its cultural context from foreign countries may increase cultural understandings of
. It is hoped that our PSTs may ?become sensitive to other
students from other cultures? as we live in an increasingly multicultural society where
migration is common
(Mohd Maasuma, et al., 2014, p. 101)
. Chen-Hafteck (2016, p. 247)
recommends integrating music of diverse cultures in the curriculum as we prepare students to
be ?good citizens of the world who appreciate people from diverse cultures?. By embracing a
range of music and genres through song
(Anderson & Campbell, 2010; Chen-Hafteck &
Crawford, 2013; Kim & Yoon, 2015; Joseph, 2016; Lee, 2017)
, we have the possibility of
crossing borders locally and internationally without a visa. In educational settings (schools,
universities and communities), research has also shown the importance and need to engage
culture bearers in the process of providing multicultural music education as an effective and
authentic method of teaching multicultural music
(Campbell, 2004; Boshkoff & Gault, 2010;
Nethsinghe 2012; 2013; 2015; Joseph & Southcott, 2013; Joseph, 2014; Grant, 2014; Lum &
. In teacher education courses, music education may be used as a cultural practice
that goes beyond the aesthetical dimensions of societies and includes multicultural and
intercultural understandings for both teacher and student. From this stance, as authors from
diverse cultural backgrounds, we attempted a collaborative project, engaging our PSTs and
ourselves in a journey to create multicultural music opportunities by sharing diversity in our
teacher education programs.
This paper focuses on our ongoing research project See, Listen and Share: Exploring
intercultural music education in a transnational experience. The wider project investigates
how music education can be seen as a means of cultural and social appreciation by
undertaking multicultural musical experiences in the classroom. The aims of the wider study
explore national and international curricula in arts education to provide a reflection on
how the music and the arts can be addressed as a tool to improve intercultural
understanding within education.
? promote shared educational practices that include music teaching and learning with
pre-service early childhood, primary and secondary teachers, to guarantee the
acknowledgment of cultural positive experiences by engaging with music.
? promote the international share of ideas, values and beliefs about music as a cultural
practice enabling the exchange of teaching and learning experiences of Australian
students with international students.
? gather student feedback on how music enhances intercultural understanding that can
be used in the classrooms.
In this paper, we focus on PSTs? perceptions of multicultural music teaching and
learning with our generalist pre-service teachers in different geographical and cultural
contexts across three universities in two countries (Australia and Spain). Using PST
questionnaire data (2017) and our narratives as culture bearers teaching a Sri-Lankan, South
African and Spanish song, we firmly believe that the act of ?seeing, listening and sharing?,
may help our PSTs plan, practice and present music lessons in their multicultural classrooms
as generalist teachers. Our initial findings highlight ?what was taught? and ?how it was
taught? in relation to the music workshops, which included a combination of face-to-face and
online teaching via Skype.
Higher education institutions are creating a hybrid of teaching pedagogies that
combine e-learning and traditional classroom methods. Increasingly, the use of technology
has ?fundamentally altered the practice of distance teaching and learning?
Elloumi, 2004, p. ix)
, and although this debate is not the focus of this paper, we agree that
common words used to describe the online teaching and learning environment include
?elearning, Internet learning, distributed learning, networked learning, tele-learning, virtual
learning, computer-assisted learning, Web-based learning, and distance learning?
& Elloumi, 2004, p. 4)
. Research has shown that this approach uses ?blended learning? as an
effective way to achieve better learning outcomes
(Baldwin-Evans, 2006; Harris, Connolly &
Feeney, 2009; Mitchell & Honore, 2007; Poon, 2013)
, it is also a cost-effective measure for
higher institutions (Joseph, 2017). Progressively, blended teaching and learning in higher
education is becoming the norm as more universities include face-to-face interactions and
technologically mediated interaction such as Skype
(Bliuc, Goodyear & Ellis, 2007)
current study used a blended delivery approach where the ?onsite? tertiary music educator
facilitated the face-to face class whilst the ?online? music educator joined the class via Skype.
This multilateral music education engagement with non-music PSTs occurred as a first
between two countries.
Setting the Scene: University Sites and Academics
This ongoing project takes place across two cities (Melbourne and Castell? de la
Plana) with three academics (Alberto, Dawn and Rohan). Alberto is a Spanish national, hence
familiar to his place of work, students and environment whereas Rohan and Dawn
immigrated to Australia. As naturalized Australian citizens they continue to learn more of
their new place of stay and work. Dawn was born in South Africa, is fluent in English and
Afrikaans, and dabbles with some of the African languages (Zulu and Tswana). Rohan was
born in Sri-Lanka, is fluent in five languages (English, Tamil, Sinhalese, Russian, Ukrainian),
and Alberto is fluent in both Spanish and Catalan, speaks English and can communicate in
The Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) University was established in
1887 initially as a Working Men?s College. RMIT is a dual sector (vocational and higher)
education provider that has over 83,000 students currently enrolled in its courses
. Only PSTs undertaking the Bachelor of Education (Primary and Early
Childhood Education) participated in this research. The Bachelor of Education (B Ed) is
offered across four years and includes 32 units. Two core Arts units are offered for first year
and second year students where all five areas of the Arts (Music, Dance, Drama, Visual Arts
and Media Arts) recommended for primary school teaching in the Australian curriculum are
taught. This paper draws on data from the first-year PSTs undertaking Introduction to Arts
Education during their second semester in 2016. In this unit, PSTs engaged in hands-on
learning activities in the Arts and also engaged in inclusive and multicultural music teaching
and learning that prepares them for primary school teaching as generalist teachers.
Deakin University was established in 1974, and in 1991 the Burwood campus
(Melbourne) was founded. The university has over 53,000 students domestic and 8000+
(Deakin University, 2017)
. The Bachelor of Education (Primary) (B.Ed
[Prim]) is the flagship course in teacher education within the Faculty of Arts and Education.
The B.Ed (Prim) is a 32 unit course across four years of study. Within the course, two units
are core in regard to Arts Education. The first, Primary Arts Education, is undertaken in the
second year of study and the second unit, Primary Arts Education: Focused Study, which is
the focus of this paper, is undertaken in the fourth year of study. Weekly students engage in
practical hands-on music teaching and learning that prepares them as generalist teachers for
the primary classroom. The unit material focuses on Orff, Kod?ly, Dalcroze, creative music
approaches to teaching and learning, and multicultural music.
The University Jaume I was established in 1991 in the Mediterranean city of
Castell?n de la Plana, between the major Spanish cities of Valencia and Barcelona. The
university has around 15,000 students and delivers 31 different undergraduate bachelor
courses and over 60 master?s courses
(Universitat Jaume, 2017)
. The Bachelor of Early
Childhood Education is a four-year course that includes two core units in Arts Education, one
focused on Music Education and the other on Visual Arts Education. This research was
conducted with PSTs in the Music Education unit (Foundations and Didactics of the Musical
Expression) during their third year of study. In this unit, PSTs develop their musical expertise
with a focus on performing, listening, creating and basic theory of music. In addition, they
explore different approaches to music teaching and learning.
We gained ethical clearance through our institutions? Human Ethics Committees to
undertake the wider project See, listen and share: Cultural practices in music teaching and
learning across three sites. The project is explanatory, exploratory and descriptive and
employs case study methodology
. We draw on three sites as multiple cases to
enable us to explore differences and similarities between our collective cases
. Case studies ?enable the researcher to answer ?how? and ?why? type questions,
while taking into consideration how a phenomenon is influenced by the context within which
it is situated?
(Baxter & Jack, 2008, p. 556)
. We were interested in exploring non-music
specialist PSTs? perceptions of multicultural teaching and learning. The online
questionnaire/survey took place in 2017 where we gathered quantitative and qualitative data
through Google Docs as our instrument. The survey was trialled to ensure the online system
worked before our PSTs participated. The survey took approximately 10-15min to complete.
The authors each invited their PSTs to participate in the research project. All PSTs
were initially emailed the Plain Language Statement and Consent Form (PLSCF) which
outlined the project and included sample questions such as:
? Did you find it challenging to perform music from another culture?
? Would you consider teaching this song you learnt in a primary class? Give reasons.
? Do you think that learning music from other cultures may enhance intercultural
understanding? Give reasons.
? Explain how did you engage with the activity?
? How can music be a vehicle for intercultural understanding and promoting positive
coexistence in and beyond the classroom?
In addition, we also explained the project and process face-to-face with our PSTs, giving
them the opportunity to ask questions if there were any concerns, before participating. The
online survey clearly indicated at the start ?By completing this questionnaire and submitting
it, you will be consenting to participating in the research study?. We used Interpretative
Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to code and analyse the data which was also influenced by
the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and reflection. IPA explored the lifeworlds
and perceptions of our students
(Smith & Osborn, 2003; Smith, Flowers & Larkin, 2013;
Callary, Rathwell & Young, 2015)
. After reading and re-reading the survey data, we
thematically grouped the findings into broad overarching themes
(Biggerstaff & Thompson,
2008; Eatough & Smith 2006; Kirn, et al., 2017)
. We identified patterns that emerged which
became categories for our analysis
(Fereday & Muir-Cochrane, 2006)
. This also correlated
with our debriefing after our teaching episodes
. For this paper, we only report
on two overarching themes of the research: what was taught in relation to multicultural music
and how it was taught. We offer our voices as we interpret and reflect on our teaching and
learning experience across the three universities sites. In keeping with IPA, we use direct
quotations from the questionnaire data to illustrate what PSTs were saying
Reynolds, 2011; Dallos & Vetere, 2006)
. We acknowledge the limitation of this small
sample; therefore, no statistical inferences nor generalisations can be made to other
We did not use the same songs across the three sites as all three authors are still to teach the
same song across our three institutions. Rather, we each taught a song from our land of birth
as culture bearers. Table 1 outlines the number of participants, staff, and times of the music
workshops undertaken at each university site 2016 -2017. As gender was not the focus of the
study, the majority of the PSTs across the three sites were female.
Jaume I of
2 (Rohan and
3 (Dawn, Alberto,
2 (Alberto and
At Site 1, two multicultural music classes took place on the day in September 2016;
the first at 8.30-11.30 pm and the second from 12:30-3:30pm. Rohan facilitated both classes
with Alberto teaching a Spanish song Baila la jota via Skype for an hour at each of his
classes. Alberto started his section at both classes by providing an introduction to Spanish
traditional music and dance including the Jota dance. For his song, the PSTs mainly played
percussion instruments (such as shakers, castanets and cabasas) and some played chords on
ukuleles to accompany their singing. Students undertaking Introduction to Arts Education
course learn to play rhythmic instruments in their performing arts component of the course
especially when studying ?rhythms of the world?. Students were taught how to play the
accompaniment of the song Baila la jota by Rohan. This was done using the PowerPoint
slides that Alberto prepared, sent ahead of time. Alberto taught the Spanish pronunciation of
the words and the song was sung after a number of rehearsals where PSTs sang and played
accompaniments on their selected instruments.
At Site 2, PSTs undertaking the unit Primary Arts Education: Focused Study engage
in eclectic music pedagogies and learn music from different lands. The multicultural
workshop took place in April 2017 with two classes. Dawn and her sessional taught the
9am12 noon class (face-to-face), and Alberto co-taught with Dawn and via skype the 1-4pm class
which was facilitated by Dawn. At Site 2, a range of songs were taught from different lands:
Haida (Israeli song round with dance), Inanay (Indigenous Australian ?Yorta Yorta? language
with harmony), Sing Song Saya (Malay-Indonesian song with actions), Janie Mama
(Jamaican calypso with movement), Four White Horses (song from the Virgin Islands with
movement), Ra Sila Mielie (South African, Pedi language work song) and Pi??n, Pi??n
Pi??n (Spanish traditional children?s song with instruments). To assist students with the
words, short songs were taught by rote, and some songs were displayed via the projector or
hard copies were in handed out. Alberto prepared PowerPoint slides to teach about Spanish
music and culture and Dawn did the same for the South African song she taught. For the
Spanish song Pi??n, Pi??n Pi??n, non-melodic percussion and ukuleles were used whereas
body percussion and movement were employed for the South African song Ra Sila Mielie.
At Site 3, multicultural songs are included throughout PSTs? musical training, by
singing and learning songs from different Spanish cultures (Catalan, Basque, Andalusian,
Castilian, etc.), and other parts of the globe, along with discussion about lyrics, forms and
cultural contexts associated to them. The PSTs in the unit Foundations and Didactics of the
Musical Expression experienced learning a Sri-Lankan lullaby taught by Rohan. Two
multicultural classes took place in November 2016. The first from 4-6pm and the second
from 6-8pm. Both two-hour workshops with Rohan via Skype were taught to two cohorts of
PSTs (27 and 12), and was facilitated by Alberto. Prior to the class, PSTs were asked to
research about Sri-Lanka, and they found it enlightening to listen to Rohan talk about some
of the cultural features of the country. The song Dhoi Amma was learnt through repeating the
lyrics; once learnt it was sung and performed with different instruments (ukulele, shakers,
different drums), body percussion or various bodies transformed into musical instruments
(tables, chairs). The educational approach consisted of repeating and ?learning by doing?, and
the use of occasional mnemonics to consolidate complicated rhythmic patterns allowed the
students to collectively perform the piece with significant musical quality in a short space of
time. Rohan prepared PowerPoint slides to reinforce the learning of lyrics, structures and
rhythms. Little or no verbal instructions regarding how to play were given throughout the
Site 1: RMIT University
What did the PSTs say in relation to multicultural songs?
It is no surprise that all PSTs said that they enjoyed learning multicultural songs. They also
stated that they ?got to know interesting things about Spanish culture? as a result of learning
the song and especially the jota dance. Expressing their opinions regarding this learning
experience one PST aptly summed up the experience by saying:
it allowed us to access culturally diverse aspects of music, giving us a
greater context for when we use music like this in our classroom. It
gave us firsthand experience from someone from within the culture,
something we wouldn't have been able to achieve without this
Another stated that ?it?s good to educate students about different cultures using music, the
world is forever changing and our country is becoming more and more multicultural?. A
different perspective was offered by another PST who pointed out that ?presenting a
culturally diverse teaching plan helps us to create an inclusive and safe environment for all
children in the class?.
What did PSTs say in relation to how it was taught?
In relation to the Spanish song taught, Rohan rehearsed the chord work and the
rhythmic accompaniment with the PSTs before Alberto connected on the day via Skype. This
proved advantageous from feedback received during the workshop. The lyrics were displayed
on the whiteboard and were guided and taught by Alberto. Although most PSTs struggled to
pronounce the Spanish words properly, one in the first class and three in the second class
spoke Spanish, which helped as they assisted some of their peers with the pronunciation of
some words. Only a very few managed to learn and memorize the lyrics during the short
interaction with Alberto. Most of them found it challenging to keep up with the tempo when
they sang and played the instruments. Overall, they all highly enjoyed this experience and
mentioned learning multicultural music ?was very interesting? and they all ?had fun?.
However, there were some technological issues such as interruptions with Skype and all
PSTs suggested that we should have learnt the lyrics separately with Alberto at a different
time. This was summed up by one PST who said ?the most challenging part was getting the
Spanish words right?. In the main, the PSTs found learning the song an achievable activity,
one said ?it was more enjoyable that we were in a fun and comfortable environment with
patient teachers?. The PSTs recognized the 9-hour time difference between Spain and
Australia and all appreciated that Alberto taught them online in the middle of his night which
contributed to their multicultural music learning. One aptly summed up the experience by
saying ?It?s a breath of fresh air?.
Site 2: Deakin University
What did the PSTs say in relation to multicultural songs?
Overwhelmingly, all PSTs said that learning music from other cultures may enhance
intercultural understanding. They gave reasons for this in relation to songs. One PST said
?because there are stories behind songs that help us better understand the culture?, another
said ?like that of the African song, it opens up avenues for you to expand/broaden students?
understanding?. This was agreed to by another PTS who said ?learning music from other
cultures would enhance intercultural understanding?. It seemed that ?song? was an effective
medium to promote intercultural understandings as one PST identified ?songs can convey
traditional story-telling and important cultural influences that children may not process in
other ways?. When asked what did PSTs find easier when learning about multicultural music
most said ?singing?. Participations as a group seemed to impact on confidence as one
remarked ?being part of whole class singing and moving? made a difference. The group had
attended four prior classes and were forming a group/class dynamic. Comments such as
?singing in a group?, ?doing movement?, ?creating body percussion? and doing ?rhythms
with our bodies? suggest PSTs felt confident to explore and engage in a new language and
culture ?as a group?. Overall this was summed up by one PST who found the experience of
singing music from other lands ?easy to incorporate? into the primary classroom. In this way,
PSTs also learnt about including ?culture and diversity through music in the classroom?.
What did PSTs say in relation to how it was taught?
It was apparent that Dawn and Alberto had similar ways of teaching. They used their
voices to teach line by line and through call and response. In addition, Dawn used the piano
and Alberto used the ukulele to accompany the songs. One PST specifically found ?going
through each section of the lyrics first before singing it and having simple actions to go with
it? made it easier to sing the African song. Another found ?repeating words after the teacher
has sung them? seemed to makes a difference especially when the song was in another
language as one remarked ?trying to sing in Spanish, as I am NOT fluent? was challenging.
Other said, for the African song ?singing and moving at the same time was challenging?. The
difficulty of the African and Spanish songs lies more in the pronunciation of the words than
the melody itself. Handing out the words of the Spanish song ahead of time helped, although
all PSTs found ?pronouncing the words? and remembering how to sing the lyrics rather
difficult. For the African song ?initially singing without words? was difficult but learning it
through call and response was easier as the words and melody were repetitive. One PST
found ?going through each section of the lyrics first before singing it and having simple
actions to go with it? made it easy to learn. Overall most students felt that singing the songs
in ?the different languages were difficult but fun!?. Learning via Skype was a new
experience. Alberto trying to sing along with us and we with him proved at times
unsatisfactory because of the time lag. Although the words where not easy for the PSTs, the
ukulele accompaniment was far easier. Overall, the experience was most rewarding for all
concerned and they successfully performed the African and Spanish song with much gusto!
Site 3: University Jaume I of Castellon
What did the PSTs say in relation to multicultural songs?
It was evident from the responses that all PSTs value multicultural education as an
important aspect of PSTs training. They acknowledged a strong awareness of the
multicultural society they live in and therefore they will work in inherently multicultural
schools with multicultural cohorts. Standing for the importance to avoid homogenization in
teaching, one student stated that ?it is important to leave segregation behind in our classroom
and to encourage an education for all, celebrating the diversity?. Together with the Australian
students, all the Spanish students reported agreement with the possibilities of music making
to learn about and from different cultures. Some PSTs specified that ?while learning things
[musics] about other cultures we can understand better other people?, and also ?it enhances
your curiosity about these and other cultures?. One of the PSTs highlighted that she found the
experience interesting to play a multicultural song as it enabled her to ?improve the
intercultural comprehension/understanding?. This was a different experience ?because she
did [it] by herself, this is, by practicing. It was not explained merely [it was] in a theoretical
lesson?. Although there may have been a language barrier as the PSTs do not normally
communicate in English and sometimes struggled to understand Rohan, they all reported they
felt very comfortable with the whole experience, and enjoyed listening to and asking Rohan
questions. They acknowledged a great increase in their knowledge of Sri-Lanka and meeting
Rohan had shaped and enriched their pre-conceptions about Sri-Lankans. Most of them
expressed they would definitely consider teaching Dhoi Amma in their future classrooms.
What did PSTs say in relation to how it was taught?
The way the songs were taught generated feelings of ?enjoyment? at both classes. In general,
the PSTs liked how the song was taught in relation to ?pronunciation of the words? ?the
tune? and ?accompaniment?. They reported that they overcame their previous conceptions,
finding the song much easier to play than they expected. Although pronouncing the
SriLankan language was tricky as there were no native speakers in the class, some PSTs
expressed ?learning the lyrics and singing as the easiest?. PSTs found combining the
performance of certain rhythms they were not used to, with singing in a different language, as
the most challenging. Although they were required to learn new chords on the ukulele and
other percussion instruments that they had never used before, they did not note any
difficulties in this regard. However, they noticed the fact that, in short time, they were able to
learn and perform a new song they felt strongly differed from their own music which proved
most satisfying and uplifting.
The inclusion of multicultural music in our teaching through songs are twofold.
Firstly, it is our intrinsic passion to share music and culture from the lands we come from
with our PSTs and secondly as tertiary music educators, we do so in response to curriculum
reform. In Spain for example, the 1990s-educational reform of the Organic Law of General
Organization of the Education System?s illuminated new concepts in music education. This
included musics that came mainly from traditional folk music of the Autonomous
(Ibarretxe & D?az, 2008)
, and rapidly adapted Spanish music education to the
then global trends in music education. A large aspect of this was acknowledging and
including multicultural music education as a part of the curricula. However, music teachers
often lack the training to teach multicultural music when attempting to incorporate the
musical and cultural realities of immigrant students into the music classroom (Ibarretxe,
2005). In Australia, we are now called to include Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
histories and cultures, hence we also strongly feel the need to include multicultural music
from ?other lands? in order to provide intercultural understandings
as PSTs will teach predominantly multiracial cohorts. How we prepare PSTs as tertiary
educators, as Milner (2010) points out, is critical to PSTs success in the classroom and in
effect in our wider society. We believe that, through this small intervention across the three
sites, we have opened up our PST?s minds eye and ear for them to move beyond the notion of
cultural diversity in schools being merely ?limited to eating food from different cultures?
(Hancocks, 2016, p. 16)
, but rather recognizing that the inclusion of songs from different
lands can be the bridge that strengthens social cohesion and diversity, ?fostering identity,
affirming multiple ways of knowing, and validating culture and heritage?
(Walter, 2017, p.
Creating the opportunity for multicultural songs and exploring aspects of diversity
from our different lands with our PSTs was an uplifting experience through a practical and
hands-on praxial approach
. As there was no cultural conflict or concern of
, key themes that emerged from the IPA analysis of the data were ?fun?,
?enjoyable?, ?enriching?, ?challenging?, ?authentic? and ?refreshing?. Across the sites, the
one-off workshops were seen as an introduction to the wide world of multicultural music.
Although multicultural music education activities are ?old hat? in classrooms
1983; Elliott, 1989; Volk, 1998)
, introducing a wide range of musics in teaching is always a
challenge for both teacher and student, as we have found in this study. Our PSTs recognized
the value of the experience and realized through singing, children come to ?understand music
from different cultures? and they also ?experience what it feels like to sing in another
language?. The experience of singing in a foreign language places everyone on the same
playing level field, although, from the three Sites, only four PSTs at Site 1 had Spanish
language speaking abilities. Nevertheless, across the three Sites, PSTs managed with much
laughter to initially get by the words and at the end sing confidently.
The joy of seeing faces light up and ?giving it a go? was a positive sign for this
cultural exchange to occur. The ?live engagement? arranged via Skype with a ?culture bearer?
was different and new to our PSTs and ourselves as facilitators across the sites. Learning a
Spanish song from a Spanish person sitting in Spain in real time made the experience even
more ?authentic? and vice versa with Rohan a Sri-Lankan national teaching his song to
Alberto?s Spanish PSTs. For Dawn, teaching the South African song face-to-face was
different for the PSTs as this was the first time she had taught them, hence a new experience
for them to see an Indian looking person teach an African song. Our exchange of teaching
and learning authenticated the multicultural music learning activity
(Green, 2005; Nettl,
. The ?live engagement? of receiving teacher-directed instructions gave our PSTs the
opportunity to also ask questions and receive instant feedback via Skype, or in person from
the three facilitators. As tertiary music educators, we are called to prepare our PSTs for 21st
century classrooms, hence the ICT (Skype) cultural exchange was explored and experienced
first-hand ?in-action? with all its ?ups and downs? that we each experienced on the day!
Upon reflection, our experience focused on exploring pedagogical approaches that
support the need to understand both musical and cultural practices when teaching songs. By
creating a transnational approach in our wider project, this study enabled PSTs to learn about
traditional music and culture from a local ?culture bearer?, and it also opened up a new space
for us as tertiary music educators? to explore collaborative approaches to teaching music from
different lands when using a blended approach. Although we had a limited amount of time to
engage our PSTs, we agree with
that teachers do not feel competent teaching
unfamiliar musics that may not have been part of their initial and continuous training.
Across the sites, our PSTs recognized the value of the short immersion, and the
significant impact they can have in their future classrooms. PSTs realized through singing,
children come to ?understand music from different cultures? and they also ?experience what
if feels like to sing in another language?. This places everyone on the same playing level field
in relation to the difficulty of singing or speaking in a language that is not your mother
tongue. Across the sites it was apparent that the lyrics were the hardest to learn for the
Australian and Spanish PSTs, although the playing of instruments proved easier! Although
the songs were short in length, they presented a challenge for all concerned due to the time
constraint. In hindsight, this will be done differently for the next round of teaching across the
sites. Further, we may consider another platform instead of Skype in future as there were time
lags across the countries which proved a major hurdle. Nonetheless, being taught the song by
a native speaker seemed to validate the experience despite linguistic or technical difficulties.
The notion of ?learning by doing? also provided an authentic pedagogical way to teach the
songs. The experience, although short and simple, allowed both PSTs and authors to travel to
a new and different land through song.
We acknowledge that the teaching and learning experience across the three
universities was a ?one-off? and experience therefore generalizations cannot be made to other
universities or contexts. Although the small sample is a limitation in itself, the findings
suggest that more time be spent in class on teaching about multicultural music where PSTs
can have the opportunity to micro teach songs from other lands in-class with their peers. The
one-off experience is not sufficient to promote intercultural understandings of ?tolerance and
(Abril, 2006, p. 40)
. Further research needs to be undertaken where the PSTs
have a chance to teach the songs learnt from the authors with ?real children? when on a
placement. Furthermore, the ?sense of community? could be expanded by enabling Australian
students to teach their songs to the Spanish and vice-versa. As tertiary music educators, we
are challenged to prepare our PSTs teachers with the necessary skills, competencies,
understandings, knowledge and experiences where multicultural music can be included in
general classrooms. Thus, there is a need for sustained research in this area
. We agree with
Han & Singh (2007
, p. 308) that there is a ?substantial
difference between actually walking the roads of? other languages, scripts, theories,
philosophies and? legitimating the authentic voice?knowledge?of the other? and call for
more tertiary teacher education courses to consider songs from different lands as an effective
platform to explore diversity where creating multicultural music opportunities in teacher
education strengthens and embraces diversity.
Abril , C. R. ( 2006 ). Learning outcomes of two approaches to multicultural music education . International Journal of Music Education , 24 ( 1 ), 30 - 42 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761406063103
Anderson , T. & Elloumi , F . (Eds.). ( 2004 ). Theory and practice of online learning . Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press.
Anderson , W.M. , & Campbell , P.S. (Eds.). ( 2010 ). Multicultural perspectives in music education (Vol. 3 ). Plymouth, England: Rowman & Littlefield Education .
Australian Curriculum ( 2017 ). The Arts: Aims . Retrieved from https://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/f-10 -curriculum/ the-arts/music/aims/
Bahr , N. ( 2016 ). Building Quality in Teaching and Teacher Education . Victoria, Australia: ACER Press.
Baldwin-Evans , K. ( 2006 ). Key steps to implementing a successful blended learning strategy . Industrial and Commercial Training , 38 ( 3 ), 156 - 163 . https://doi.org/10.1108/00197850610659427
Banks , J. A. , & Banks , C. A. M. (Eds.). ( 2002 ). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education (2nd ed.) . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Baxter , P. , & Jack , S. ( 2008 ). Qualitative case study methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers . The Qualitative Report , 13 ( 4 ), 544 - 559 .
Biggerstaff , D. , & Thompson , A. R. ( 2008 ). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA): a qualitative methodology of choice in healthcare research . Qualitative Research in Psychology, 5 ( 3 ), 214 - 224 . https://doi.org/10.1080/14780880802314304
Bliuc , A.M. , Goodyear , P. , & Ellis , R. A. ( 2007 ). Research focus and methodological choices in studies into students' experiences of blended learning in higher education . The Internet and Higher Education , 10 ( 1 ), 231 - 244 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iheduc. 2007 . 08 .001
Boshkoff , R. O. , Gault B. M. ( 2010 ). Cultural bearers in the children's choral ensemble . In Clements A. C. (Ed.), Alternative approaches in music education: Case studies in the field (pp. 189 - 199 ). Lanham, MD: National Association for Music Education / Rowman & Littlefield Education .
Cabedo-Mas , A. ( 2015 ). Challenges and perspectives of peace education in schools: The role of music . Australian Journal of Music Education , 1 , 75 - 85 .
Cabedo-Mas , A. , Nethsinghe , R. , & Forrest , D. ( 2017 ). The role of the arts in education for peacebuilding, diversity and intercultural understanding: A comparative study of educational policies in Australia and Spain . International Journal of Education & the Arts , 18 ( 11 ).
Callary , B. , Rathwell , S. , & Young , B. W. ( 2015 ). Insights on the Process of Using Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis in a Sport Coaching Research Project . The Qualitative Report , 20 ( 2 ), 63 - 75 .
Campbell , P. S. ( 2004 ). Teaching music globally: Experiencing music, expressing culture . New York: Oxford University Press.
Chen-Hafteck , L. ( 2016 ). Connecting music and cultural in education: Increasing our musical and cultural understanding . International Yearbook of Research in Arts Education , 4 ( 2016 ), 247 - 254 .
Chen-Hafteck , L. , & Crawford , L. ( 2013 ). Singing and cultural understanding: A music education perspective . International Journal of Music Education , 32 ( 2 ), 202 - 216 .
Clauss-Ehlers , C. S. (Ed.). ( 2010 ). Encyclopedia of cross-cultural school psychology . New York, NY: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0- 387 -71799-9
Dallos , R. & Vetere , A. ( 2006 ). Researching Psychotherapy and Counselling . Berkshire, England: Open University Press.
Darling-Hammond , L. ( 2006 ). Constructing 21st-Century Teacher Education . Journal of Teacher Education , 57 ( 3 ), 1 - 15 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487105285962
Deakin University. ( 2017 ). History. Retrieved 1 September 2017 from http://www.deakin.edu.au/about-deakin/reputation/history.
Delpit. L. ( 1995 ). Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the class . New York: New Press.
Eatough , V. & Smith , J. ( 2006 ). 'I was like a wild wild person': Understanding feelings of anger using interpretative phenomenological analysis . British Journal of Psychology , 97 , 483 - 498 . https://doi.org/10.1348/000712606X97831
Elliott , D. J. ( 1989 ). Key concepts in multicultural music education . International Journal of Music Education , 13 ( 1 ), 11 - 18 . https://doi.org/10.1177/025576148901300102
Fereday , J. , & Muir-Cochrane , E. ( 2006 ). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development . International Journal of Qualitative Methods , 5 ( 1 ), 80 - 92 . https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500107
Gay , G. ( 2004 ). The importance of Multicultural Education . Educational Leadership , 61 ( 4 ), 30 - 35 .
Gay , G. , & Howard , C. ( 2000 ). Multicultural teacher education for the 21st century . The Teacher Educator , 36 ( 1 ), 1 - 16 . https://doi.org/10.1080/08878730009555246
Gir?ldez , A. ( 1997 ). Educaci?n musical desde una perspectiva multicultural: diversas aproximaciones [Music education from a multicultural perspective: diverse approaches] . Transcultural Music Review, TRANS Iberia 1 (November) , 219 - 230 .
Grant , C. ( 2014 ). Perspectives of culture-bearers on the vitality, viability and value of traditional Khmer music genres in contemporary Cambodia . The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology , 15 ( 1 ), 26 - 46 . https://doi.org/10.1080/14442213. 2013 .866685
Green , L. ( 2005 ). Meaning, Autonomy and Authenticity in the Music Classroom . London: Institute of Education University of London.
Han. J. , & Singh , M. ( 2007 ). Getting World English Speaking Student Teachers to the Top of the Class: Making hope for ethno-cultural diversity in teacher education robust . AsiaPacific Journal of Teacher Education , 35 ( 3 ), 291 - 309 . https://doi.org/10.1080/13598660701447239
Hancocks , A. ( 2016 ). Multiculturalism a Discussion Paper . Retrieved 31 August 2017 from http://scanlonfoundation.org.au/wpcontent/uploads/2016/02/DiscussionPaperMulticulturalismFINAL.pdf
Harris , P. , Connolly , J. , & Feeney , L. ( 2009 ). Blended learning: Overview and recommendations for successful implementation . Industrial and Commercial Training , 41 ( 3 ), 155 - 163 . https://doi.org/10.1108/00197850910950961
Henry , N. & Kurzak , K. ( 2013 ). A Multicultural Australia . Retrieved 31 August 2017 from, http://www.australiancollaboration.com.au/pdf/FactSheets/Multicultural-AustraliaFactSheet.pdf
Ibarretxe , G. ( 2005 ). Cultural diversity and music education in Navarre: Steps towards an intercultural perspective in primary school . In M. Mans & B. W. Leung (Eds.), Music in schools for all children: From research to effective practice . Proceedings of the 14th International Seminar of the Music in School & Teacher Education Commission (Granada, Spain , 5 - 9 July , 2004 ) (pp. 121 - 135 ). Granada: Editorial Universidad de Granada/ISME.
Ibarretxe , G. , & D?az , M. ( 2008 ). Metaphors, intercultural perspective and music teacher training at the University of the Basque Country . International Journal of Music Education , 26 ( 4 ), 339 -351 https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761408096075
Ingvarson , L. , Reid , K. , Buckley , S. , Kleinhenz , E. , Masters , G. , Rowley , G. ( 2014 ). Best Practice Teacher Education Programs and Australia's Own Programs . Canberra: Department of Education.
Joseph , D. ( 2012 ). Sharing ownership in multicultural music: a hands-on approach in teacher education in South Africa , Australian Journal of Music Education , 1 ( 2 ), 10 - 19 .
Joseph , D. ( 2014 ) Creating a space and place for culture bearers within tertiary institutions: Experiencing East African dance songs in South Africa, e-journal of studies in music education , 10 ( 1 ), 22 - 33 .
Joseph , D. ( 2016 ) Promoting cultural diversity: African Music in Teacher Education , Australian Journal of Music Education , 2 , 98 - 109 .
Joseph , D. ( 2017 ). Surf and Turf' in Higher Education: An Australian Music Education Case Study , International Journal of Learning in Higher Education , 24 ( 1 ), 47 - 57 . https://doi.org/10.18848/ 2327 -7955/CGP/v24i01/ 47 - 57
Joseph , D. , & Southcott , J. ( 2009 ). Opening the doors to multiculturalism: Australian preservice music teacher education students' understandings of cultural diversity . Music Education Research , 11 ( 4 ), 457 - 472 . https://doi.org/10.1080/14613800903390758
Joseph , D. & Southcott , J. ( 2013 ). So much more than just the music: Australian pre-service music teacher education students' attitudes to artists-in-schools , International Journal of Music Education , 31 ( 3 ), 243 - 256 . https://doi.org/10.1177/0255761411434254
Kim , M. , & Yoon , M. ( 2015 ). Research on multicultural music education at the College level . International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 5 , 9 ( 1 ), 290 - 299 .
Kirn , A. , Godwin , A. , Cass , C. , Ross , M. , & Huff , J. ( 2017 ). Mindful Methodology: A transparent dialogue on adapting Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis for engineering education research . Retrieved from https://scholar.google.com.au/scholar?as_ylo= 2017 &q=ipa+thematic+analysis&hl= en&as_sdt=0,5
Lee , S. ( 2017 ). General Music Teachers' Backgrounds and Multicultural Repertoire Selection . Update , 1 , 1 - 7 . Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/8755123317717052
Levy , A. , Polman , R. C. , & Nicholls , A. R. ( 2009 ). Sport injury rehabilitation adherence: Perspectives of recreational athletes . International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology , 7 , 212 - 229 . https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X. 2009 .9671901
Lum , C. H. , & Chua , S. L. ( 2016 ). Practice and Pedagogy . In Teaching Living Legends (pp. 45 - 62 ). Springer Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/ 978 -981-10-1482- 6 _ 4
Mayer , D. , Allard , A. , Bates , R. , Dixon , M. , Doecke , B. , Hodder , P. , Kline , L. , Kostogriz , A. , Moss , J. , Rowan , L. , Walker-Gibbs , B. , & White . S. ( 2015 ). Studying the Effectiveness of Teacher Education. Retrieved from www . setearc.com.au.
McArdle , F. ( 2010 ). Preparing Quality Teachers: Making Learning Visible . Australian Journal of Teacher Education , 35 ( 8 ). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1485&context=ajte https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2010v35n8. 5
Milner , H.R. ( 201 ). What Does Teacher Education Have to Do With Teaching? Implications for Diversity Studies . Journal of Teacher Education , 61 ( 1-2 ), 118 - 131 . mhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0022487109347670
Mitchell , A. , & Honore , S. ( 2007 ). Criteria for successful blended learning . Industrial and Commercial Training , 39 ( 3 ), 143 - 149 . https://doi.org/10.1108/00197850710742243
Mohd Maasuma , N. R. , Maarof , N. , & Mohd Ali , M. ( 2014 ) Addressing student diversity via culturally responsive pedagogy . Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences , 134 ( 1 ) 101 - 108 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro. 2014 . 04 .227
Nethsinghe , R. ( 2015 ). Unravelling the Gordian Knot: Multiple notions of contextualisation in music In: Australian Journal of Music Education , 2015 (1), 18 - 126 .
Nethsinghe , R. ( 2012 ). A snapshot: Multicultural music teaching in schools in Victoria, Australia portrayed by school teachers , Australian Journal of Music Education, Australian Society for Music Education, Australia , 2012 (1), 57 - 70 .
Nethsinghe , R. ( 2013 ). The notion of authenticity in multicultural music: Approaching proximal simulation , International Journal of Multicultural Education , Eastern College, Department of Education, United States, 15 ( 2 ), 1 - 16 .
Nettl , B. ( 2010 ). Music education and ethnomusicology: a (usually) harmonious relationship . Min-Ad: Israel Studies in Musicology Online , 8 ( 1 ), 1 - 9 .
Poon , J. ( 2013 ). Blended learning: an institutional approach for enhancing students' learning experiences , Journal of online learning and teaching , 9 ( 2 ), 271 - 288 .
Regelski , T. A. ( 2005 ). Music and Music Education: Theory and praxis for 'making a difference' . Educational Philosophy and Theory , 37 ( 1 ), 7 - 27 . https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469- 5812 . 2005 . 00095 .x
Reid , K. , Flowers , P. , & Larkin , M. ( 2005 ). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: An overview and methodological review . The Psychologist , 18 , 20 - 23 .
RMIT University. ( 2017 ). History of RMIT. Retrieved 31 August , 2017 , from https://www.rmit.edu.au/about/our-heritage/history-of-rmit
Rohwer , D. & Henry , W. ( 2004 ). University teacher's perceptions of requisite skills and characteristics of effective music teachers . Journal of Music Teacher Education , 13 , 18 - 27 . https://doi.org/10.1177/10570837040130020104
Small , Christopher. ( 1977 ). Music, Society and Education. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.
Small , C. ( 1983 ). The vernacular in music education . Educational Analysis , 5 ( 2 ), 65 - 75 .
Smith , J. A. , Flowers , P. , & Larkin , M. ( 2013 ). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method , and research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Smith , J. A. , & Osborn , M. ( 2003 ). Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis , in J. A. Smith (Eds.) , Qualitative Psychology: A Practical Guide to Research Methods (pp. 51 - 80 ). London: SAGE Publications.
Tzanidaki , D. & Reynolds , F. ( 2011 ). Exploring the meanings of making traditional arts and crafts among older women in Crete, using interpretative phenomenological analysis . British Journal of Occupational Therapy , 74 ( 8 ), 375 - 382 . https://doi.org/10.4276/030802211X13125646370852
UNESCO ( 2017 ). Education, Teaching Respect for All- the UNESCO-USA-Brazil joint initiative . Retrieved from http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leadingthe-international -agenda/human-rights-education/resources/projects/teaching-respectfor-all/
UNESCO. ( 2010 ). Seoul Agenda: Goals for the Development of Arts Education . Paper presented at the The Second World Conference on Arts Education , Seoul, the Republic of Korea, on 25 -28 May 2010 . http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/creativity/arts-education/officialtexts/development-goals/
Universitat Jaume . ( 2017 ). The Universitat Jaume I in Castell?n . Retrieved from http://www.uji.es/institucional/uji/presentacio/queesuji/
Urbain , Olivier (Ed.). ( 2008 ). Music and Conflict Transformation: Harmonies and Dissonances in Geopolitics . New York: I. B. Tauris .
Volk , T. M. ( 1998 ). Music, Education, and Multiculturalism: Foundations and Principles . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walter , J. ( 2017 ). Global Perspectives: Making the Shift from Multiculturalism to Culturally Responsive Teaching . General Music Today , 1 , 1 - 5 . first published online: July 12 , 2017 . Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1048371317720262
Yin , R. K. ( 2003 ). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.