Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, Jul 2015

This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/372459.pdf

Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques

Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek Department of Environmental Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan-si 712 749, Republic of Korea Received 8 May 2015; Accepted 15 June 2015 Academic Editor: Antony C. Calokerinos Copyright © 2015 Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu and Sung-Ok Baek. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This paper reviews the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrometry, voltammetry, inductively coupled plasma techniques, spectrophotometry, spectrofluorometry, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. Approximately 126 research papers on the speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques published in international journals since 2013 are reviewed. 1. Introduction Mercury, which is also known as quick silver, is only the metal (Figure 1) in the modern periodic table that exists in liquid form at room temperature. The sources of mercury in the environment include the natural processes, such as breakdown of minerals in rocks and volcanic activities. The anthropogenic sources are not limited to mining and the burning of fossil fuels. Regarding the toxicity of mercury and its different species, methylmercury poisoning affects the nervous system of humans and damages the brain and kidneys [1]. Most of the mercury emitted into the environment is converted to methylmercury, which spreads to the food chain due to the bioaccumulation nature of methylmercury [2]. Owing to the toxicity nature and bioaccumulation nature of mercury, most studies in this area have focused on the determination of mercury and its species in various environmental and biological samples. Figure 1: Elemental mercury. Marumoto and Imai [3] reported the determination of dissolved gaseous mercury in the seawater of Minamata Bay of Japan. This study also estimated the exchange of mercury across the air-sea interface. Panichev and Panicheva [4] reported the determination of the total mercury content in fish and sea products by thermal decomposition atomic absorption spectrometry. Fernández-Martínez et al. [5] evaluated different digestion systems for the determination of mercury with CV-AFS (cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometer) in seaweeds. Pinedo-Hernández et al. [6] examined the speciation and bioavailability of mercury in sediments that had been impacted by gold mining in Colombia. This paper presented the recent developments in this topic after a previous review published in 2013 [2]. The present study reviews the recent developments in the speciation and determination studies of mercury reported and published since 2013. For this purpose, approximately 136 research papers published were reviewed. All the analytical parameters such as limit of detection, linearity range, and interference study reported by the reviewed papers are presented in Tables 1–4 [7–133]. This extensive collection of literature and the analytical parameters of the reviewed papers established the recent developments in the determination and speciation studies of mercury using a range of analytical techniques. 2. Discussion The toxicity and bioaccumulation nature of mercury has prompted extensive studies to determine the concentrations of mercury species in different environmental and biological samples. This paper reviewed a large number of studies on the determination and speciation of toxic metals including mercury. The reviews regarding the determination of mercury published since 2013 are discussed hereunder. Suvarapu et al. [2] reviewed research papers published between 2010 and 2011 regarding the speciation and determination of mercury using a variety of analytical techniques. They concluded that most researchers prefer cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) and atomic absorption spectrofluorometry (CV-AFS) for the speciation and determination studies of mercury in various environmental samples. Suvarapu et al. [134] also reviewed research papers published in 2012 regarding the determination of mercury in various environmental samples. El-Shahawi and Al-Saidi [135] reviewed the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method for the speciation and determination of metal ions including mercury. This review concluded that the method of DLLME has the advantages of simplicity, speed, and low cost for the determination of metal ions using various analytical techniques. Ferreira et al. [136] reviewed the use of reflux systems for the sample preparation in the determination of elements, such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury. This study concluded that the use of the reflux systems is very rare in the determination of elements, such as Hg. Gao et al. [137] reviewed the application of chemical vapor generation method for the determination of metal ions, such as mercury and cadmium with ICP-MS. Sańchez et al. [138] reviewed the determination of trace elements including mercury present in petroleum products using ICP techniques. This study concluded that the electrothermal vaporization and laser ablation methods were promising for the analysis of petroleum for trace elements. Martín-Yerga et al. [139] reviewed the determination of mercury using electrochemical methods. This study discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the use of different electrodes in the determination of mercury. Chang et al. [140] reviewed the detection of heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, and mercury in water samples using graphene based sensors. This study concluded that it is a very challenging task to detect heavy metals in water in real time due to the interference of large chemical and biological species in water. Yu and Wang [141] reviewed the determination of metal ions including mercury by atomic spectrometry by applying flow-based sample pretreatment methods. They concluded that the ICP-AES, AAS, AFS, and ICP-MS are the major detection techniques for trace metal analysis. Yin et al. [142] reviewed the speciation analysis of mercury, arsenic, and selenium using a range of analytical techniques. Gao and Huang [143] reviewed the determination of mercury(II) ions by voltammetry and concluded that stripping voltammetry is still an active field of research regarding the determination of mercury. Duarte et al. [144] reviewed disposable sensors and electrochemical sensors for the environmental monitoring of Pb, Cd, and Hg. They recommended the recycling of materials used in sensors for future studies. Recently, Ferreira et al. [145] reviewed the analytical strategies of sample preparation for the determination of mercury in food matrices. In recent days, few research papers were published about the determination and analysis of mercury species in various environmental and biological samples and some of them are discussed hereunder. Lima et al. [146] reported an efficient method for the determination of mercury in inorganic fertilizers by using CV-AAS combined with microwave-induced plasma spectrometry. Pelcová et al. [147] reported the simultaneous determination of mercury species by LC-AFS with a low detection limit of 13–38 ng L−1. Chen et al. [148] reported a colorimetric method for the determination of mercury ions based on gold nanoparticles and thiocyanuric acid. Fernández et al. [149] reported gold nanostructured screen-printed carbon electrodes for the determination of mercury using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Fernández-Martínez et al. [5] evaluated the different digestion systems for determination of mercury in seaweeds using CV-AFS. Silva et al. [150] determined the trace amounts of mercury in alcohol vinegar samples collected from Salvador, Bahia of Brazil. Jarujamrus et al. [151] reported a colorimetric method using unmodified silver nanoparticles for the determination of mercury in water samples. A highly selective method for the determination of mercury using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nano-TiO2 and multiwalled carbon nanotubes in river and industrial wastewater was reported by Mao et al. [152]. As mentioned in our previous review [2], spectrometric techniques are used widely by many researchers for the determination of mercury over the world. Regarding the determination of mercury with various analytical instruments in the papers reviewed, more than 55% of the researchers used spectrometric instruments, such as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma techniques (ICP-OES, AES, and MS), and atomic fluorescence spectrometer (AFS) (Table 1). ICP-MS technique has an advantage of low detection limits and wide range of linearity in the determination of mercury [153]. Around 20% of the researchers chose the spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer (Table 2) for the determination and speciation of mercury. Approximately 10% of researchers in the papers reviewed used electrochemical instruments for the determination and speciation studies of mercury (Table 3). Only a few authors chose the HPLC, GC, and other techniques (Table 4) but they coupled these instruments with AAS or other instruments. Regarding the analysis of the environmental biological samples for mercury and its species, most researchers analyzed various water samples (drinking, seawater, wastewater, river, and lake waters) followed by food samples (mostly fish), human hair, and ambient air. Only a few authors determined the concentration of mercury in ambient air and atmospheric particulate matter [26, 48, 52, 66, 119, 126]. Various measurement techniques that can be available for the determination of mercury species in ambient air were reviewed by Pandey et al. [154]. This study also concluded that most of the researchers preferred CV-AAS and CV-AFS technique for the measurement of different mercury species in ambient air. In comparison of methods, acid digestion and thermal method, for the analysis of mercury in ambient air acid digestion, is better than thermal method. By the thermal methods the values can be obtained 30% lower than the acid digestion method [155]. Table 1: Analytical parameters of reviewed research papers about the speciation and determination of mercury by spectrometric instruments (AAS, ICP-OES, AES, MS, and AFS). Table 2: Analytical parameters of reviewed research papers about the speciation and determination of mercury by spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer. Table 3: Analytical parameters of reviewed research papers about the speciation and determination of mercury by electrochemical instruments. Table 4: Analytical parameters of reviewed research papers about the speciation and determination of mercury by miscellaneous techniques. In the analysis of mercury species in various environmental samples, selectivity and range of linearity of the method also play a major role due to the presence of multielements in the real samples. Based on the present study, most of the spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, and electroanalytical methods were discussed regarding the interfering ion studies and linearity range of the method. These studies will give a clear picture about the determination of mercury species in presence of other ions which validates the methods. Regarding the merits of the different methods for speciation and analysis of mercury, the usage of nonchromatographic methods has an advantage in terms of speed of analysis, inexpensiveness, and convenience to find the mercury in various environmental samples. But for the complete speciation studies of mercury in biological and environmental samples chromatographic methods are useful [156]. The validity of analytical methods can be enhanced with the analysis of the certified reference materials along with the real samples. In recent years, the researchers mostly preferred GC coupled with AFS or ICP-MS for the determination and speciation of mercury in natural waters [157]. In electroanalytical methods, the validity of the methods depends on various factors such as type of electrode, preconcentration, and supporting materials [139] and these methods are cost-effective, selective, and sensitive [143]. 3. Conclusions The present study revealed the recent developments in the determination and speciation studies of mercury by a range of analytical techniques. Our previous study [2] also described the challenges in the methodology for mercury determination. This review showed that most researchers focused on the determination of Hg(II) rather than speciation studies. On the other hand, the speciation studies [23, 24, 29, 36, 37, 44, 47, 50, 54, 58, 68, 69, 76, 118] accurately revealed the toxicity of mercury rather than the total mercury or single species determinations. In the papers reviewed, most researchers were aware of the interfering ions in the determination of mercury and its different forms. In the analytical method, a study of interfering ions is very important because it can predict the selectivity of the method. In future studies, it will be important to focus on speciation studies of mercury rather than a determination of the total mercury. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. References ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry), Toxicological Profile for Mercury, US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, 1999, http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp46.pdf. L. N. Suvarapu, Y.-K. Seo, and S.-O. Baek, “Speciation and determination of mercury by various analytical techniques,” Reviews in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 225–245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Marumoto and S. Imai, “Determination of dissolved gaseous mercury in seawater of Minamata Bay and estimation for mercury exchange across air-sea interface,” Marine Chemistry, vol. 168, pp. 9–17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarN. A. Panichev and S. E. Panichev and Panicheva, “Determination of total mercury in fish and sea products by direct thermal decomposition atomic absorption spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, vol. 166, pp. 432–441, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarR. Fernández-Martínez, I. Rucandio, I. Gómez-Pinilla, F. Borlaf, F. García, and M. T. Larrea, “Evaluation of different digestion systems for determination of trace mercury in seaweeds by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 38, pp. 7–12, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarJ. Pinedo-Hernández, J. Marrugo-Negrete, and S. Díez, “Speciation and bioavailability of mercury in sediments impacted by gold mining in Colombia,” Chemosphere, vol. 119, pp. 1289–1295, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarZ. H. Fernandez, L. A. V. Rojas, A. M. Alvarez et al., “Application of cold vapor-atomic absorption (CVAAS) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry methods for cadmium, mercury and lead analyses of fish samples. Validation of the method of CVAAS,” Food Control, vol. 48, pp. 37–42, 2015. View at Google ScholarH. R. Rajabi, M. Shamsipur, M. M. Zahedi, and M. Roushani, “On-line flow injection solid phase extraction using imprinted polymeric nanobeads for the preconcentration and determination of mercury ions,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 259, pp. 330–337, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. M. Silva Jr., L. O. Bastos Silva, D. J. Leao, W. N. Lopes dos Santos, B. Welz, and S. L. Costa Ferreira, “Determination of mercury in alcohol vinegar samples from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil,” Food Control, vol. 47, pp. 623–627, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. H. Mashhadizadeh, M. Amoli-Diva, M. R. Shapouri, and H. Afruzi, “Solid phase extraction of trace amounts of silver, cadmium, copper, mercury, and lead in various food samples based on ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanethiol coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles,” Food Chemistry, vol. 151, pp. 300–305, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusB. Parodi, A. Londonio, G. Polla, M. Savio, and P. Smichowski, “On-line flow injection solid phase extraction using oxidised carbon nanotubes as the substrate for cold vapour-atomic absorption determination of Hg(ii) in different kinds of water,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 880–885, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusN. I. Ahmad, M. F. M. Noh, W. R. W. Mahiyuddin et al., “Mercury levels of marine fish commonly consumed in Peninsular Malaysia,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 3672–3686, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. Raissy, E. Rahimi, V. Nadeali, M. Ansari, and A. Shakerian, “Mercury and arsenic in green tiger shrimp from the Persian Gulf,” Toxicology and Industrial Health, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 206–210, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusF. D’Agostino, E. Oliveri, E. Bagnato, F. Falco, S. Mazzola, and M. Sprovieri, “Direct determination of total mercury in phosphate rock using alkaline fusion digestion,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 852, pp. 8–12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarL. Chudaifah, B. Irawan, and A. Soegianto, “Concentration of lead, cadmium and mercury in common Pony fish (Leiognathus equulus) form ease Java coast, Indonesia and its impact on human health,” Asian Journal of Water; Environment and Pollution, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 17–22, 2014. View at Google ScholarL. B. Escudero, R. A. Olsina, and R. G. Wuilloud, “Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 116, pp. 133–140, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. O. dos Santos and V. A. Lemos, “Development of an on-line preconcentration system for determination of mercury in environmental samples,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, vol. 225, no. 9, pp. 2086–2094, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarE. Q. Oreste, A. de Jesus, R. M. de Oliveira, M. M. da Silva, M. A. Vieira, and A. S. Ribeiro, “New design of cold finger for sample preparation in open system: determination of Hg in biological samples by CV-AAS,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 109, pp. 5–9, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusO. Ouédraogo and M. Amyot, “Mercury, arsenic and selenium concentrations in water and fish from sub-Saharan semi-arid freshwater reservoirs (Burkina Faso),” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 444, pp. 243–254, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Miklavčič, A. Casetta, J. Snoj Tratnik et al., “Mercury, arsenic and selenium exposure levels in relation to fish consumption in the Mediterranean area,” Environmental Research, vol. 120, pp. 7–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusC. R. Alvárez, M. J. Moreno, L. L. Alonso et al., “Mercury, methylmercury, and selenium in blood of bird species from Doñana National Park (Southwestern Spain) after a mining accident,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 5361–5372, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Miklavčič, D. Mazej, R. Jaćimović, T. Dizdareviǒ, and M. Horvat, “Mercury in food items from the Idrija mercury mine area,” Environmental Research, vol. 125, pp. 61–68, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Bratkič, N. Ogrinc, J. Kotnik et al., “Mercury speciation driven by seasonal changes in a contaminated estuarine environment,” Environmental Research, vol. 125, pp. 171–178, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusE. Stanisz, J. Werner, and H. Matusiewicz, “Mercury species determination by task specific ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with cold vapour generation atomic absorption spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 28–35, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusP. M. Moraes, F. A. Santos, B. Cavecci et al., “GFAAS determination of mercury in muscle samples of fish from Amazon, Brazil,” Food Chemistry, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 2614–2617, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusO. Vaselli, P. Higueras, B. Nisi et al., “Distribution of gaseous Hg in the Mercury mining district of Mt. Amiata (Central Italy): a geochemical survey prior the reclamation project,” Environmental Research, vol. 125, pp. 179–187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Raissy, “Determination of mercury in some freshwater fish species from Chahrmahal va Bakhtyari Province, Iran and potential limits for human consumption,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 667–672, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Sysalová, J. Kučera, M. Fikrle, and B. Drtinová, “Determination of the total mercury in contaminated soils by direct solid sampling atomic absorption spectrometry using an AMA-254 device and radiochemical neutron activation analysis,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 691–694, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusP. Olmedo, A. Pla, A. F. Hernández, F. Barbier, L. Ayouni, and F. Gil, “Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers,” Environment International, vol. 59, pp. 63–72, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. R. Mousavi, M. Balali-Mood, B. Riahi-Zanjani, H. Yousefzadeh, and M. Sadeghi, “Concentrations of mercury, lead, chromium, cadmium, arsenic and aluminum in irrigation water wells and wastewaters used for agriculture in mashhad, northeastern Iran,” The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 80–86, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. A. Leiva, S. Morales, and R. Segura, “Comparative measurements and their compliance with standards of total mercury analysis in soil by cold vapour and thermal decomposition, amalgamation and atomic absorption spectrometry,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 224, no. 2, article 1390, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Ohki, K. Hayashi, J. Ohsako, T. Nakajima, and H. Takanashi, “Analysis of mercury and selenium during subcritical water treatment of fish tissue by various atomic spectrometric methods,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 106, pp. 357–362, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. V. Hosseini, F. Aflaki, S. Sobhanardakani, L. Tayebi, A. B. Lashkan, and J. M. Regenstein, “Analysis of mercury, selenium, and tin concentrations in canned fish marketed in Iran,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, vol. 185, no. 8, pp. 6407–6412, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Khoshnamvand, S. Kaboodvandpour, and F. Ghiasi, “A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran,” Chemosphere, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 1236–1241, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusP. K. Srungaram, K. K. Ayyalasomayajula, F. Yu-Yueh, and J. P. Singh, “Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 87, pp. 108–113, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. L. Fox, E. A. Hughes, R. P. Trocine et al., “Mercury in the northeastern Chukchi Sea: distribution patterns in seawater and sediments and biomagnification in the benthic food web,” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol. 102, pp. 56–67, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. L. Bowman, C. R. Hammerschmidt, C. H. Lamborg, and G. Swarr, “Mercury in the North Atlantic Ocean: the U.S. GEOTRACES zonal and meridional sections,” Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, vol. 116, pp. 251–261, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. J. da Silva, A. P. S. Paim, M. F. Pimentel, M. L. Cervera, and M. D. la Guardia, “Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 838, pp. 13–19, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarA. A. Abdel Aziz and S. H. Seda, “Detection of trace amounts of Hg2+ in different real samples based on immobilization of novel unsymmetrical tetradentate Schiff base within PVC membrane,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 197, pp. 155–163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusG.-C. Fang, Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Chang, and Y.-C. Zheng, “Concentrations of particulates in ambient air, gaseous elementary mercury (GEM), and particulate-bound mercury (Hg(p)) at a traffic sampling site: a study of dry deposition in daytime and nighttime,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 605–612, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. Guédron, D. Tisserand, S. Garambois et al., “Baseline investigation of (methyl)mercury in waters, soils, sediments and key foodstuffs in the lower mekong basin: the rapidly developing city of Vientiane (Lao PDR),” Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol. 143, pp. 96–102, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusG. Leng, L. Feng, S.-B. Li, S. Qian, and D.-Z. Dan, “Determination of mercury (Hg) in sediment by a sequential injection (SI) system with cold vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) detection after a rapid and mild microwave assisted digestion,” Environmental Forensics, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusD. G. Da Silva, L. A. Portugal, A. M. Serra, S. L. C. Ferreira, and V. Cerdà, “Determination of mercury in rice by MSFIA and cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, vol. 137, no. 1–4, pp. 159–163, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Huang, K. Xu, X. Hou, Y. Jia, C. Zheng, and L. Yang, “UV-induced atomization of gaseous mercury hydrides for atomic fluorescence spectrometric detection of inorganic and organic mercury after high performance liquid chromatographic separation,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 510–515, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusD. Qin, F. Gao, Z. Zhang et al., “Ultraviolet vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury in natural water with enrichment by on-line solid phase extraction,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 88, pp. 10–14, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. A. Portugal, L. M. Laglera, A. N. Anthemidis, S. L. C. Ferreira, and M. Miró, “Pressure-driven mesofluidic platform integrating automated on-chip renewable micro-solid-phase extraction for ultrasensitive determination of waterborne inorganic mercury,” Talanta, vol. 110, pp. 58–65, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusR. Yin, X. Feng, J. Wang et al., “Mercury speciation and mercury isotope fractionation during ore roasting process and their implication to source identification of downstream sediment in the Wanshan mercury mining area, SW China,” Chemical Geology, vol. 336, pp. 72–79, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Weigelt, C. Temme, E. Bieber et al., “Measurements of atmospheric mercury species at a German rural background site from 2009 to 2011—methods and results,” Environmental Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 102–110, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Gorecki, S. Díez, M. Macherzynski, E. Kalisinska, and J. Golas, “Improvements and application of a modified gas chromatography atomic fluorescence spectroscopy method for routine determination of methylmercury in biota samples,” Talanta, vol. 115, pp. 675–680, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusX. Song, M. Ye, X. Tang, and C. Wang, “Ionic liquids dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and HPLC-atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury species in environmental waters,” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 414–420, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusZ. Yun, B. He, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and G. Jiang, “Evaluation of different extraction procedures for determination of organic Mercury species in petroleum by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry,” Talanta, vol. 106, pp. 60–65, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusG.-R. Sheu, N.-H. Lin, C.-T. Lee et al., “Distribution of atmospheric mercury in northern Southeast Asia and South China sea during Dongsha experiment,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, pp. 174–183, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusB. Zhu, J. Zhao, H. Yu, L. Yan, Q. Wei, and B. Du, “Development of novel naphthalimide-functionalized magnetic fluorescent nanoparticle for simultaneous determination and removal of Hg2+,” Optical Materials, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 2220–2225, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusB. D. Barst, C. R. Hammerschmidt, M. M. Chumchal et al., “Determination of mercury speciation in fish tissue with a direct mercury analyzer,” Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1237–1241, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. Zhang, G. Xiu, X. Wu et al., “Characterization of mercury concentrations in snow and potential sources, Shanghai, China,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 449, pp. 434–442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. Kolker, M. A. Engle, B. Peucker-Ehrenbrink et al., “Atmospheric mercury and fine particulate matter in coastal New England: implications for mercury and trace element sources in the northeastern United States,” Atmospheric Environment, vol. 79, pp. 760–768, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. M. A. Wahab, B. Gunasekaran, N. A. Shaharuddin et al., “A novel method for the determination of mercury in herbal preparation using an inhibitive assay based on the protease papain,” Journal of Environmental Microbiology and Toxicology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–4, 2013. View at Google ScholarA. V. Zmozinski, S. Carneado, C. Ibáñez-Palomino, À. Sahuquillo, J. F. López-Sánchez, and M. M. da Silva, “Method development for the simultaneous determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in seafood,” Food Control, vol. 46, pp. 351–359, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarS. M. Vieira, R. de Almeida, I. B. B. Holanda et al., “Total and methyl-mercury in hair and milk of mothers living in the city of Porto Velho and in villages along the Rio Madeira, Amazon, Brazil,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 216, no. 6, pp. 682–689, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Hsu, C. Lee, W. Tseng, Y. Chao, and Y. Huang, “Selective and eco-friendly method for determination of mercury(II) ions in aqueous samples using an on-line AuNPs-PDMS composite microfluidic device/ICP-MS system,” Talanta, vol. 128, pp. 408–413, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarJ. S. Barin, B. Tischer, R. S. Picoloto et al., “Determination of toxic elements in tricyclic active pharmaceutical ingredients by ICP-MS: a critical study of digestion methods,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 352–358, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Hadavifar, N. Bahramifar, H. Younesi, and Q. Li, “Adsorption of mercury ions from synthetic and real wastewater aqueous solution by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube with both amino and thiolated groups,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 237, pp. 217–228, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusE. Najafi, F. Aboufazeli, H. R. L. Z. Zhad, O. Sadeghi, and V. Amani, “A novel magnetic ion imprinted nano-polymer for selective separation and determination of low levels of mercury(II) ions in fish samples,” Food Chemistry, vol. 141, no. 4, pp. 4040–4045, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Hellings, S. B. Adeloju, and T. V. Verheyen, “Rapid determination of ultra-trace concentrations of mercury in plants and soils by cold vapour inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 111, pp. 62–66, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. R. Drennan-Harris, S. Wongwilawan, and J. F. Tyson, “Trace determination of total mercury in rice by conventional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 259–265, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. M. Lynam, B. Klaue, G. J. Keeler, and J. D. Blum, “Using thermal analysis coupled to isotope dilution cold vapor ICP-MS in the quantification of atmospheric particulate phase mercury,” Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1788–1795, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusF. Moreno, T. García-Barrera, and J. L. Gómez-Ariza, “Simultaneous speciation and preconcentration of ultra trace concentrations of mercury and selenium species in environmental and biological samples by hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction prior to high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1300, pp. 43–50, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusX. Chen, C. Han, H. Cheng et al., “Rapid speciation analysis of mercury in seawater and marine fish by cation exchange chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1314, pp. 86–93, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. Laffont, L. Maurice, D. Amouroux et al., “Mercury speciation analysis in human hair by species-specific isotope-dilution using GC-ICP-MS,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 405, no. 9, pp. 3001–3010, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Ma, H. Hintelmann, J. L. Kirk, and D. C. G. Muir, “Mercury concentrations and mercury isotope composition in lake sediment cores from the vicinity of a metal smelting facility in Flin Flon, Manitoba,” Chemical Geology, vol. 336, pp. 96–102, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. Schmidt, C. A. Bizzi, F. A. Duarte, V. L. Dressler, and E. M. M. Flores, “Evaluation of drying conditions of fish tissues for inorganic mercury and methylmercury speciation analysis,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 108, pp. 53–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. S. de Souza, A. D. Campiglia, and F. Barbosa Jr., “A simple method for methylmercury, inorganic mercury and ethylmercury determination in plasma samples by high performance liquid chromatography-cold-vapor-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 761, pp. 11–17, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. Noël, R. Chekri, S. Millour, M. Merlo, J.-C. Leblanc, and T. Guérin, “Distribution and relationships of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in freshwater fish from five French fishing areas,” Chemosphere, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 1900–1910, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusR. Liu, M. Xu, Z. Shi, J. Zhang, Y. Gao, and L. Yang, “Determination of total mercury in biological tissue by isotope dilution ICPMS after UV photochemical vapor generation,” Talanta, vol. 117, pp. 371–375, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusC. H. Lamborg, G. Swarr, K. Hughen et al., “Determination of low-level mercury in coralline aragonite by calcination-isotope dilution-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and its application to Diploria specimens from Castle Harbour, Bermuda,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 109, pp. 27–37, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarX. Chen, C. Han, H. Cheng, J. Liu, Z. Xu, and X. Yin, “Determination of mercurial species in fish by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with anion exchange chromatographic separation,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 796, pp. 7–13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM.-L. Lin and S.-J. Jiang, “Determination of As, Cd, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporisation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 2158–2162, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusT. D. S. Pierre, R. C. C. Rocha, and C. B. Duyck, “Determination of Hg in water associate to crude oil production by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 109, pp. 41–45, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Julshamn, A. Duinker, B. M. Nilsen et al., “A baseline study of levels of mercury, arsenic, cadmium and lead in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea,” Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 67, no. 1-2, pp. 187–195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusX. Ding, L. Qu, R. Yang, Y. Zhou, and J. Li, “A highly selective and simple fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion detection based on cysteamine-capped CdTe quantum dots synthesized by the reflux method,” Luminescence, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 465–471, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarZ. Mohammadpour, A. Safavi, and M. Shamsipur, “A new label free colorimetric chemosensor for detection of mercury ion with tunable dynamic range using carbon nanodots as enzyme mimics,” Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 255, pp. 1–7, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarR. M. Tripathi, R. K. Gupta, P. Singh et al., “Ultra-sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in water sample using gold nanoparticles synthesized by Trichoderma harzianum and their mechanistic approach,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 204, pp. 637–646, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarK. Deepa, Y. P. Raj, and Y. Lingappa, “Spectrophotometric determination of mercury in environmental samples using 5-methylthiophene-2-carboxaldehyde ehtylenediamine (MTCED),” Der Pharma Chemica, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 48–55, 2014. View at Google ScholarZ. X. Wang and S. N. Ding, “One-pot green synthesis of high quantum yield oxygen-doped, nitrogen-rich, photoluminescent polymer carbon nanoribbons as an effective fluorescent sensing platform for sensitive and selective detection of silver(I) and mercury(II) ions,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 86, no. 15, pp. 7436–7445, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarL. Rastogi, R. B. Sashidhar, D. Karunasagar, and J. Arunachalam, “Gum kondagogu reduced/stabilized silver nanoparticles as direct colorimetric sensor for the sensitive detection of Hg2+ in aqueous system,” Talanta, vol. 118, pp. 111–117, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusZ. Chen, C. Zhang, Y. Tan et al., “Chitosan-functionalized gold nanoparticles for colorimetric detection of mercury ions based on chelation-induced aggregation,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 182, no. 3-4, pp. 611–616, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. Wang, F.-Y. Yan, Y. Zou, N. Yang, L. Chen, and L.-G. Chen, “A rhodamine derivative as selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for mercury (II) in buffer solution, test strips and living cells,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 123, pp. 216–223, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. R. Firooz, A. A. Ensafi, and Z. Hajyani, “A highly sensitive and selective bulk optode based on dithiacyclooctadecane derivative incorporating chromoionophore V for determination of ultra-race amounts of Hg(II),” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 177, pp. 710–716, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. Mandal, A. Banerjee, S. Lohar et al., “Selective sensing of Hg2+ using rhodamine-thiophene conjugate: red light emission and visual detection of intracellular Hg2+ at nanomolar level,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 261, pp. 198–205, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. N. Neupane and K.-H. Lee, “Selective and sensitive turn on detection of Hg2+ in aqueous solution using a thioether-appended dipeptide,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 54, no. 37, pp. 5007–5010, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusX. Qin, W. Lu, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. Sun, “Microwave-assisted rapid green synthesis of photoluminescent carbon nanodots from flour and their applications for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 184, pp. 156–162, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusH.-F. Wang and S.-P. Wu, “Highly selective fluorescent sensors for mercury(II) ions and their applications in living cell imaging,” Tetrahedron, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 1965–1969, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. S. Al-Kady and F. I. Abdelmonem, “Highly sensitive and selective spectrophotometric detection of trace amounts of Hg2+ in environmental and biological samples based on 2,4,7-triamino-6-phenylpteridine,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 182, pp. 87–94, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. Li, H. Huang, Y. Li, and X. Su, “Highly sensitive fluorescent sensor for mercury (II) ion based on layer-by-layer self-assembled films fabricated with water-soluble fluorescent conjugated polymer,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 188, pp. 772–777, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusD. Huang, C. Niu, M. Ruan, X. Wang, G. Zeng, and C. Deng, “Highly sensitive strategy for Hg2+ detection in environmental water samples using long lifetime fluorescence quantum dots and gold nanoparticles,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 4392–4398, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusW. Lu, X. Qin, A. M. Asiri, A. O. Al-Youbi, and X. Sun, “Green synthesis of carbon nanodots as an effective fluorescent probe for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 15, pp. 1344–1350, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Zhang, Y. Zhou, W. Hu, L. Zhang, Q. Huang, and T. Ma, “Highly selective fluorescence enhancement chemosensor for Hg2+ based on rhodamine and its application in living cells and aqueous media,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 183, pp. 290–296, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. Yan, Z. Chen, Z. Zhang, C. Qu, L. Chen, and D. Shen, “Fluorescent sensing of mercury(II) based on formation of catalytic gold nanoparticles,” Analyst, vol. 138, no. 15, pp. 4280–4283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. R. Firooz, A. A. Ensafi, K. Karimi, and H. Sharghi, “Development of a specific and highly sensitive optical chemical sensor for determination of Hg(II) based on a new synthesized ionophore,” Materials Science and Engineering C, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 4167–4172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusQ. Lin, Y.-P. Fu, P. Chen, T.-B. Wei, and Y.-M. Zhang, “Colorimetric chemosensors designed to provide high sensitivity for Hg2+ in aqueous solutions,” Dyes and Pigments, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusD. Tan, Y. He, X. Xing, Y. Zhao, H. Tang, and D. Pang, “Aptamer functionalized gold nanoparticles based fluorescent probe for the detection of mercury (II) ion in aqueous solution,” Talanta, vol. 113, pp. 26–30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Liu, D. Wu, X. Yan, and Y. Guan, “Naked-eye sensor for rapid determination of mercury ion,” Talanta, vol. 116, pp. 563–568, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusF. El Aroui, S. Lahrich, A. Farahi et al., “Palladium particles-impregnated natural phosphate electrodes for electrochemical determination of mercury in ambient water samples,” Electroanalysis, vol. 26, pp. 1751–1760, 2014. View at Google ScholarA. Afkhami, S. Sayari, F. Soltani-Felehgari, and T. Madrakian, “Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanocomposite modified carbon paste electrode for highly sensitive and selective simultaneous electrochemical determination of trace amounts of mercury (II) and cadmium (II),” Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 257–265, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarA. Chira, B. Bucur, M. P. Bucur, and G. L. Radu, “Electrode-modified with nanoparticles composed of 4,4′-bipyridine-silver coordination polymer for sensitive determination of Hg(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II),” New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 5641–5646, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarP. K. Aneesh, S. R. Nambiar, T. P. Rao, and A. Ajayaghosh, “Electrochemical synthesis of a gold atomic cluster-chitosan nanocomposite film modified gold electrode for ultra-trace determination of mercury,” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 8529–8535, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusB. Silwana, C. van der Horst, E. Iwuoha, and V. Somerset, “Amperometric determination of cadmium, lead, and mercury metal ions using a novel polymer immobilised horseradish peroxidase biosensor system,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, vol. 49, no. 13, pp. 1501–1511, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarT. Shahar, N. Tal, and D. Mandler, “The synthesis and characterization of thiol-based aryl diazonium modified glassy carbon electrode for the voltammetric determination of low levels of Hg(II),” Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1543–1552, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusH. Bagheri, A. Afkhami, H. Khoshsafar, M. Rezaei, and A. Shirzadmehr, “Simultaneous electrochemical determination of heavy metals using a triphenylphosphine/MWCNTs composite carbon ionic liquid electrode,” Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 186, pp. 451–460, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusR. K. Mahajan, A. Kamal, N. Kumar, V. Bhalla, and M. Kumar, “Selective sensing of mercury(II) using PVC-based membranes incorporating recently synthesized 1,3-alternate thiacalix[4]crown ionophore,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 3086–3097, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusV. K. Gupta, B. Sethi, R. A. Sharma, S. Agarwal, and A. Bharti, “Mercury selective potentiometric sensor based on low rim functionalized thiacalix [4]-arene as a cationic receptor,” Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 177, pp. 114–118, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Behzad, M. Asgari, M. Shamsipur, and M. G. Maragheha, “Impedimetric and stripping voltammetric detection of sub-nanomolar amounts of mercury at a gold nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. B31–B36, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusE. Bernalte, C. M. Sánchez, and E. P. Gil, “High-throughput mercury monitoring in indoor dust microsamples by bath ultrasonic extraction and anodic stripping voltammetry on gold nanoparticles-modified screen-printed electrodes,” Electroanalysis, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 289–294, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusN. Daud, N. A. Yusof, and S. M. M. Nor, “Electrochemical characteristic of biotinyl somatostatin-14/Nafion modified gold electrode in development of sensor for determination of Hg(II),” International Journal of Electrochemical Science, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 10086–10099, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusA. K. Hassan, “Chemical sensor for determination of mercury in contaminated water,” Modern Chemistry & Applications, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 1–4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarD. S. Rajawat, A. Kardam, S. Srivastava, and S. P. Satsangee, “Adsorptive stripping voltammetric technique for monitoring of mercury ions in aqueous solution using nano cellulosic fibers modified carbon paste electrode,” National Academy Science Letters, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 181–189, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusZ. Zhang, J. Yin, Z. Wu, and R. Yu, “Electrocatalytic assay of mercury(II) ions using a bifunctional oligonucleotide signal probe,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 762, pp. 47–53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Rumayor, M. Diaz-Somoano, M. A. Lopez-Anton, and M. R. Martinez-Tarazona, “Application of thermal desorption for the identification of mercury species in solids derived from coal utilization,” Chemosphere, vol. 119, pp. 459–465, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarP. Higueras, R. Oyarzun, J. Kotnik et al., “A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 36, pp. 713–734, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. Xu, H. Yin, W. Ma, H. Kuang, L. Wang, and C. Xu, “Ultrasensitive SERS detection of mercury based on the assembled gold nanochains,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 67, pp. 472–476, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarQ. Zhou, A. Xing, and K. Zhao, “Simultaneous determination of nickel, cobalt and mercury ions in water samples by solid phase extraction using multiwalled carbon nanotubes as adsorbent after chelating with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate prior to high performance liquid chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1360, pp. 76–81, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. Liu, Z. Wang, S. Zong et al., “SERS detection and removal of mercury(II)/silver(I) using oligonucleotide-functionalized core/shell magnetic silica sphere@Au nanoparticles,” ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 7371–7379, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. Ehsanpour, M. Afkhami, R. Khoshnood, and K. J. Reich, “Determination and maternal transfer of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Hg) in the Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) from a nesting colony of Qeshm Island, Iran,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 667–673, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusR.-Z. Wang, D.-L. Zhou, H. Huang, M. Zhang, J.-J. Feng, and A.-J. Wang, “Water-soluble homo-oligonucleotide stabilized fluorescent silver nanoclusters as fluorescent probes for mercury ion,” Microchimica Acta, vol. 180, no. 13-14, pp. 1287–1293, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusP. R. Aranda, L. Colombo, E. Perino, I. E. De Vito, and J. Raba, “Solid-phase preconcentration and determination of mercury(II) using activated carbon in drinking water by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,” X-Ray Spectrometry, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 100–104, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusH. Jin and G. Liebezeit, “Tidal cycles of total particulate mercury in the jade bay, lower saxonian wadden sea, southern north sea,” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 97–102, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusH. Kodamatani and T. Tomiyasu, “Selective determination method for measurement of methylmercury and ethylmercury in soil/sediment samples using high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection coupled with simple extraction technique,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1288, pp. 155–159, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusT. Frentiu, A. I. Mihaltan, M. Senila et al., “New method for mercury determination in microwave digested soil samples based on cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch optical emission spectrometry: comparison with atomic fluorescence spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 110, pp. 545–552, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusW.-Y. Liu, S.-L. Shen, H.-Y. Li, J.-Y. Miao, and B.-X. Zhao, “Fluorescence turn-on chemodosimeter for rapid detection of mercury (II) ions in aqueous solution and blood from mice with toxicosis,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 791, pp. 65–71, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusC. L. Miller, D. B. Watson, B. P. Lester, K. A. Lowe, E. M. Pierce, and L. Liang, “Characterization of soils from an industrial complex contaminated with elemental mercury,” Environmental Research, vol. 125, pp. 20–29, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. J. Melendez-Perez and A. H. Fostier, “Assessment of direct mercury analyzer to quantify mercury in soils and leaf samples,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1880–1886, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Duarte, C. I. L. Justino, A. C. Freitas, A. M. P. Gomes, A. C. Duarte, and T. A. P. Rocha-Santos, “Disposable sensors for environmental monitoring of lead, cadmium and mercury,” TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 64, pp. 183–190, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarI. Cheng, L. Zhang, P. Blanchard, J. Dalziel, and R. Tordon, “Concentration-weighted trajectory approach to identifying potential sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at an urban coastal site in Nova Scotia, Canada,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 6031–6048, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusL. N. Suvarapu, Y. K. Seo, and S. O. Baek, “Determination of mercury in various environmental samples,” Asian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 5599–5601, 2013. View at Google ScholarM. S. El-Shahawi and H. M. Al-Saidi, “Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for chemical speciation and determination of ultra-trace concentrations of metal ions,” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 44, pp. 12–24, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. L. C. Ferreira, L. O. B. Silva, F. A. de Santana, M. M. S. Junior, G. D. Matos, and W. N. L. dos Santos, “A review of reflux systems using cold finger for sample preparation in the determination of volatile elements,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 106, pp. 307–310, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. Gao, R. Liu, and L. Yang, “Application of chemical vapor generation in ICP-MS: a review,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 1980–1991, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusR. Sańchez, J. L. Todolí, C.-P. Lienemann, and J.-M. Mermet, “Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: a critical review,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, vol. 88, pp. 104–126, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusD. Martín-Yerga, M. B. González-García, and A. Costa-García, “Electrochemical determination of mercury: a review,” Talanta, vol. 116, pp. 1091–1104, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusJ. Chang, G. Zhou, E. R. Christensen, R. Heideman, and J. Chen, “Graphene-based sensors for detection of heavy metals in water: a review,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 406, pp. 3957–3975, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. L. Yu and J. H. Yu and Wang, “Recent advances in flow-based sample pretreatment for the determination of metal species by atomic spectrometry,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 17, pp. 1992–2002, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. Yin, J. Liu, and G. Jiang, “Recent advances in speciation analysis of mercury, arsenic and selenium,” Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 150–161, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusC. Gao and X.-J. Huang, “Voltammetric determination of mercury(II),” Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 51, pp. 1–12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusF. A. Duarte, B. M. Soares, A. A. Vieira et al., “Assessment of modified matrix solid-phase dispersion as sample preparation for the determination of CH3Hg+ and Hg2+ in fish,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 85, no. 10, pp. 5015–5022, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. L. C. Ferreira, V. A. Lemos, L. O. B. Silva et al., “Analytical strategies of sample preparation for the determination of mercury in food matrices—a review,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 121, pp. 227–236, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarA. F. Lima, M. C. Da Costa, D. C. Ferreira, E. M. Richter, and R. A. A. Munoz, “Fast ultrasound-assisted treatment of inorganic fertilizers for mercury determination by atomic absorption spectrometry and microwave-induced plasma spectrometry with the aid of the cold-vapor technique,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 118, pp. 40–44, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarP. Pelcová, H. Dočekalová, and A. Kleckerová, “Determination of mercury species by the diffusive gradient in thin film technique and liquid chromatography—atomic fluorescence spectrometry after microwave extraction,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 866, pp. 21–26, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarZ. Chen, C. Zhang, H. Ma et al., “A non-aggregation spectrometric determination for mercury ions based on gold nanoparticles and thiocyanuric acid,” Talanta, vol. 134, pp. 603–606, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarE. Fernández, L. Vidal, D. Martín-Yerga, M. D. C. Blanco, A. Canals, and A. Costa-García, “Screen-printed electrode based electrochemical detector coupled with ionic liquid dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and microvolume back-extraction for determination of mercury in water samples,” Talanta, vol. 135, pp. 34–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. M. Silva, L. O. Bastos Silva, D. J. Leao, W. N. Lopes dos Santos, B. Welz, and S. L. Costa Ferreira, “Determination of mercury in alcohol vinegar samples from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil,” Food Control, vol. 47, pp. 623–627, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarP. Jarujamrus, M. Amatatongchai, A. Thima, T. Khongrangdee, and C. Mongkontong, “Selective colorimetric sensors based on the monitoring of an unmodified silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) reduction for a simple and rapid determination of mercury,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 142, pp. 86–93, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarA. Mao, H. Li, Z. Cai, and X. Hu, “Determination of mercury using a glassy carbon electrode modified with nano TiO2 and multi-walled carbon nanotubes composites dispersed in a novel cationic surfactant,” Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 751, pp. 23–29, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarM. Popp, S. Hann, and G. Koellensperger, “Environmental application of elemental speciation analysis based on liquid or gas chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry—a review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 668, no. 2, pp. 114–129, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusS. K. Pandey, K.-H. Kim, and R. J. C. Brown, “Measurement techniques for mercury species in ambient air,” TrAC—Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 899–917, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusM. M. Lynam and G. J. Keeler, “Comparison of methods for particulate phase mercury analysis: sampling and analysis,” Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol. 374, no. 6, pp. 1009–1014, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusY. Gao, Z. Shi, Z. Long, P. Wu, C. Zheng, and X. Hou, “Determination and speciation of mercury in environmental and biological samples by analytical atomic spectrometry,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 103, pp. 1–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at ScopusK. Leopold, M. Foulkes, and P. Worsfold, “Methods for the determination and speciation of mercury in natural waters—a review,” Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 663, no. 2, pp. 127–138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus


This is a preview of a remote PDF: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/jamc/2015/372459.pdf

Lakshmi Narayana Suvarapu, Sung-Ok Baek. Recent Developments in the Speciation and Determination of Mercury Using Various Analytical Techniques, Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, 2015, DOI: 10.1155/2015/372459