Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: II - Tentativas de infecções experimentais em Macacca mulatta, Cebus apella e Callithrix jacchus; e pesquisa de anticorpos em várias espécies de platyrrhinus

Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Feb 2019

After a review of the experimental toxoplasmosis in non human primates we have reported our unsuccessful tentatives to provoke acute and fatal disease in 2 Macacca mulatta, an infant male and an young female, by inoculation and reinoculation of a human strain from congenital toxoplasmosis, using several routse and massive dosis and with the ministration of corticosteroids. We did not succeed in inducing fatal disease in an adult female Cebus apella by peritoneal and subcutaneous routes. However, the toxoplasmosis infection in these 3 monkeys was comproved by fever (39 to 41ºC), by the positivity of the Sabin-Feldman reaction (1:64 and 1:256) and by the isolation of the toxoplasmes from mice inoculated with material of the Cebus. On the other hand, in a Callithrix jacchus by peritoneal route, we have provoked severe and fatal disease with necrotic foci in the lever and spleen both plenty of parasites, and isolation of toxoplasmes from mice inoculated with material of this monkey. From 54 New World monkeys submeted to the dye test, with the exception of a Saimiri sciureu that reacted at 1:16 title, all of them were negative. An analysis of the problem toxoplasmosis-non human primates, based in the bibliography and in our observation (see the anterior paper too) agree with the following conclusions: a) in its natural habitat the non human primates are not exposed to Toxoplasma infection. This fact must be related to its arboreal habits and vegetarian and insectivorous feeding; b) the described cases of spontaneous toxoplasmosis in monkeys are related to animals in cages; and at this very condition the natural infection of the catharrhinus monkeys presented a great resistence to the experimental toxoplasmosis and these resistence is not due to circulating antibodies. These resistence seems to be not broken by the ministration of corticosteroids. However these resistence is broken sometimes by massive dosis of parasites and generally in the young animals; d) these resistence is smaller in the platyrrhinus monkeys and it seems to be absent in the inferior platyrrhinus and in the Prosimii.

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Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: II - Tentativas de infecções experimentais em Macacca mulatta, Cebus apella e Callithrix jacchus; e pesquisa de anticorpos em várias espécies de platyrrhinus

Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: II - Tentativas de infecções experimentais em Macacca mulatta, Cebus apella e Callithrix jacchus; e pesquisa de anticorpos em várias espécies de platyrrhinus Felippe Nery-Guimarães1  Ana Jansen Franken2  Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Seção de Protozoologia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Instituto Estadual de Medicina Veterinária, Brasil RESUMO Após uma revisão da toxoplasmose experimental em primatas não humanos, são relatadas as tentativas, sem êxito, para provocar toxoplasmose aguda e fatal em dois rhesus (Macacca mulatta), um infante e outro jovem, por inoculação e reinoculação de uma amostra humana, usando diferentes vias e doses maciças e ainda com a ministração de decametasona. Do mesmo modo, não teve sucesso a tentativa para induzir a doença fatal em um Cebus apella adulto, pela via peritoneal. Porém a toxoplasmose-infecção nesses 3 animais, foi comprovada pela elevação da temperatura (39 a 41ºC), pela positividade da reação de Sabin-Feldman (1:64 - 1:256) e pelo isolamento de toxoplasmas em camundongos inoculados com material do Cebus. Por outro lado, em um Callithrix jacchus pela inoculação peritoneal, foi provocada doença grave e fatal com focos necróticos e abundãncia de toxoplasmas no baço e fígado, e isolamento dos parasitas em camundongo. De 54 símios do Nõvo Mundo, submetidos a RSF, todos foram negativos, com exceção de um Saimiri que se mostrou positivo a 1:16 (18%). Uma análise do problema Toxoplasmose-Primatas não humanos, com o apoio na revisão da literatura e nas nossas próprias observações (ver também o trabalho anterior) permite as seguintes conclusões: em seu habitat natural os primatas não humanos não são expostos ao Toxoplasma. Isso deve estar relacionado aos hábitos arborícolas e à sua alimentação vegetariana e insetívora; b) os casos descritos de toxoplasmose natural nos símios se referem a animais de cativeiro; e, mesmo nestas condições, é excepcional a infecção espontânea dos catarrinos; c) os catarrinos apresentam, além disso uma grande resistência à indução da toxoplasmose experimental, a qual não é devida à presença de anticorpos circulantes. Essa resistência parece não ser rompida pela administração de corticosteróides; embora às vêzes o seja pela inoculação de doses maciças de toxoplasmas, e geralmente nos animais jovens; d) essa resistência é menor nos platirrinos e parece não existir nos platirrinos inferiores e nos Prosimii. ABSTRACT À la suite d'une revision de la toxoplasmose expérimentale chez les primates non humains on décrit les tentatives, sans succès, pour provoquer une maladie aigüe et fatale en deux rhesus (Macacca mulatta) l'un petit et l'autre jeune, par inoculation e réinoculation d'une souche humaine, utilisant des voies diverses et des doses massives insi que l'administration de decamétasone. De même, la tentative de mener à une maladie fatale un Cebus apella adulte por voie du péritoine n'eut aucume succès. Cependant la toxoplasmose-infection chez ces 3 animaux fut confirmée par l'elevation de la temperature (39 a 40ºC) par la positivité de la reaciton du Sabin-Feldman (RSF) (1:64 et 1:256) et par l'isolement de toxoplasmes chez ler souris inoculés avec le material du Cebrus. Par contre chez un Callithrix jacchus une grave et fatale maladie a été provoquée, par l'inoculation péritoneale, avec des foyers necrotiques et d'abondants toxoplasmes dans la rate et le foie. Des 54 singes du Nouveau Monde, soumís au RSF, tous ont été négatifs sauf un Saimiri sciureus qui s'est montré positif a 1:16 (1,8%). Une analyse du problème Toxoplasme-Primates non humainsi soutenue par une revision de la litterature et de nos propes observations (consulter aussi le travail antérieur) permet les conclusions suivantes: a) dans leur habitat naturel les primates non humaines ne sont pas exposés au Toxoplasme, et cela se doit sans doute aux habitudes arboricoles ainsi qu'à leur alimentation végétarienne et insectivore; b) les cas décrits de toxoplasmose naturel chez les singes se rapportant aux animaux en captivité et même dans ces conditions-là l'induction de la toxoplasmose expérimentale. Cette résistance ne parait pas être rompue par l'administration de corticosteroides malgré qu'elle le soit parfois par l'inoculation de doses massives de toxoplasmes généralement sur de jeunes animaux; d) cette résistance est moins grande chez les plathirrins et semble ne pas exister parmis les plathirrins inférieurs et les Prosimii. ABSTRACT After a review of the experimental toxoplasmosis in non human primates we have reported our unsuccessful tentatives to provoke acute and fatal disease in 2 Macacca mulatta, an infant male and an young female, by inoculation and reinoculation of a human strain from congenital toxoplasmosis, using several routse and massive dosis and with the ministration of corticosteroids. We did not succeed in inducing fatal disease in an adult female Cebus apella by peritoneal and subcutaneous routes. However, the toxoplasmosis infection in these 3 monkeys was comproved by fever (39 to 41ºC), by the positivity of the Sabin-Feldman reaction (1:64 and 1:256) and by the isolation of the toxoplasmes from mice inoculated with material of the Cebus. On the other hand, in a Callithrix jacchus by peritoneal route, we have provoked severe and fatal disease with necrotic foci in the lever and spleen both plenty of parasites, and isolation of toxoplasmes from mice inoculated with material of this monkey. From 54 New World monkeys submeted to the dye test, with the exception of a Saimiri sciureu that reacted at 1:16 title, all of them were negative. An analysis of the problem toxoplasmosis-non human primates, based in the bibliography and in our observation (see the anterior paper too) agree with the following conclusions: a) in its natural habitat the non human primates are not exposed to Toxoplasma infection. This fact must be related to its arboreal habits and vegetarian and insectivorous feeding; b) the described cases of spontaneous toxoplasmosis in monkeys are related to animals in cages; and at this very condition the natural infection of the catharrhinus monkeys presented a great resistence to the experimental toxoplasmosis and these resistence is not due to circulating antibodies. These resistence seems to be not broken by the ministration of corticosteroids. However these resistence is broken sometimes by massive dosis of parasites and generally in the young animals; d) these resistence is smaller in the platyrrhinus monkeys and it seems to be absent in the inferior platyrrhinus and in the Prosimii. ABSTRACT Nach einer experimentellen Toxoplasmose bei nicht menschlichen Primaten, werden in dieser Arbeit die meisslungenden Versuche beschrieben eine akute und fatale Toxoplasmose hervorzubringen an zwei jungen Rhesusaffen (Macacca mulatta). Es wurden mehrere Inokulationen mit einem Stamm von menschlicher Herkunft gemacht, wofür verschiedene Verabreichugsarten und grosse Dosen benutzt wurden. Heirzu wurde auch noch decametasona verabreicht. Ebenfall lscheiterte der Versuch eine fatale Krankheit hervorzurufen an einem erwachsenen Cebus apella durch intraperitonealer Injektion Die Infektion konnte aber bei diesen 3 Tieren nachgewiesen werden: a) Durch die Temperatur erhöung (39 bis 41). b) Durch die Positivität der Sabin-Feldman Reaktion (1:64-1:256). c) Durch die Isolierung von Toxoplasmen aus Mäusen die man mit Material vom Cebus inokulierte. anderseits gelang es an einem Callithrix jacchus durch intraperitonealer Inokulation eine ernsthafte Krankheit zu provozieren, mit nekrotischen foci und grosse mengen Toxoplasmen in der Milz und in der Leber. Weiter konnte man nach Übertrangung auf Mäuse, die Parasiten isolieren. Von 54 Affen der Neuen Welt, die auf der Sabin-Feldman Reaktion untersucht wurden, ergaben alle negativ mit Ausnahme eines Saimiri Affen, der positiv anzeigte mit 1:16 (1,8%). Auf Grund der nachgeforschten Literatur und unseren eigenen Beobahtungen, dürfen wir, was eine Analyse der Toxoplasmose beinicht menschlichen Primaten Problematik anbelangt, die folgenden Folgerungen ziehen: a) in ihren natürlichen Habitat sind die nicht menschlichen Primaten den Toxoplasmen nicht ausgesetzt. Dies soll irgendwie zusammen hängen mit ihrer Nahrung, die hauptsächlich aus Pflanzen und Insekten besteht, und mit ihren Lebensgewohnheiten; b) die beschriebenen Fälle von Spontaner Toxoplasmose in Affen beziehen sich auf Tiere in Gefangenschaft; und selbst in diesen Umständen ist die spontane Infektion der Catharrynus eine Ausnahme; c) ausserdem zeigen die Catharrynus eine grosse Resistenz gegen die Induktion der experimentellen Toxoplasmose. Diese Resistenz ist nicht die Anwesendheitvon Antikörpern zuzuschreiben. Anscheinend wird sie nicht gebrochen durch die Verabreichung von Corticosteroides, obwohl dies passieren kann durch Inokulierung von grossen Dosen Toxoplasmen und dennoch bei jüngeren Tieren; d) diese Resistenz zeigt sich geringer bei den Platyrrhynus und ist anscheinend nicht anwesen bei den niedrigen Platyrrhinus und bei den Prosimii. Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF. Full text available only in PDF format.


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Felippe Nery-Guimarães, Ana Jansen Franken. Toxoplasmose em primatas não humanos: II - Tentativas de infecções experimentais em Macacca mulatta, Cebus apella e Callithrix jacchus; e pesquisa de anticorpos em várias espécies de platyrrhinus, Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 97-111, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761971000200005