Poliembrionia em citrus

Bragantia, Feb 2019

The studies on polyembryony in Citrus reported in this paper show that there is a great variability in the degree of polyembryony among the seeds, fruits and trees of a same form or variety of Citrus. Seeds from different crops of the same plant also show considerable variation in the degree of polyembryony. In order to obtain reliable data on the degree of polyembryony in Citrus the samples for study should include a great number of seeds taken from several fruits of different trees. Since there is a yearly variation on the degree of polyembryony it was found necessary to study samples from several crops. The average number of embryos was determined by direct examination of individual seeds. Determinations based on the number of plants developed from every seed always give lower results as many embryos do not grow into seedlings.

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Poliembrionia em citrus

Poliembrionia em citrus     Sílvio MoreiraI; J. T. A. GurgelI; Lineu F. de ArrudaII ILivre-Docente e assistente da Cadeira de Citologia e Genética da E. S. A. "Luiz de Queiroz" em Piracicaba IIAgrônomo Regional de Limeira     SUMMARY The studies on polyembryony in Citrus reported in this paper show that there is a great variability in the degree of polyembryony among the seeds, fruits and trees of a same form or variety of Citrus. Seeds from different crops of the same plant also show considerable variation in the degree of polyembryony. In order to obtain reliable data on the degree of polyembryony in Citrus the samples for study should include a great number of seeds taken from several fruits of different trees. Since there is a yearly variation on the degree of polyembryony it was found necessary to study samples from several crops. The average number of embryos was determined by direct examination of individual seeds. Determinations based on the number of plants developed from every seed always give lower results as many embryos do not grow into seedlings.     Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF. Full text available only in PDF format.     AGRADECIMENTOS Deixamos aqui consignados os nossos agradecimentos aos Srs. : Eng. Agr. A. J. Rodrigues Filho e Prof. Felipe W. Cabral de Vasconcelos, pelo fornecimento de material dos pomares da Estação Experimental de Limeira e da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", em Piracicaba ; Eng. Agr. C. A. Krug e Prof. F. G. Brieger, pelas sugestões e ajuda dispensadas no decorrer do trabalho.   LITERATURA CITADA 1.  Racchi, O. Observações citológicas em Citrus III. Megasporogênese, fertilização e poliembrionia. Bragantia 4 : 405-412. 1944.         [ Links ] 2.  Brieger, F. G. Limites unilaterais e bilaterais na análise estatística. Bragantia 6 : 479-545. 1946.         [ Links ] 3.  Brieger, F. G., S. Moreira e Z. Leme. Estudo sôbre melhoramento da laranja Baía III. Bragantia 1 : 567-610. 1941.         [ Links ] 4.  Brieger, F. G., A. R. Lima e R. Forster. Comportamento de varideades e progênies de fumo na resistência ao "vira-cabeça". Bragantia 2 : 275-294. 1942.         [ Links ] 5.  Brieger, F. G. e S. Moreira. Experiências de cavalos para Citrus II. Bragantia 5 : 597-658, figs. 1 a 5. 1945.         [ Links ] 6.  Frost, H. B. Poliembryony, Heterozygosis and Chimeras in Citrus. Hilgardia 1 : 365-402. 1926.         [ Links ] 7.  Frost, H. B. The Genetics and Citology of Citrus. Current. Sci. Especial Number of Genetics : 24-27. 1938.         [ Links ] 8.  Frost, H. B. Em Citrus Industry I (History, Botany, and Breeding) pg. 767-913. Univ. Cal. Press, Berkeley e Los Angeles, U.S.A., 1943.         [ Links ] 9.  Gurgel, J. T. A. Análise Estatística da Distribuição de Poisson. Anais da E.S.A. "Luiz de Queiroz" 2 : 300-319. 1945.         [ Links ] 10.  Hatton, R. G. Investigations on Standarlization of Citrus Trees by Propagation Methods. Imp. Bur. Fruit. Production, Tech. Comm. 3 : . 1932        [ Links ] 11.  Hodgson, R. W. Effects on reproduction by nucellar embriony on clonal characteristics in Citrus. Jour. Heredity 29 : 417-419. 1938.         [ Links ] 12.  Krug, C. A. e O. Bacchi. Observações citológicas em Citrus II. Variedades triplóides. Bragantia 4 : 393-404. 1944.         [ Links ] 13.  Moreira, S. Experiências de cavalos para Citrus I. Bragantia 1 : 525-565. 1941.         [ Links ] 14.  Moreira, S. Observações sôbre a tristeza dos Citrus ou podridão das radicelas. O Biológico 8 : 269-272. 1942.         [ Links ] 15.  Moreira, S. e J. T. A. Gurgel. A fertilidade do pólen e sua correlação com o número de sementes, em espécies e formas do gênero Citrus. Bragantia 1 : 669-711. 1941.         [ Links ] 16.  Navarro de Andrade, E. Em Manual de Citricultura (I. Parte). Ed. Chácaras e Quintais, pág. 1-198. S. Paulo, 1933.         [ Links ] 17.  Osawa, I. Cytological and experimental studies in Citrus. Jour. Col. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 4 : 83-116. 1912.         [ Links ] 18.  Strassburger, E. Ueber Polyembryonie. Jenaische Ztschr. fur Naturw. 12 : 647- 667. 1878.         [ Links ] 19.  Swingle, W. T. Recapitulation of seedling characters by nucellar buds developing in the embryo sac of Citrus. Proceed. Sixtti Internat. Cong. Genetics 2 : 196-197. 1932.         [ Links ] 20.  Swingle, W. T. Em Citrus Industry I (History, Botany and Breeding), pg. 129- 472, Univ. Cal. Press., Berkeley e Los Angeles, U.S.A., 1943.         [ Links ] 21.  Torres, J. P. Progress report on Citrus Hybridization. The Philip. Jour. Agric. 3 : 217-229. 1932.         [ Links ] 22.  Torres, J. P. Polyembriony in Citrus and study of hybrid seedlings. Philip. Jour. Agr. 7 : 37-58. 1936.         [ Links ] 23.  Toxopeus, H. J. De Polyembrionie Van Citrus. Haar Beteekenis Voor de Cultuur, Landbouw. 6 : 1-15, 1930/31.         [ Links ] 24.  Traub, Hamilton P. Artificial control of nucellar embryony in Citrus. Science 83 : 165-166. 1936.         [ Links ] 25.  Webber, H. J. Complications in Citrus hybridization caused by polyembriony. Science 11 : 308. 1900.         [ Links ] 26.  Webber, H. J. The economic importance of apogamy in Citrus and Mangifera. Proceed. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 28 : 57-61. 1931.         [ Links ] 27.  Webber, H. J. Variation in Citrus Seedling and their Relation to Rootstock Selection. Hilgardia 7 : 1-79. 1932.         [ Links ] 28.  Webber, H. J. Em Citrus Industry I (History, Botany and Breeding) pg. 475-668, Univ. Cal. Press, Berkeley e Los Angeles, U.S.A., 1943.         [ Links ]


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Sílvio Moreira, J. T. A. Gurgel, Lineu F. de Arruda. Poliembrionia em citrus, Bragantia, 69-106, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051947000300002