Determinação do período de tempo para amonificação e nitrificação de diversos fertilizantes nitrogenados

Bragantia, Feb 2019

In this paper results obtained with the phenomenon of ammonification and nitrification in several nitrogen fertilizers are presented. The objective was the determination of the intensity and evolution of these phenomena. For this purpose an experiment was set up including the following nitrogenous fertilizers: ammonium sulfate, urea, castor bean cake, blood meal, horn and hoof meal and calciumcyanamide. The experiment was conducted during 40 days; after each ten days period, samples of the different treatments were taken and ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen were determined. The results obtained show that the calciumcyanamide fertilizer ammonified more intensively, being followed by urea, castor bean cake, blood meal and finally horn and hoof meal. On the other hand concerning the phenomenon of nitrification, the results indicate that the castor bean cake nitrified the most, being followed in descrescent order by urea, horn and hoof meal, blood meal and ammonium sulfate. Results of calciumcyanamide analyses always presented traces of nitric nitrogen, showing that practically no nitrification ocurred during the 40 days of the experiment.

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Determinação do período de tempo para amonificação e nitrificação de diversos fertilizantes nitrogenados

Determinação do período de tempo para amonificação e nitrificação de diversos fertilizantes nitrogenados   Determination op the period of time needed for ammonification and nitrification of several nitrogenous fertilizers     H. Gargantini; R. A.Catani(*) Engenheiros-agrônomo, Seção de Fertilidade do Solo, Instituto Agronômico     RESUMO Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em estudos preliminares sôbre a determinação da intensidade e evolução do fenômeno de amonificação e nitrificação em diversos fertilizantes nitrogenados, empregando-se terra roxa-misturada e os seguintes fertilizantes: sulfato de amônio, uréia, torta de mamona, farinha de sangue, farinha de chifres e cascos e calciocianamida. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que a calciocianamida foi o fertilizante que se amonificou mais intensamente, vindo a seguir a uréia, a torta de mamona, a farinha de sangue e, finalmente, a farinha de chifres e cascos. Já para o fenômeno de nitrificação, os resultados indicam a seguinte ordem decrescente: torta de mamona, uréia, farinha de chifres e cascos, farinha de sangue e sulfato de amônio. A calciocianamida, dosada no seu teor em nitrogênio nítrico, apresentou sempre traços, mostrando que foi praticamente nula a sua nitrificação no prazo de 40 dias de duração do ensaio. SUMMARY In this paper results obtained with the phenomenon of ammonification and nitrification in several nitrogen fertilizers are presented. The objective was the determination of the intensity and evolution of these phenomena. For this purpose an experiment was set up including the following nitrogenous fertilizers: ammonium sulfate, urea, castor bean cake, blood meal, horn and hoof meal and calciumcyanamide. The experiment was conducted during 40 days; after each ten days period, samples of the different treatments were taken and ammoniacal and nitric nitrogen were determined. The results obtained show that the calciumcyanamide fertilizer ammonified more intensively, being followed by urea, castor bean cake, blood meal and finally horn and hoof meal. On the other hand concerning the phenomenon of nitrification, the results indicate that the castor bean cake nitrified the most, being followed in descrescent order by urea, horn and hoof meal, blood meal and ammonium sulfate. Results of calciumcyanamide analyses always presented traces of nitric nitrogen, showing that practically no nitrification ocurred during the 40 days of the experiment.     Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF. Full text available only in PDF format.     LITERATURA CITADA 1.  COWIE, G. A. The mechanism of the decomposition of cyanamide in the soil. J. agric. Sci. 10: [163]-176. 1920.         [ Links ] 2.  CROWTHER, E. M. & RICHARDSON, H. J. Studies of calcium cyanamide. I - The decomposition of calcium cyanamide in the soil and its effects on germination, nitrification and soil reaction. J. agric. Sci. 22:[300]-347. 1932.         [ Links ] 3.  HAMMENCE, J. H. A method for the determination of relative availability of nitrogen in nitrogenous fertilizers. J. Sci. Pd Agrie. 1:92-96. 1950.         [ Links ] 4.  HILLEBRAND, W. F. & LUNDELL, G. E. F. Applied inorganic analysis. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1929. p. 643.         [ Links ] 5.  MCCOOL, M. M. Properties and uses of calcium cyanamide. Prof. Pap. Boyce Thompson Inst. 1:226-239. 1933.         [ Links ] 6.  PRINCE, A. L. Determination of total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrates and nitrites in soils. Soil Sci. 59: [47]-52. 1945.         [ Links ] 7.  SMOCK, R. M. Some physiological studies with calcium cyanamide and certain of its decomposition products. Wooster, Ohio agric. Exp. Sta., 1953. 46 p. (Bulletin n. 555)        [ Links ] 8.  SNELL, F. D. & SNELL, C. T. Colorimetric methods of analysis. New York, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., 1936. p. 649.         [ Links ] 9.  TISDALE, S. L., NELSON, W. L., WELCH, C. D. [e outros]. Sources of nitrogen in crop production. Raleigh, N. C. agrie. Exp. Sta., 1952. 63 p. (Technical Bulletin n. 96)        [ Links ] 10.  VERDADE, F. C. Dosagem dos nitratos do solo pelo método do ácido fenoldissulfônico. Bragantia 11:[1]-12. 1951.         [ Links ]     Recebido para publicação em 31 de agôsto de 1957.     (*) Atualmente na Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", em Piracicaba.


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H. Gargantini, R. A. Catani. Determinação do período de tempo para amonificação e nitrificação de diversos fertilizantes nitrogenados, Bragantia, 261-268, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051957000100019