Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XII - Variabilidade em linhas puras de café

Bragantia, Feb 2019

Three isogenic progenies of Red Bourbon coffee (Coffea arabica L.var. bourbon (B. Rodr.) Choussy) were investigated in relation to several characteristics in a balanced lattice experiment with 16 entries, five replications, each plot with four individual plants. Two of these isogenic progenies were obtained by artificial self-pollination of two plants which were derived from haploid sporophytes after their chromosomes were duplicated (357-21 and RP 13). The third isogenic progeny is the F1 of the hybrid between those duplicated plants (H 1934). Among the remaining 13 entries of this trial more attention was given to the following progenies of Red Bourbon coffee: 959, S0 from open pollinated seeds taken in a private farm; 43-18-11, selfed S3 from a selected plant; 43-7-7-15 and 43-7-19-13, selfed S4 progenies of similar pedigrees. Plant height was measured for all entries five years after transplantation to the field. It was observed that the F1 did not show heterosis for this characteristic, its average height being intermediate between those of the two isogenic progenies. The within plot variance presented by the F1 is equal to that of one of the pure lines and close to that of the other. The average height presented by the S3 and the S4 progenies originally derived from plant C 43 suggests that successive selfing does not reduce plant height (Table 3). Total yields in kilograms of riped fruits of individual plants were recorded for the first three years of crops. The mean yield of the F1 is higher than those of the two isogenic lines, although this difference is not significant. The within plot variance of yields is smaller for the F1 than for the two pure lines, but again the differences are not significant. When separate analyses were made for the annual crops of the three isogenic progenies, it was seen that the smallest within plot variance was presented by the F1 in two of the three years. The within plot variances for the total yields of the S3 and S4 progenies were higher than those presented by the isogenic progenies, showing a tendency to become larger with successive selfings (Tables 4 and 5). Observations were also made on the percentages of three different seed types produced by coffee plants, namely, the flat, normal seeds, "moca" (peaberry) and "concha" seeds. "Moca" seeds result from the development of a single ovule after a precocious abortion of the second ovule in the ovary. "Concha" seeds are those born from independent ovules which may eventually occur in the same fruit lo-cule. Abnormal frequencies of these abnormal seed types are clearly under genetic control and apparently the percentage of "moca" beans is more subjected to environmental influences. Lower percentages of "moca" seeds were found for the F1 hybrid than for the two pure lines. The value of the F1 variance for percentage of "moca" is intermediate between those of the pure lines and closer to the highest vafcie. Higher variances in the percentage of this seed type were found for the other progenies, showing also a tendency to increase with more generations of selfing. The percentages of "concha" seeds were not different among the three isogenic lines, the F1 variance for this seed type being intermediate. Higher variances for the percentage of "concha" seeds were found for the other progenies, together with an indication that successive selfings may reduce the incidence of this seed types (Tables 6 and 7). Seed size was graded for all plants during the three years of crop in a series of sieves differing by 1/64 of an inch. No differences were noticed between isogenic progenies, although the F1 variance for seed size was lower (Table 8). It is concluded that a definite trend can not be observed for the variability within isogenic progenies of the arabian coffee plant, which is a predominantly autogamous species. Depending on the characteristic under observation, the variances of the F1 hybrid may be lower, equal to or higher than the variances presented by the isogenic progenies of the homozygous plants that entered the cross. (Table 9). Although these data refer only to the first three years of crop, it may be pointed out that no instance was found where the Fx presented higher variances than those of the two isogenic progenies.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

http://www.scielo.br/pdf/brag/v16nunico/14.pdf

Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XII - Variabilidade em linhas puras de café

Melhoramento do cafeeiro. XII - Variabilidade em linhas puras de café(*)   Coffee breeding. XII - Variability within isogenic coffee progenies     H. Antunes Filho; A. Carvalho Engenheiros-agrônomos, Seção de Genética, Instituto Agronômico     RESUMO Três progênies isogênicas de café Bourbon Vermelho, duas oriundas de cafeeiros haplóides (357-21 e RP 13) que tiveram os cromossomos duplicados e outra correspondente ao F1 (H 1934) do cruzamento entre esses dois cafeeiros, foram estudadas com relação a vários característicos, em um ensaio tipo látice balanceado, onde entraram 13 outras progênies de origens diversas. Dentre estas destacam-se as progênies Bourbon Vermelho 959 correspondente a S0, 43-18-11 correspondente a S3 do cafeeiro 43 e 43-7-7-15 e 43-7-19-13 correspondente a S4 dessa mesma planta, as quais também foram analisadas com detalhes. Com relação à altura das plantas no campo não se notou heterose no híbrido Fr que apresenta altura média intermediária. Também as autofecundações sucessivas parecem não influir na redução do vigor vegetativo. Os dados obtidos foram aproveitados para análise da variabilidade desse característico, calculando-se a variância para os canteiros e a variância total, bem como sua homogeneidade. Notou-se que Fx apresenta variância igual à de uma das linhas puras e muito próxima da outra. Das duas linhas puras, a de número 357-21Dp mostrou-se pouco mais variável, cinco anos após a transplantação para o local definitivo. Embora o híbrido F1 tenha produzido mais café cereja no conjunto de três anos do que as linhas puras, a diferença não foi significativa. O híbrido se mostrou menos variável quanto a este característico, embora as variâncias não sejam também significativamente diferentes. Nas outras progénies estudadas os valores da variância foram bem maiores, com tendência de aumento com as sucessivas autofecundações. As linhas isogênicas analisadas ano por ano deram indicações de que a variância do híbrido permaneceu menor, com exceção de um ano apenas. Variação bem acentuada foi encontrada entre as progénies constantes do ensaio no tocante às porcentagens de sementes do tipo moca. O híbrido H 1934 apresentou menor quantidade de sementes moca do que as linhas puras e significativamente menos que a progênie 357-21 Dp. Quanto à variabilidade, a do híbrido se mostrou intermediária, aproximando-se da linha pura com variância maior. As variâncias das outras progênies estudadas são bem mais elevadas, notando-se tendência de aumento com as autofecundações sucessivas. Com relação às sementes concha, a porcentagem média para o híbrido não difere das linhas puras e o valor da variância é intermediário. Para as demais progênies analisadas os valores das variâncias são maiores e mostram tendência de redução com as autofecundações. O valor da peneira média correspondente ao tamanho das sementes não difere para as três linhas isogênicas, a variabilidade sendo, porém, menor para o híbrido. Para as outras progênies não se notou redução do tamanho como efeito da autofecundação e as suas variâncias não mostram tendência de aumento ou redução nas gerações estudadas. Dos itens analisados, destacam-se como mais promissores do ponto de vista da produção e altura das plantas (a qual pode representar o vigor vegetativo) a progénie de Bourbon Vermelho 959 e a de Bourbon Amarelo J 24ex. Dependendo do característico analisado, notou-se que a variância entre plantas nos canteiros do híbrido F1 pode ser igual, intermediária ou menor do que a das linhas puras. Em nenhum caso, porém, a variância do híbrido se mostrou maior que a das linhas puras. SUMMARY Three isogenic progenies of Red Bourbon coffee (Coffea arabica L.var. bourbon (B. Rodr.) Choussy) were investigated in relation to several characteristics in a balanced lattice experiment with 16 entries, five replications, each plot with four individual plants. Two of these isogenic progenies were obtained by artificial self-pollination of two plants which were derived from haploid sporophytes after their chromosomes were duplicated (357-21 and RP 13). The third isogenic progeny is the F1 of the hybrid between those duplicated plants (H 1934). Among the remaining 13 entries of this trial more attention was given to the following progenies of Red Bourbon coffee: 959, S0 from open pollinated seeds taken in a private farm; 43-18-11, selfed S3 from a selected plant; 43-7-7-15 and 43-7-19-13, selfed S4 progenies of similar pedigrees. Plant height was measured for all entries five years after transplantation to the field. It was observed that the F1 did not show heterosis for this characteristic, its average height being intermediate between those of the two isogenic progenies. The within plot variance presented by the F1 is equal to that of one of the pure lines and close to that of the other. The average height presented by the S3 and the S4 progenies originally derived from plant C 43 suggests that successive selfing does not reduce plant height (Table 3). Total yields in kilograms of riped fruits of individual plants were recorded for the first three years of crops. The mean yield of the F1 is higher than those of the two isogenic lines, although this difference is not significant. The within plot variance of yields is smaller for the F1 than for the two pure lines, but again the differences are not significant. When separate analyses were made for the annual crops of the three isogenic progenies, it was seen that the smallest within plot variance was presented by the F1 in two of the three years. The within plot variances for the total yields of the S3 and S4 progenies were higher than those presented by the isogenic progenies, showing a tendency to become larger with successive selfings (Tables 4 and 5). Observations were also made on the percentages of three different seed types produced by coffee plants, namely, the flat, normal seeds, "moca" (peaberry) and "concha" seeds. "Moca" seeds result from the development of a single ovule after a precocious abortion of the second ovule in the ovary. "Concha" seeds are those born from independent ovules which may eventually occur in the same fruit lo-cule. Abnormal frequencies of these abnormal seed types are clearly under genetic control and apparently the percentage of "moca" beans is more subjected to environmental influences. Lower percentages of "moca" seeds were found for the F1 hybrid than for the two pure lines. The value of the F1 variance for percentage of "moca" is intermediate between those of the pure lines and closer to the highest vafcie. Higher variances in the percentage of this seed type were found for the other progenies, showing also a tendency to increase with more generations of selfing. The percentages of "concha" seeds were not different among the three isogenic lines, the F1 variance for this seed type being intermediate. Higher variances for the percentage of "concha" seeds were found for the other progenies, together with an indication that successive selfings may reduce the incidence of this seed types (Tables 6 and 7). Seed size was graded for all plants during the three years of crop in a series of sieves differing by 1/64 of an inch. No differences were noticed between isogenic progenies, although the F1 variance for seed size was lower (Table 8). It is concluded that a definite trend can not be observed for the variability within isogenic progenies of the arabian coffee plant, which is a predominantly autogamous species. Depending on the characteristic under observation, the variances of the F1 hybrid may be lower, equal to or higher than the variances presented by the isogenic progenies of the homozygous plants that entered the cross. (Table 9). Although these data refer only to the first three years of crop, it may be pointed out that no instance was found where the Fx presented higher variances than those of the two isogenic progenies.     Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF. Full text available only in PDF format.     LITERATURA CITADA 1.  CARVALHO, A. Taxonomia de Coffea arabica L. VI. Característicos morfológicos dos haplóides. Bragantia 12: [201]-212. 1952.         [ Links ] 2.  DOBZHANSKY, TH. & LEVENE, H. Genetics of natural populations. XXIV. Development homeostasis in natural populations of Drosophila pseudo-obscura. Genetics 40:797-808. 1955.         [ Links ] 3.  GUSTAFSSON, A. The effect of heterozygosity on variability and vigour. Hereditas 32:263-285. 1946.         [ Links ] 4.  JONES, D. F. Continued inbreeding in maize. Genetics 24:462-473. 1939.         [ Links ] 5.  KRUG, C. A. & CARVALHO, A. Coffee breeding. In International Horticultural Congress, 13th., London, 1952. Report, p. 1199-1209.         [ Links ] 6.  LERNER, I. M. Genetic homeostasis. London, Oliver and Boyd, 1954, 134 p.         [ Links ] 7.  MALINOWSKY, E. Studies on hybrid vigour in Phaseolus vulgaris (L) Savi. Part I. Z. induk. Abstamm.-u. Vererb-Lehre 70:96-124. 1935.         [ Links ] 8.  MENDES, A. J. T. Observações citológicas em Coffea. XI. Métodos de tratamento pela colchicina. Bragantia 7: [221]-230. 1947.         [ Links ] 9.  ________ Observações citológicas em Coffea. XII. Uma nova forma tetraplóide. Bragantia 9: [29]-34. 1949.         [ Links ] 10.  MERTENS, T. R.( BURDICK, A. B. & GOMES, F. R. Phenotypic stability in rate of maturation of heterozygotes for induced chlorophyl mutations in tomato. Genetics 41:791-803. 1956.         [ Links ] 11.  PALMER, T. P. Population and selection studies in a Triticum cross. Heredity 6:171-185. 1952.         [ Links ] 12.  POWERS, L. The nature of the series of environment variances and the estimation of the genetic variances and the geometric means in crosses involving species of Lycopersicon. Genetics 27:561-575. 1942.         [ Links ]     Recebido para publicação em 7 de maio de 1957.     Os autores agradecem as sugestões apresentadas pelos eng. agrs. Constantino G. Fraga Júnior e Armando Conagin, quanto à análise estatística efetuada. (*) Trabalho apresentado durante a III Semana de Genética, realizada em Piracicaba de 25 a 28 de março de 1956, sob o patrocínio da Sociedade Brasileira de Genética.


This is a preview of a remote PDF: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/brag/v16nunico/14.pdf

H. Antunes Filho, A. Carvalho. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XII - Variabilidade em linhas puras de café, Bragantia, 197-214, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87051957000100014