Tour d'horizon des mouches des fruits impliquées dans la production fruitière sur la côte du Monténégro
Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ.
Overview of fruit flies important for fruit production on the Montenegro seacoast
Sanja Radonji? 0
Snje?ana Hrn?i? 0
Tatjana Perovi? 1
0 University of Montenegro, Biotechnical Faculty, Department for Plant Protection , Mihaila Lalic?a 1, 81000 Podgorica , Montenegro
1 University of Montenegro, Biotechnical Faculty, Department for Subtropical Cultures , Bjelis?i bb, 85000 Bar , Montenegro
Description of the subject. Fruit flies are a large group of pests belonging to the order Diptera. The family Tephritidae is one of two fly families referred to as ?fruit flies?. Tephritidae (true fruit flies) represent one of the largest families of flies and are part of a group of the most destructive agricultural pests in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables. The other fruit fly family is the Drosophilidae, often called ?vinegar flies?. There are also fly species from other Diptera families that attack the fruits of agricultural crops. Objectives. Due to its favorable geographic position and Mediterranean climate, the Montenegro seacoast is suited to fruit and vegetable production. The aim of this study was to make an inventory of the fruit fly species affecting fruit crops on the Montenegro seacoast. Method. The study area was 300 km along the Montenegro coast. Different types of traps (lure attractants, pheromone, and yellow sticky traps) were used for the monitoring, detection and recording of the spread of fruit flies in the area. Results. From an economic point of view, the most important species of fruit flies recorded were the Bactrocera oleae Gmel. and Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. Rhagoletis cerasi L. and Carpomya vesuviana Costa were also found to be present. Although several specimens of Rhagoletis cingulata Loew were detected in 2013-2014, this species has not, to date, been considered as established in the area of study. After the first detection of Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in 2013, this fruit fly was found to spread rapidly, and its presence is now observed along the whole Montenegro seacoast. One of the fruit fly species recorded, Silba adipata McAlpine, is considered to be one of the most destructive pests for fig production in Montenegro. Conclusions. Of seven species recorded in the study, five belonged to the family Tephritidae, and one each to Drosophilidae and Lonchaeidae.
Tour d'horizon des mouches des fruits impliqu?es dans la production fruiti?re sur la c?te du Mont?n?gro
Description du sujet. Les mouches des fruits repr?sentent un grand groupe de ravageurs qui appartiennent ? l?ordre des
Dipt?res. La famille des Tephritidae (les vraies mouches des fruits) est l?une des deux familles de mouches appel?es mouches
des fruits. Elle appartient ? l?une des plus importantes familles et au groupe de ravageurs agricoles les plus destructeurs au
monde qui s?attaquent ? un large ?ventail de fruits et de l?gumes charnus. La seconde famille est celle des Drosophilidae,
aussi appel?e ? mouches du vinaigre ?. Il existe d?autres esp?ces de mouches appartenant ? d?autres familles de Dipt?res qui
attaquent les fruits des cultures agricoles.
Objectifs. Gr?ce ? la position g?ographique favorable et au climat m?diterran?en, la c?te du Mont?n?gro est propice ? la
production de fruits et l?gumes. L?objectif de ce travail est l?inventaire des esp?ces de mouches des fruits affectant les cultures
fruiti?res des c?tes du Mont?n?gro.
M?thode. La zone d??tude est de 300 km, le long de la c?te du Mont?n?gro. Diff?rents types de pi?ges (attractifs, ph?romones,
pi?ges collants jaunes) ont ?t? utilis?s pour la surveillance, la d?tection et la distribution des mouches des fruits.
R?sultats. Du point de vue ?conomique, les plus importantes esp?ces sont Bactrocera oleae Gmel. et Ceratitis capitata
Wiedem. Les esp?ces Rhagoletis cerasi L. et Carpomya vesuviana Costa sont pr?sentes aussi. Bien que plusieurs sp?cimens de
Rhagoletis cingulata Loew aient ?t? d?tect?s en 2013-2014, cette esp?ce n?est pas consid?r?e comme ?tablie jusqu?? pr?sent.
Apr?s la premi?re d?tection de Drosophila suzukii Matsumura en 2013, les ravageurs se sont rapidement propag?s et sont
maintenant pr?sents le long de toute la c?te du Mont?n?gro. Silba adipata McAlpine est consid?r?e comme l?un des ravageurs
les plus destructeurs de la production de figues au Mont?n?gro.
Conclusions. Sur sept esp?ces recens?es, cinq appartiennent ? la famille des Tephritidae, une ? la famille des Drosophilidae
et une ? la famille des Lonchaeidae.
Mots-cl?s. Insecte nuisible, d?g?ts, infestation, dynamique des populations, distribution spatiale.
The insect order Diptera is one of the most
speciesrich, anatomically varied, and ecologically innovative
groups of organisms, making up 10-15% of known
animal species.An estimated 150,000 species of Diptera
have been described (Groombridge, 19921; Thompson,
20052) although the actual total number of extant fly
species is many times that number
(Yeates et al., 2007)
The family Tephritidae, true fruit flies, includes more
than 4,000 species, arranged in 500 genera, and it is
amongst the largest families of Diptera. The larvae
of most of the tephritid species develop in the
seedbearing organs of plants, and about 35% of the species
attack soft fruits, including many commercial fruits.
Besides attacking soft fruits, the larvae of about 40% of
tephritid species develop in the flowers of Asteraceae
and most of the remaining species are associated
with the flowers of other families (White &
ElsonHarris, 1992). Tephritid fruit flies cause devastating
direct losses to many fresh fruits and vegetables, and
there are about 250 species of Tephritidae that have
been known to attack fruits that are either grown
commercially, or harvested from the wild. Some
species have become pests in regions far removed
from their native range. Few insect species have a
greater impact on international marketing and world
trade in agricultural products than tephritid fruit flies.
With expanding international trade, fruit flies, as major
quarantine pests of fruits and vegetables, have taken
on added importance, triggering the implementation
of area-wide national or regional control programs. In
addition, quarantine restrictions have to be imposed to
limit further spread of fruit fly pests
ElsonHarris, 1992; FAO/IAEA, 2003)
. Although geneticists
and some entomologists use ?fruit flies? as the term for
the dipteran family Drosophilidae, the term is primarily
applied to tephritids. The family Drosophilidae is a
diverse, cosmopolitan family of flies that includes
over 3,000 described species, distributed all over the
world (Wheeler, 19863). The family Drosophilidae are
1 Groombridge B., ed., 1992. Global biodiversity: status of
the Earth?s living resources. London: Chapman and Hall,
cited in Yeates et al. (2007).
2 Thompson F.C., ed., 2005. Biosystematic database of
world diptera. Version 7.5, cited in
Yeates et al. (2007)
3 Wheeler M.R., 1986. Additions to the catalog of the
world?s Drosophilidae. In: Ashburner M., Thompson J.N. &
Carson H.L., eds. The genetics and biology of Drosophila,
Vol. 3. London: Academic Press, 1-105, cited in Yeates
et al., 2007, cited in
Remsen & O?Grady (2002)
considered to be nuisance flies rather than pests, since
most of the family?s species breed in rotting material.
Some members of the genus Drosophila are parasitic
and some drosophilid larvae are predatory, feeding
upon bee larvae, scale insects, and even frog and
(Ashburner, 1989; Carson, 19744)
the 1,500 species of Drosophila (Markow & O?Grady,
20065), commonly known as vinegar flies, most are not
defined as pests because they infest overripe, fallen,
. The spotted wing
drosophila (Drosophila suzukii Matsumura) is one of
only two species known to oviposit in healthy fruits
as opposed to fruit that is damaged or overripe (Sasaki
& Sato, 19956; Sasaki & Sato, 19967). There are also
fly species from other Diptera families that attack the
fruits of agricultural crops. The Lonchaeidae, a small
family with 500 species in nine genera is known
worldwide and is found in a wide range of habitats. In
Europe, there are over 100 described species in eight
genera. Although primarily associated with living
or decaying plant tissue, including herbs and trees in
Europe, many species live under the bark of dead and
dying trees, or in decomposed wood. The larvae of
Silba and Lamprolonchacea usually develop in fruits
and vegetables, and sometimes appear as a pest of
commercial crops (Ferrar, 19878).
Fruit flies cause direct damage by puncturing the
fruit skin to lay eggs underneath it. Hatched larvae
cause the destruction of host fruits, converting the
flesh into an inedible mass (qualitative damage).
Infested fruits often drop prematurely. This results in
a reduction in fruit production (quantitative damage),
increasing insecticide use and production costs, and
causing problems with international trade.
4 Carson H.L., 1974. Three flies and three islands: parallel
evolution in Drosophila. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 71,
3517-3521, cited in
Remsen & O?Grady (2002)
5 Markow T.A. & O?Grady P.M., 2006. Drosophila: a guide
to species identification and use. London : Academic Press,
13, cited in
Walsh et al. (2011)
6 Sasaki M. & Sato R., 1995. Bionomics of the cherry
drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera:
Drosophilidae) in Fukushima prefecture (Japan). Annu.
Rep. Soc. Plant Prot. North Japan, 46, 164-172, cited in
Walsh et al. (2011)
7 Sasaki M. & Sato R., 1996. Bionomics of Drosophila
pulchrella Tan, Hus et Sheng (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in
Fukushima prefecture (Japan). Tohoku Agric. Res., 49,
161162, cited in
Walsh et al. (2011)
8 Ferrar P., 1987. A guide to the breeding habits and
immature stages of Diptera Cyclorrhapha. In: Lyneborg L.,
ed. Entomonograph. Vol. 8, part 1: text. Leiden,
The Netherlands: Brill, cited in MacGowan & Freidberg,
In Montenegro, plant production is generally
characterized by a large number of small agricultural
holdings, all of which grow different crops. Favorable
natural conditions enable the production of fruits
(citrus and continental), viticulture, olives, crops,
. According to
the Statistical Yearbook of Montenegro
, total production in tonnes of some important
fruits and olives in 2016 was as follows: olives 766.50,
mandarins 4,485, peaches 884.60, apples 7,968.10,
plums 13,127.60, pears 2,612.70, and grapes 30,153.
The most economically important tree fruit crops from
the Montenegro seacoast are citrus and olive. Although
these fruits are primarily for the domestic market, there
is some exportation of mandarins and olive oil.
, citrus production
is the highest (24.4%), with satsuma mandarins (Citrus
unshiu Marc.) being the crop most predominantly
grown. Olive trees are the oldest subtropical crop on
the Montenegro seacoast, with a cultivation tradition
of over 2,000 years. The number of olive trees is
489,520, with a constant growth in numbers over
the last ten years. The most predominant domestic
cultivar is ??utica? (65%), followed by other domestic
and introduced cultivars
fruit species, such as figs, persimmons, pomegranate,
jujube, actinidia, apples, stone fruits, and grapes are of
lesser importance. According to
damage caused by Ceratitis capitata resulted in a
premature fruit drop rate, in 2000 and 2001, of up to
80% in some mandarin plantations on the Montenegro
seacoast. Depending on the year, the olive fly may
reduce crop production by up to 40-50% (
& Mir?eti?, 1955
An overview of tephritid fruit flies and other
dipteran flies recorded as a pest of fruit species on the
Montenegro seacoast is presented in this paper.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1. Study area
The study area covered 300 km along the Montenegro
seacoast, which borders the Adriatic Sea, between
41?52? and 42?29? north latitude and 18?26?and 20?22?
east longitude, with an elevation above sea level of
up to 140 m. The climate of this area is characterized
by long, warm summers and mild winters, with
large amounts of precipitation
, and is
classified as Mediterranean
. With the
exception of the areas of Ulcinj and Bar, where most
commercial groves of citrus and olives are situated,
the rest of the seacoast is characterized by small,
mixed family orchards (mostly growing mandarins,
olives, figs, persimmons, jujube, peaches, apples,
and pomegranates). These fruits are also grown in
the backyards of private houses. In both these small
growing areas control methods against pests are rarely
used. For the purposes of the present study, visual
inspections were made by the authors, in order to
monitor and detect the presence of fruit fly species
in the area. These inspections were authorized by the
Phytosanitary Directorate of Montenegro, Ministry
of Agriculture and Rural Development (Figure 1,
2.2. Fruit fly monitoring
Two species, the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Gmel.)
and the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata
Wiedem.) have been under continuous monitoring for
many years, as they were already established in the area
of study, while other fruit fly species were found in situ
during regular field inspections. Three different types
of traps (lure attractants, pheromone, and yellow sticky
traps) were used for the monitoring and detection of
the presence and spread of pests.
Throughout the years of monitoring, the following
traps and attractants were used for C. capitata (in
chronological order): McPhail traps with angelica seed
oil (2002-2003); Jackson traps with para-pheromone
BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA
1: Ulcinj; 2: Bar; 3: ?u?anj; 4: Budva; 5: Lastva Grbaljska; 6:
Radanovi?i; 7: Bigova; 8: Bao?i?i; 9: ?enovi?i; 10: Kumbor; 11:
Trimedlure (TML) ? a male-specific attractant
(20042006); McPhail traps with a mixture of hydrolyzed
protein (Buminal) + diammonium hydrogen phosphate, 4:1
(2006-2008); Tephri traps baited with three-component
female-biased dry food attractant (ammonium acetate,
trimethylamine, and putrescine) from Suterra (Bend,
OR, USA) and insecticide dichlorvos (DDVP stripes)
from AgriSense-BSC Ltd. (Pontypridd, South Wales,
UK) (used continuously since 2008); and Jackson traps
(Scentry Biologicals INC., Billings, MO, USA) with
Trimedlure (used continuously since 2013).
Traps were set up and were regularly checked
from mid-May to the end of December in commercial
citrus orchards, as well as in small mixed orchards and
backyards, and were checked at two-week intervals
along the whole coastal area. In some cases, several traps
remained in place throughout the winter in backyards or
small mixed orchards in urban areas.
Throughout the years of monitoring, the following
traps and attractants were used for B. oleae: McPhail
traps baited with ammonia salts (diammonium hydrogen
phosphate or ammonium sulphate, 2-4%) continuously,
and yellow sticky traps since 2004. Traps were set up in
mid-June and checked at weekly intervals until the end
of October/beginning of November (olive harvesting
season). Since 1998, traps had also been set up and
checked continuously in commercial olive orchards in
two main production areas (Ulcinj and Bar), as well as
sporadically along the whole seacoast.
Yellow sticky traps were used for the ber fruit fly
(Carpomya vesuviana Costa) in backyards and were
checked at 7-15 day intervals from mid-June to the end
October in 2012 in the localities of Budva, Bar, and
McPhail traps baited with ammonium acetate, used
for the eastern cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata
Loew), were set up in mixed orchards, during the period
2013-2016 in the localities of Lastva Grbaljska, Bigova,
Bao?i?i, Bar, and Ulcinj.
Tephri traps baited with the three-component
synthetic dry food attractant and insecticide DDVP
were used for the monitoring of Drosophila suzukii
from 2014. Traps were set up along the whole seacoast
in mixed orchards from mid-May and were moved into
the orchard following the pheno-phase of development
of available host fruits.
No traps were used for the European cherry fruit
fly (Rhagoletis cerasi L.) or the black fig fly (Silba
adipata McAlpine); only fruit sampling was used in
2.3. Collection of fruits and rearing of fruit flies
Visual inspections of selected fruits and sampling of
suspicious fruits were carried out from the beginning
of the ripening phase. Sampled fruits were examined
in the Entomology laboratory of the Biotechnical
Faculty (Podgorica, Montenegro). Where larval/pupal
presence was detected, the flies were reared in cages
and plastic boxes at room temperature until adult
emergence. In cases where B. oleae was identified, the
presence of development stages (eggs, larvae, pupae,
and empty galleries) in olive fruits was checked at
weekly sampling intervals, in order to calculate the
percentage of active infestation.
2.4. Fruit fly identification
Newly recorded species were identified via the
morphological features of adults and larvae, with
reference to the following morphological keys:
White & Elson-Harris (1992)
. In most cases, photographs
of living specimens and/or injury symptoms were
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
An inventory of fruit fly species attacking fruit crops on
the Montenegro seacoast is presented in the following
3.1. Family Tephritidae
Bactrocera oleae Gmel. ? The olive fruit fly.
Bactrocera oleae is the most important olive pest
in Montenegro, having been established there for
decades. Monitoring showed the presence of this
fruit fly along the whole Montenegro coastal area and
identified its flight activity from the beginning of July
until the end of November. The population dynamics
of the olive fruit fly in the main production areas were
found to be characterized by fluctuations, which varied
according to the year, and to the prevailing weather
conditions during the summer months, particularly
the temperature and relative humidity. Generally,
the population density of this pest was found to be
low until the end of August. It rapidly increased
during September and then gradually decreased from
mid-October onwards. Fly captures were registered
during December and January on yellow sticky traps
that remained throughout the winter of 2005 in one
commercial olive orchard (
Perovi? et al., 2009
cases where high temperatures in July and August
were followed by low relative humidity, low captures
of adults and low fruit infestations were noted, even in
cases without control measures (
Inspections of sampled fruits showed that high
temperatures at the beginning of July were limiting for
the development of eggs and the first instar larvae (L1).
Infestations increased from the end of July to the end
of August, reaching 5-20%. In September and October,
the infestation multiplied and, by the end of October,
levels were usually found to be over 75%, although
in some years, they reached 90% (Hrn?i?, 2009,
2014, 2016) (Figure 2). Regarding the infestation
structure, eggs and L1 were dominant until the middle
of September. From that period until the middle of
October, the numbers of eggs, larvae, and pupae were
equal in infested fruits, while pupae, empty cocoons,
and empty galleries prevailed until the harvest (
& Hrn?i?, 2013
During years that are particularly favorable to
its development, the olive fly is known to be able to
cause damage and to reduce crop production by up to
Miju?kovi? & Mir?eti?, 1955
). The olive fruit
a. larvae and pupae in olive fruit ? larves et nymphes dans les
olives; b. damaged olive fruits ? olives infest?es.
fly is the most serious pest of olives in Mediterranean
countries. Economic losses due to this pest have been
estimated to reach up to 15% of the olive crop, in
spite of the fact that pesticide treatments are applied
every year to control the fly population
et al., 2002)
. The olive fruit fly infests the olive fruit
and causes damage of a quantitative and qualitative
nature. Potential crop losses that can be caused by this
pest during periods and in locations with conditions
favoring high population densities, and where no
control measures are taken, are quoted by various
authors to be as high as 80% of production, with an
average of 40-50%. However, average crop loss levels,
which usually occur with the control measures applied
currently, vary between 5-15%, depending on the
Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. ? The Mediterranean
fruit fly. Ceratitis capitata has been considered as an
established pest in Montenegro since the early 2000s
(Figure 3). Although this pest has been present in
the Mediterranean region for more than a century,
there was previously no permanent monitoring in
Montenegro. However, some records do exist, and
sporadic detections of very low populations have
previously been noted (
, 1989, 1990). After serious damage was caused
in mandarin commercial citrus orchards in the areas of
Bar and Ulcinj in 2000, as well as in some localities
surrounding the city of Budva and in the area of Boka
Kotor Bay in 2001 (
, 2001), continuous
monitoring started in 2002. Results of monitoring have
shown the presence of C. capitata along the whole
coastal area (
et al., 2013
), and a distinct seasonal occurrence of
population fluctuation. In general, captures of flies
have been recorded from the end of June until the
end of December. Population density has been found
to be very low in July and August, increasing slowly
from the end of August and through the first half of
September, and then peaking from mid-September
through to the end of October. Adult activity has been
found to end in December (
Radonji? et al., 2013
These seasonal variations in population dynamics are
similar to those recorded in other locations that are
close to the northern limits of C. capitata distribution
(Papadopoulos et al., 2001; Bjeli? et al.,
2007; Escudero-Colomar et al., 2008)
. In the present
study, generally no adult activity was found in the
winter. However, during the relatively warm winter of
2013-2014, several flies were captured at the beginning
of February in Jackson traps with TML, which had
remained in some backyards in the Kumbor locality.
These findings, taken together with the evidence of low
captures in December and January in several localities,
could lead to the assumption of possible adult activity
during mild winters (Radonji?, 2014). The population
dynamics of the Mediterranean fruit fly have been
found to be closely linked with the availability and
abundance of the host fruits. Infested plants that
have been detected since 2002 include: mandarins
(Citrus reticulata Blanco), oranges (Citrus sinensis
[L.] Osbeck), lemon ? cultivar Lunario (Citrus limon
[L.] Osbeck), grapefruit (Citrus paradise Macf.), figs
(Ficus carica L.), persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.),
jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.), apples (Malus domestica
Radonji? & Hrn?i?, 2011
and peaches (Prunus persicae [L.] Batsch) (
). Figs are the first available hosts (July-August)
and were found to contribute to the C. capitata
population increase during the summer months, which
later caused economic damage to mandarins, the most
Mandarin (?Wakyama?, ?Chahara?)
Mandarin (?Kawano Wase?)
Orange (?Washington Navel?)
economically important host in Montenegro
(midSeptember to November) (Figure 4). As the presence
of suitable host fruits increased during September and
October (different mandarin cultivars, persimmons),
this was found to result in population build-up (Table 2)
Radonji? et al., 2013
Ceratitis capitata is a highly invasive, the most
widespread and probably the most serious pest species
in the entire Tephritidae family. According to
et al. (1998)
, this species is highly polyphagous, and is
known to infest 374 types of fruit. It has a high dispersive
ability, a very large host range and a tolerance of both
natural and cultivated habitats over a comparatively
wide temperature range. It has a high economic impact,
affecting production, control costs and market access.
Its pattern of host relationships from region to region
appears to relate largely to what fruits are available.
The transport of infested fruits is the major means of
movement and dispersal of this fruit fly to previously
(White & Elson-Harris, 1992; Liquido
et al., 1998; CABI, 2014)
Carpomya vesuviana Costa ? The ber fruit fly. The ber
fruit fly is a monophagous species, attacking exclusively
jujube, both wild and cultivated. In 2011, the dropping
of many jujube fruits containing dipteran larvae was
noted in the areas of Bar and Ulcinj. As the presence of
C. vesuviana had already been confirmed on jujube in
neighboring Croatia (
), yellow sticky traps
a. infested mandarin fruits ? mandarines infest?es; b. fallen
mandarin fruits ? mandarines tomb?es.
were set up in mid-June 2012 in Montenegro, in order to
determine the possible presence of the genus Carpomya
there. The first captured flies were recorded in late June
in Bar and in July in Ulcinj and Budva. The presence
of C. vesuviana was confirmed in the laboratory via
the morphological features of the captured flies and
emerged adults from infested fruits (Figure 5). This
was the first official record of the presence of the ber
fruit fly in Montenegro. The maximum number of
captured flies was registered in September in all the
localities under investigation. Adult flies were found
to be active until the end of October. The level of fruit
infestation was found to be related to the number of
captured flies, which varied between the inspected
localities. The highest infestation rate of up to 76% was
found in Ulcinj, while in Bar and Budva, levels did not
exceed 20% (
Perovi? & Hrn?i?, 2012
). Damage caused
by C. vesuviana was of local importance, due to the
fact that jujube are grown as individual trees along the
seacoast (Figure 6).
Carpomya vesuviana is a widespread pest of the
jujube tree in India, Pakistan and the Middle East and
it can cause significant damage by reducing the fruit
yield by up to 80%, in some cases by even 100%.
Infested fruits have a bitter taste and are not suitable
Rhagoletis cingulata Loew ? The eastern cherry
fruit fly. As part of the present study, R. cingulata
was detected for the first time, in August 2013, in a
cherry orchard in Lastva Grbaljska (Figure 7). At that
time, only one specimen (male) of this fruit fly was
). In the following two years,
McPhail traps were set up in four additional localities:
Ulcinj, Bar, Bao?i?i, and Bigova. Monitoring from
2014 onwards showed either no repeated records in
this locality or detection in other localities, except in
2014 when several flies were captured again in Lastva
Grbaljska in July and August. To date, this pest is
considered not to be established in Montenegro.
Rhagoletis cingulata is an eastern North American
species. It is an important quarantine pest for temperate
regions and is listed on the EPPO A2 list as a severe
pest of cherries. Adult flight and the transport of
infected fruits are the major means of movement and
dispersal to previously uninfected areas. This species is
known to be present in Europe, with a few occurrences
being recorded in Austria, Belgium, the Czech
Republic, Hungary, and Slovenia, and with restricted
distribution reported in Germany, The Netherlands,
and Switzerland; the species is also present in Croatia
Rhagoletis cerasi L. ? The European cherry fruit
fly. Although being a highly destructive pest of
cherries (Prunus spp.), present in most European
countries, R. cerasi is not included in the Montenegro
monitoring program. Its main commercial hosts, sweet
cherry (Prunus avium L.) and bitter cherry (Prunus
cerasus L.), are of minor economic importance on the
Montenegro seacoast, with these fruits being present
sporadically in backyards or as a part of small mixed
orchards. The presence of R. cerasi has been recorded
every year in localities on the seacoast (Bar, Lastva
Grbaljska, Bao?i?i, and Bigova), starting from the end
of May. Captures were recorded in yellow sticky traps
or in McPhail traps baited with ammonium acetate,
used for the monitoring of other tephritids (Radonji? &
Hrn?i?, unpublished data).
3.2. Family Drosophilidae
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura ? The spotted wing
drosophila. Drosophila suzukii was recorded for the
first time in October 2013 in citrus-producing orchards
in the localities of ?enovi?i, Kumbor, and Bao?i?i. A
quick check of the rest of the seacoast confirmed the
presence of this pest in all the inspected localities.
The flies were found unexpectedly in Tephri traps
baited with the three-component synthetic dry food
attractant, used regularly, in the present study, for the
monitoring of C. capitata (Figure 8). Both sexes were
captured in traps (
Radonji? & Hrn?i?, 2015
). In 2014
and 2015, the first captures were recorded from the
end of August, gradually increasing in September, but,
in particular, from the beginning of October onwards
(Radonji?, 2014, 2015). In 2016, the presence of
this pest was confirmed in all the inspected localities
along the seacoast (Herceg Novi, Bao?i?i, ?enovi?i,
Kumbor, Lastva Grbaljska, Bar, and Ulcinj). The
first captures were recorded from mid-September,
and continued during October and November. In the
Bao?i?i and Herceg Novi areas, the maximum number
of captured flies was recorded during the second half
of October, while in Ulcinj, Bar, and Lastva Grbaljska,
the maximum number was found in early November
). The same capture pattern was
recorded in 2017. In that year, for the first time, the fruits
of host plants were sampled after their ripening period.
Infested sweet cherry fruits were found in mid-June in
Bigova; blackberries were found in July and August
and figs in September, in Bigova and Bar (
). The presence and establishment of D. suzukii
along the seacoast, as well as confirmed infestations
of several host species, represents a serious threat for
fruit growing in this area. Moreover, the fact that these
hosts are of minor economic importance, and that
growers traditionally do not apply control measures,
could contribute to the maintenance and increase of the
population of this pest from year to year.
Drosophila suzukii is a highly polyphagous species,
which infests a wide range of fruit crops, as well as
an increasing number of wild fruits. It is an endemic
species to South East Asia that has recently invaded
western countries. Its pattern of egg laying and feeding
on unwounded ripening fruit of many plant species,
particularly berries and stone fruits, its high dispersal
potential and its tolerance of a wide range of climatic
conditions, make this pest a real threat to the fruit
industry of the countries concerned
(Cini et al., 2012;
3.3. Family Lonchaeidae
Silba adipata McAlpine ? The black fig fly. In
August 2004, dipteran larvae, smaller and more
tender than the larvae of C. capitata (previously the
only known dipteran fig pest in Montenegro) were
found in mature fig fruits (cv. ?Patlid?anka?) in Lastva
Grbaljska. The presence of S. adipata was confirmed
via the morphological features of the larvae (posterior
spiracles), pupae and emerged adults observed in
laboratory from sampled fruits (Figure 9). This was
the first official record of this species in Montenegro.
The same larvae were found in July and August 2005,
in Radanovi?i and ?u?anj, in premature green dropped
fig fruits (cv. ?Rezavica? and ?Su?alica?) and in August
and September in semi-ripened and ripened fruits of
cv. ?Patlid?anka? in Lastva Grbaljska. According to
, infestation of unripe figs
by the black fig fly was one of the main reasons for
the recorded premature fruit drop. Although the fig
is not of economic importance in Montenegro, it is
widespread along the seacoast, either as individual
trees or within small orchards. Direct damage caused
by the feeding larvae was found to result in premature
fruit drop and the destruction of a large proportion of
edible fruits (Figure 10). It reduced the, already small,
fig production in the area of study.
Silba adipata is known to be present in Spain,
Italy, Greece, Cyprus, the Canary Islands, Syria,
Israel, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, South Africa, and Malta
(MacGowan & Freidberg, 2008; Mifsud et al., 2012)
is exclusively found on Ficus carica, where its larvae
feed on the tissue of the syconia, just under the peel,
destroying the fruit and causing unripe fruit to fall
prematurely (Mifsud et al., 2012).
a. adults captured in a Tephri trap ? adultes captur?s dans le
pi?ge de Tephri; b. adult male ? m?le adulte.
a. posterior spiracles of larvae ? stigmates post?rieurs des larves;
b. adults on a fig fruit ? adultes sur figue.
An inventory of fruit fly species was obtained using three
different types of traps (lure attractants, pheromone,
and yellow sticky traps) for adult detection. Visual
inspections and the sampling of suspicious fruits for
larval presence were also carried out. This study has
summarized data on fruit flies of economic importance
along the Montenegro seacoast. Based on our results,
we can conclude that the species of fruit fly pests found
belonged to the families Tephritidae, Drosophilidae,
and Lonchaeidae. Of seven recorded species, only
R. cingulata is considered not to be established in
the study area, to date. From an economic point of
view, of the established fruit fly species in the region,
the most important are the tephritids, B. oleae and
C. capitata, because of their negative effects (damage
of a quantitative and qualitative nature) on olive and
citrus production, representing the most important
fruit crops on the Montenegro seacoast. As a newly
successfully established species, D. suzukii showed
a high rate of spread across the whole seacoast. As
a highly polyphagous species, this species can be
considered to be of economic concern for a variety of
fruit crops growing not only along the seacoast, but
also in other parts of Montenegro. The remaining pests
recorded (C. vesuviana, R. cerasi, and S. adipata) are
of lesser economic importance, due to their host plants
being in the minority there. On the other hand, as these
species are monophagous, they can still be considered
as harmful to the fruits of their respective host plants.
The results of this study recorded dipteran flies
as a pest of various fruit species on the Montenegro
seacoast. This is of importance for commercial and
small stakeholders in the fruit-producing sector, who
rely upon the early warning and early detection of
fruit flies, in order to ensure the timely application of
The authors would like to thank the Directorate for Food
Safety, Veterinary and Phytosanitary Affairs, Ministry of
Agriculture and Rural Development of Montenegro for
their financial support. Also, many thanks go to entomology
technician Milorad Rai?evi? for his help in the field and
laboratory work, and especially to the fruit producers and
growers that allowed us to set up traps in their orchards and
to sample fruits during the whole period of this study.
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