The “Cocoons” or “Cases” of Some Burrowing Caterpillars

Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Mar 2019

Caroline G. Soule

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/1900/420256.pdf

The “Cocoons” or “Cases” of Some Burrowing Caterpillars

International Journal of THE" COCOONS'' OR CASES" OF SO~IE I liRRO\\'l '\G CA TERPlLL\RS. Gen. f'aratdlix Hoi. 15 (14) Vertex strongly n:trrnwed in front, the front bonier nc:~rly o tw-ha lf the breadth of an eye, or less; body usu ally prolong<tte; branches of frontal costa sub-parallel, closely approximate. Gen. Tclmald!ix g .. n. n. 16 (3) Ante rior femor:t abo'e cli~tinctly ancl broadly ~ulc:1tc: pronotum in front produceJ more or less above the head, Yery frequently h ooked, ;11:cuminate, or, to a certain extent, obtusely rounded angulate; antennae sixtee n to twentytwo articles. Subfamily n ,\TB ACHID I :-IAE Dol. 17 ( 18) Body strongly tumid; d o rsum of the pronotum com?ex, lightly punctate, lateral carinae in front of the !>houlders wanting. - 13 ( 7) Vertex not advanced in front of the eyes ; median carina of pronotnm sc;~rcely elevated. I.f ( 15) 13ody u~ually broad between th e shoulder~; Yertex narrower or equally wide with one of the eyes; second femoral carinae more o r less flexuous. or undulate, or lobate, or clype:1tc, 1?cry rarely straight. Gen. !'axilla Dol. 1 S ( ?7) Body narrower; clorsu1n o! the pronotum, bet\Yeen the carina rather conC<II'e , conspersecl with m o re or less longitudinal wrinkles, lateral carin::~e in front <1f the shoulders present. Gen. Tclligidca Scudd. BY CAROLINE G. SOULE, BROOKLINE, l\1,\SS. From much watching of pupating caterpillars, e~pecially of such sph in? gids aud ceratocampids as go into the ground to pupate, 1 gradually came to tlouht the exact ne ss of the statements, made in many books, that such catct? pi!LJrs :;pin "cases'' or ''cocoo ns" in the earth insiJe of which they transform. La&t summer I had a good ~npp ly of f'r o!opa rcc ccleus and caroliNa, !'hila m j>elus pa ndorus and ache111o11, Cera/om/a amyntor, and l'a onias cxco? ecatus, with which l experimented. Into tin boxes I put sifted earth Jeep enough to give ampl e room for c;15es. Into each box 1 put a lan?a ready to pupate, and wandel ing in ::-e;1rch of a su italJ!e place. All burro\\ed very soo n, and I left the boxef> undi?turbed for a few days, that 110 unu ~u al condi? tion should atlect the larva e. On examining th e boxes , which IY<IS Yery carefully done, l found, in t:Yt:r} case, no sign uf ~ilk, and n o "ca~e" which held together nt al l. 1 found an o\':11 cavity, smooth, and large enough tu !Jolcl the pupa easily, allo\l?i,,g free motion of the abdominal :;egments and danuary IQOo . even space to turn over completely. upon the ,?enter, and soon cast the larva The walls of the c:l\?ity seemed pressed skin. I repeated this experiment sev? by the turning of the caterpillar and eral times. and with difl'erent species, moi~tened by the sticky fluid \Yhich and always with the same result. exudes from such larvae in the early D;yocampa rubicunda ga,?e the stages of pupation. This combined same results abo, though much less fluid and pressure served to keep the fluid exudes from these. earth from falling upon the caterpillar I satisfied myself that with these under ordinary circumstances, but a species the cell formed for pup:1tion ve ry slight touch with pencil, fingers, could not be called either <I ca"'" or a or stem ~ent the upper walls down as cocoon, since it could not be taken up dirt, not as fragments of a case or of a as a whole without taking up enough of wall. the surrounding earth to keep from it all I then put less earth in a tin and put pres~ure and jar, !IS the~e destmy it at on it a caterpillar which was ready to once. burrow, and watched it. I tried the same plan with Dcilcphila Butting its head agaii1st the earth it linea/a, which in my former experiences made a ~mall hole, then worked the has always spun a slight cocoon, like a hole larger until it would admit the fish-net, between leaves. entire body, which the earth was not The four ~pecimens I put into the deep enough to cover. four tins "ith earth, shaped cells for The c::tterpillar then mo,?ed about in themselve~, and dicl not spin at all. this hole, butting the sides with its he<ld They did not burrow as deep as the ? until there was room to spare. and the other lan?ae however. walls we1c packed by the pre~sure. The boxes were kept tightly co\?ered Exudation had begun and the fluid was except when I was watching the e<lter? forced <lgainst the walls by the crawling pillars, so that the earth "as not dried and butting uf the caterpillar, so that too much. all wa~ absorbed by the earth. The pupae were a II perfect, but no There was no spinning whateve1, better, except those of the l'rotoparce nor any of the '"e.J\?ing motion of the and C. amyntor, than tho~e made by head made by the caterpillar when the other larvae pupati1;g in ti n s with? spinning. At tirst the caterpillar by out ea1 th. on its venter, ~hortened and moist. Tn making their cells the caterpillars After n tby or two it turned upon une did not bring earth to the surface, but si d e, curled slightly in a cun?e. Next merely pu~hed it back 011 all sides. so it turned on the other side, then on its that in the tins with deeper earth there back, still slightly curled. Then the was no trace of any bill row or cater? ends of the skin began to look empty, pi II a r. and the caterpillar slowly rolled over Peptides Advance s in ht p:/ w w.hindawi.com Virol og y Hindawi Publishing Corporation Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Submit your manuscr ipts http://www.hindawi.com Research International Stem Cells International Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Zoology International Journal of Journal of Signal Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Transduction Research International Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Anatomy Research International Research International Advances in Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Enzyme Research Journal of International Journal of Genomics Hindawi Publishing Corporation ht p:/ www.hindawi.com Journal of Nucleic Acids The Scientiifc World Journal


This is a preview of a remote PDF: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/psyche/1900/420256.pdf

Caroline G. Soule. The “Cocoons” or “Cases” of Some Burrowing Caterpillars, Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, DOI: 10.1155/1900/420256