The genus Triaeris Simon (Araneae, Oonopidae) in Central America and the West Indies
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THE GENUS TRIAERIS SIMON (ARANEAE, OONOPIDAE) IN CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES *
By Arthur M. Chickering Mus
Since my first contact with the Genus Triaeris Simon in 1939 in Panama I have continued to collect these interesting little spiders at every opportunity during my collecting trips to parts of Central America and the West Indies. Simon established the genus Triaeris in 1891 on the basis of females from St. Vincent, B. W. I. He also stated that he had the same species from Venezuela. In 1940 Miss Elizabeth Bryant described what she regarded as the female of a new species from Cuba. In 1948 she reported Simon's species from Haiti. In 1951 I reported T. patellaris Bryant from Panama. As will be shown later in this paper I have now decided that T. patellaris Bryant is a synonym for T. stenaspis Simon. I believe that I now have this species from several localities in Central America and numerous localities in the West Indies as well as one record from Southern Florida. According to my present view, the male of T. stenaspis Simon is still unknown. After a period of uncertainty it now seems that I have a new species of this genus represented by a male from St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands and a female from Nevis, B. W. I. Two males from Trinidad, W. I. seem to represent another new species. I am, therefore, compelled to recognize three species of the genus Triaeris from the region under study. The female of Triaeris lepus Suman has recently been described from Hawaii. All types, together with my entire collection of this genus, are being deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Grants GB-1801 and GB-5013 from the National Science Foundation have furnished financial aid for several collecting trips in Central America, Florida and the West Indies together with my continued research in the Museum of Comparative Zoology for nearly six years. I am deeply grateful for the help and encouragement received from members of the staff of the Museum of Comparative Zoology over a period of many years. Special acknowledgements should be extended to Dr. Ernst Mayr, Director; Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology; Dr. Herbert W. Levi, Associate
*Manuscript received by the editor September 10, 1968
The type species is Triaeris stenaspis Simon by monotypy. In
addition to the general family characteristics, generic features
common to the species from the region under study at this time may
be stated as follows: Total length varies from about 1.5 mm to a
little less than 2 mm; Simon gave the length of the type female
as considerably more than this. Cephalothorax in general of moderate
height; about half as tall as wide; without special modifications.
Sternum convex; sometimes more or less distinctly lobed along
margins; continued laterally between coxae and extended between
fourth coxae which are well separated. Chelicerae, maxillae and lip
without conspicuous modifications; no teeth observed along fang
groove. Eyes: six in two rows with posterior row more or less
recurved; figures accompanying descriptions show relative positions
of eyes. Male palp simple except for tarsus which appears to have
quite distinctive features. Legs moderately long and slender with
few spines. Abdomen: ovoid in general; quite tall; dorsal scutum
well developed but somewhat variable in size; epigastric scutum
surrounds the pedicel and extends dorsally a considerable distance
and also varies in size in different species; ventral scutum also
quite variable in size in different species; epigynal areas obscurely
distinctive. Carapace, sternum and abdomen with numerous short
Triaeris bodanus sp. nov.
bases of fourth coxae which are separated by ten-sevenths of their
width; third coxae nearly globose; others somewhat elongated with
first longest of all. Legs: 4123 in order of length; with few spines;
moderately long and slender; first tibia only a little longer than first
patella. Palp: general features shown in Figure 2; tarsus much
inflated with cymbium and bulb not clearly separated; femur
moderately inflated. Abdomen: general features shown in Figures 3-5;
scuta conspicuous and quite distinctive; division between epigastric
and ventral scuta obscure; the narrow sclerite often partially
surrounding the base of the spinnerets appears to be lacking here. Color
in alcohol : carapace and sternum a rich yellowish brown ; legs and
mouth parts somewhat lighter; abdominal scuta nearly like the
carapace and sternum; abdominal areas not covered by scuta are a clear
white. Short hairs are numerous over entire surface of abdomen.
Records. One male paratype was taken with the holotype in the
vicinity of the William Beebe Tropical Research Station, Simla,
Arima Valley, Trinidad, W. I., April 25, 1964.
Triaeris reticulatus sp. nov.
Holotype. The male is from St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands,
September 23, 1966. The name of the species is a Latin adjective
referring to the faint reticulated color pattern, poorly shown in the
holotype but clearer in the female paratype.
Description. Total length 1.56 mm, exclusive of the somewhat
extended spinnerets; including spinnerets total length is about 1.65
mm. Carapace 0.66 mm long; 0.54 mm wide opposite second coxae
where it is widest; about 0.27 mm tall; moderately arched from
PME along midline to beginning of moderately steep posterior border
gently recurved ; surface very finely granulate. Eyes : six in two
rows as usual; posterior row recurved (Fig. 6). Ratio of eyes
ALE : PME : PLE = 7:6: 6.5. ALE separated from one
another by about their radius and from PLE only by a line; PME
contiguous to one another and separated from PLE by about one
half their radius; with considerable black pigment in ocular area.
Height of clypeus equal to a little more than the radius of ALE.
Chelicerae: vertical; parallel; without special modifications; with
numerous slender spinules; no teeth observed along fang groove but
close observation impossible without injury to holotype. Lip: very
obscure but apparently wider than long and with procurved distal
border. Maxillae: normal; without special modifications; moderately
convergent. Sternum: convex; recessed along lateral sides of
anterior border; broadly scutiform; about as wide as long; bluntly
rounded at posterior end which nearly reaches proximal end of fourth
coxae which are separated by a little more than their width. Legs:
4123 in order of length; with few slender spines. Palp: general
features shown in Figure 7 ; all segments except tarsus simple
without special modifications. Abdomen : general features shown in
Figures 8-9; scuta considerably more extensive than in T. stenaspis
Simon. Color in alcohol: carapace and sternum light yellowish
brown; with considerable black pigment in ocular area; legs and
mouth parts yellowish with variations; dorsal abdominal scutum
somewhat darker than the carapace and shows subsurface, irregular
reticulations; ventral and epigastric scuta somewhat darker than
the sternum ; parts of abdomen not covered by scuta are white with
very faint purplish reticulations which are much clearer in the female
Female paratype. Total length, exclusive of the extended spin
nerets, about 1.75 mm; including spinnerets, total length is about
1.9 mm. Carapace 0.68 mm long (somewhat overlapped by
abdomen) ; about 0.55 mm wide opposite second coxae where it is widest;
about 0.3 1 mm tall ; somewhat irregularly arched along midline from
PME to beginning of steep posterior declivity nearly opposite second
coxae. Eyes: six as usual in two rows; viewed from above, posterior
row moderately recurved (Fig. 10). Ratio of eyes ALE : PME :
PLE = about 7 : 6 : 5. ALE separated from one another by a
little less than their long diameter, from PME by about
threefourteenths of their long diameter and from PLE by about
twosevenths of their long diameter. PME contiguous for nearly
onefourth of their circumference and separated from PLE by nearly
one-third of their diameter. Height of clypeus equal to nearly
fivesevenths of the diameter of ALE. Ocular area with several long,
slender spines. Chelicerae moderately robust, vertical and parallel
without conspicuous modifications ; no teeth observed along fang
groove; lack of paratypes prevents dissection for more accurate
observation. Maxillae: convergent; swollen in distal two-thirds.
Lip: much wider than long; reaches only a little distal to middle
of maxillae. Sternum: quite convex; as wide as long; without
noticeable marginal lobes; posterior end bluntly rounded opposite
bases of fourth coxae which are separated by about 1.5 times their
width ; posterior end bordered by a semicircular ridge directed
dorsally; with numerous moderately long black hairs. Legs: 4123
in order of length; first patellae not elongated as in T. stenaspis
Simon ; few true spines on legs and palps. Abdomen : elongate ovoid
with dorsal, epigastric and ventral scuta as shown in Figures 1 1 - 1 3
with many short hairs; spinnerets somewhat extended. Color in
alcohol : carapace and sternum yellowish brown with
considerable black pigment in ocular area; legs and mouth parts somewhat
lighter with variations; abdomen coarsely and irregularly
reticulated more clearly than in male ; abdominal scuta basically
colored like carapace and sternum but altered by reticulations
showing through from within ; regions not covered by scuta show purplish
reticulations not seen in other specimens in the genus except in
males of this species where they show only faintly.
Records. The single individual here regarded as the female of
this species was taken on Nevis, B. W. I., September, 1966.
Triaeris stenaspis Simon
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