Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Effects on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/Wheat/Double-Crop Soybean Rotation

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Apr 2019

In 2018, adding nitrogen (N) greatly improved average wheat yields with about a 10% increase with knife compared to broadcast application methods. Even though tillage did not affect wheat yields, soybean yield was about 10% greater with no-till.

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Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Effects on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/Wheat/Double-Crop Soybean Rotation

Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Efec ts on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/W heat/Double-Crop Soybean Rotation D. W. Sweeney 0 1 D. Ruiz-Diaz 0 1 Footer Logo 0 1 0 Kansas State University , USA 1 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service , USA Follow this and additional works at: https://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons Recommended Citation - Agricultural Research This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 2019 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. No endorsement is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products not mentioned. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Creative Commons License Creative TChoimswmoornksis licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. License This Southeast Research and Extension Center: Soil and Water Management article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: https://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr/vol5/iss2/9 Agricultural Research Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Effects on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/Wheat/ Double-Crop Soybean Rotation D.W. Sweeney and D. Ruiz-Diaz1 Summary In 2018, adding nitrogen (N) greatly improved average wheat yields with about a 10% increase with knife compared to broadcast application methods. Even though tillage did not affect wheat yields, soybean yield was about 10% greater with no-till. Introduction Many crop rotation systems are used in southeastern Kansas. This experiment is designed to determine the long-term effect of selected tillage and N fertilizer placement options on yields of short-season corn, wheat, and double-crop soybean in rotation. Experimental Procedures A split-plot design with four replications was initiated in 1983 with tillage system as the whole plot and N treatment as the subplot. In 2005, the rotation was changed to begin a short-season corn/wheat/double-crop soybean sequence. Use of three tillage systems (conventional, reduced, and no-till) continued in the same whole plots as the previous 22 years. The conventional system consisted of chiseling, disking, and field cultivation. Chiseling occurred in the fall preceding corn or wheat crops. The reduced-tillage system consisted of disking and field cultivation prior to planting. Glyphosate was applied to the no-till areas prior to planting. The four N treatments for the crop were: no-N (control) and N fertilizer placement as broadcast, dribble (surface band), and knife (subsurface band at 4 inches deep) UAN (28% N) solution. The N rate for the corn crop grown in odd-numbered years was 125 lb/a. The N rate of 120 lb/a for wheat was split as 60 lb/a applied pre-plant as broadcast, dribble, or knifed UAN. All plots except for the no-N controls were top-dressed in the spring with broadcast UAN at 60 lb/a N. Results and Discussion In 2018, tillage system did not affect wheat yield (Table 1). Overall, fertilizing with N quadrupled wheat yield. Preplant N application by knifing resulted in 10% greater wheat yield than with broadcast, with dribble application resulting in intermediate yields. The average yield of soybean planted doublecrop after wheat harvest was nearly 1Department of Agronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. 50 bu/a in 2018 and no-till was about 10% greater than with tillage. There was no residual effect on soybean yields from N applied by different pre-plant methods to the previous wheat crop. Wheat yield Double-crop soybean yield ----------------------------- bu/a ------------------------------Tillage Conventional Reduced No-till LSD (0.05) N Fertilization No-N control Broadcast UAN? Dribble UAN Knife UAN LSD (0.05) ?UAN: urea-ammonium nitration solution, 28% N. 31.2 29.7 31.9 NS 9.0 38.2 40.4 42.2 3.0 46.5 46.4 50.9 3.8 48.0 48.5 48.9 46.4 NS


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D. W. Sweeney, D. Ruiz-Diaz. Tillage and Nitrogen Placement Effects on Yields in a Short-Season Corn/Wheat/Double-Crop Soybean Rotation, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 2019,