Insect and mite pests of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Japan

Biodiversity Data Journal, Aug 2019

To further increase the basic knowledge regarding the establishment of pest control for pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), we conducted surveys of pepino pests in Japan. Thirty-four insect and four mite species were recognized as pests of pepino plants in the present study. Including the results of previous studies, a total of 41 species of insects and mites have been reported as pests of pepino plants in Japan. Three species, namely onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), and cotton whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), are likely the most important insect and mite pests of pepino plants, because they were collected from more than half of the study sites and were much more abundant on pepino plants than the other pest species.

A PDF file should load here. If you do not see its contents the file may be temporarily unavailable at the journal website or you do not have a PDF plug-in installed and enabled in your browser.

Alternatively, you can download the file locally and open with any standalone PDF reader:

https://bdj.pensoft.net/article/36453/download/pdf/

Insect and mite pests of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Japan

Biodiversity Data Journal 7: e36453 doi: 10.3897/BDJ.7.e36453 Insect and mite pests of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Japan Tadashi Ishikawa 0 Ken Takahata 1 Jenő Kontschán 0 Laboratory of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture , Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa , Japan 1 Laboratory of Vegetables, Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture , Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa , Japan To further increase the basic knowledge regarding the establishment of pest control for pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.), we conducted surveys of pepino pests in Japan. Thirtyfour insect and four mite species were recognized as pests of pepino plants in the present study. Including the results of previous studies, a total of 41 species of insects and mites have been reported as pests of pepino plants in Japan. Three species, namely onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae), and cotton whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci), are likely the most important insect and mite pests of pepino plants, because they were collected from more than half of the study sites and were much more abundant on pepino plants than the other pest species. sweet cucumber; pest management; Tetranychus urticae; Thrips tabaci; Bemisia tabaci - © Ishikawa T, Takahata K. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Introduction Pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait., the Spanish name for sweet cucumber) is a solanaceous plant cultivated as a fruit crop and native to the Andes. To date, 22 insect and three mite species have been recorded as pests of pepino worldwide (excluding Japan). Seven of them, inclusive of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836, are regarded to be the most important among the pests of pepino (Larraín 2002; Galbreath and Clearwater 1983; Akyazi 2012) . In 2016, our research team began a research project aimed at producing high quality and flavorsome pepino fruits, whose soluble solids content was rather low in the Japanese fruits (Sakata 2011). In order to establish solid pest control in its commercial cultivation and to produce high quality and stable pepino fruits, our research team has tried to comprehensively elucidate the pests of pepino in the project. To date, 13 insect and mite species have been recorded in Japan as pests of pepino (Kim et al. 2017). However, few studies have been conducted on pests of pepino plants in Japan. The reason for this may be that the number of pests of pepino plants recognized in Japan is rather low compared to those of other popular solanaceous crops such as tomato (S. lycopersicum), eggplant (S. melongena), potato (S. tuberosum), and green pepper (Capsicum annuum) (The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2006). This low number of pests is attributable to the small area in which studies have been conducted on pepino, which has a radius of 250 m at most (Kim et al. 2017). In order to develop an accurate understanding of pests of pepino plants, it is necessary to conduct research across an extensive area of Japan. In order to expand the basic knowledge required for the establishment of pest control for pepino plants, we conducted investigations of pepino pests in Japan in the experimental fields of our university, Tokyo University of Agriculture, as well as on farms and in garden centers in Japan. This study was conducted under a project for regional development titled ‘Launching of Nodai-branded Pepino Crop’ conducted by the Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture (Kim et al. 2017). This paper documents the results of our field surveys of pests of pepino plants in Japan after the latest report by Kim et al. (2017), with a brief discussion on pests of importance to the cultivation of pepino in Japan. Materials and methods Study sites This study was conducted at 11 sites in Japan (Fig. 1). Of these, sites 1–7 are in a warmtemperate climate zone, and sites 8–11, on Okinawa Island, are in a subtropical climate zone. The sites are as follows: Site 1 (Fig. 2a): a greenhouse located in Ookubo, Tochigishi, Tochigi Prefecture (36.439N 139.668E; 93 meters above sea level (m a.s.l.)), surrounded by hills and vegetable fields. Approximately 10 potted pepino plants were cultivated at site 1. Site 2 (Fig. 2b): an open field located in Nurumizu, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture (35.433N 139.348E; 43 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters and a woody and grassy park. Approximately 40 pepino plants were cultivated at site 2. Site 3 (Fig. 2c): an open field (with a roof against rain) located in Hase, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture (35.432N 139.346E; 49 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters and a woody and grassy park. Approximately 20 pepino plants were cultivated at site 3. Site 4 (Fig. 2d): a greenhouse located in northern Funako, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture (35.431N 139.350E; 27 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters and a woody and grassy park. Approximately 60 potted pepino plants were cultivated at site 4. Site 5 (Fig. 2e): a greenhouse located in southern Funako, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture (35.429N 139.349E; 42 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters and a woody and grassy park. Approximately 400 potted pepino plants were cultivated at site 5. Site 6 (Fig. 2f): a greenhouse located in San-nomiya, Isehara-shi, Kanagawa Prefecture (35.400N 139.282E; 62 m a.s.l.), surrounded by vegetable fields. Approximately 100 potted pepino plants were cultivated at site 6. Site 7 (Fig. 3a): a greenhouse located in Koshiozu, Tahara-shi, Aichi Prefecture (34.600N 137.097E; 27 m a.s.l.), surrounded by vegetable fields and hills. Approximately 1000 potted pepino plants were cultivated at site 7. Site 8 (Fig. 3b): an open field located in Miyahira, Haebaru-cho, Okinawa Prefecture (26.189N 127.735E; 34 m a.s.l.), surrounded by vegetable fields. Approximately 20 pepino plants were cultivated at site 8. Site 9 (Fig. 3c): an open field located in Kyan, Haebaru-cho, Okinawa Prefecture (26.186N 127.736E; 18 m a.s.l.), surrounded by vegetable fields. Approximately 20 pepino plants were cultivated at site 9. Site 10 (Fig. 3d): a garden center located in Inamine, Nanjo-shi, Okinawa Prefecture (26.172N 127.734E; 43 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters. Approximately 25 potted pepino plants were displayed for sale at site 10. Site 11 (Fig. 3e): a garden center located in Takahira, Nanjo-shi, Okinawa Prefecture (26.171N 127.737E; 34 m a.s.l.), surrounded by residential quarters. Approximately 15 potted pepino plants were displayed for sale at site 11. Study sites 1–6. a: Study site 1, the inside of a greenhouse in Tochigi Prefecture (36.439N 139.668E). b: Study site 2, an open field in Kanagawa Prefecture (35.433N 139.348E), just after planting of nursery pepinos. c: Study site 3, an open field (with a roof against rain) in Kanagawa Prefecture (35.432N 139.346E). d: Study site 4, the inside of a greenhouse in Kanagawa Prefecture (35.431N 139.350E). e: Study site 5, the inside of a greenhouse in Kanagawa Prefecture (35.429N 139.349E). f: Study site 6, the inside of a greenhouse in Kanagawa Prefecture (35.400N 139.282E). a Study sites 7–11. a: Study site 7, the inside of a greenhouse in Aichi Prefecture (34.600N 137.097E). b: Study site 8, an open field in Okinawa Prefecture (26.189N 127.735E). c: Study site 9, an open field in Okinawa Prefecture (26.186N 127.736E). d: Study site 10, a garden center in Okinawa Prefecture (26.172N 127.734E), pepino nursery stocks (shown in the middle) are lined up with other plant pots. e: Study site 11, a garden center in Okinawa Prefecture (26.171N 127.737E), pepino nursery stocks (shown in the middle) are lined up with other plant pots. Sampling methods All specimens were collected by looking at or beating the leaves, branches and fruits of pepino plants. A total of more than 80 collections were performed in the 11 study sites (once at sites 1, 6, 7, 10, and 11; three times at site 4; four times at sites 8 and 9; nine times at site 5; 24 times at site 3; and more than 30 times at site 2) from February 24th, 2017 to March 14th, 2019. Our sampling period followed that of Kim et al. (2017), with two exceptions, as unidentified specimens collected on October 26th and November 23rd, 2016 represented the species not found in this main survey. Each of the collections was conducted for a maximum of three hours during the daytime by one or two persons. The collected insects and mites were killed immediately after capture, using ethyl acetate. Aphids, lepidopteran larvae, and mites were fixed in plastic bottles filled with 70–80% ethanol. All specimens, which were killed with ethyl acetate and fixed with ethanol, were prepared as dry mounted, slide-mounded, or ethanol preserved for morphological examination. Slide-mounted specimens were prepared with the following procedure: specimens were macerated in a hot 5–7% KOH solution for 5 minutes; macerated specimens were washed in distilled water for a few minutes; washed specimens were moved from distilled water onto a drop of Neo-Sigaral (balsam-like liquid for easy preparation method; Shiga-Konchu-Fukyusha, Tokyo, Japan) on the middle of a glass slide, and then covered gently with a 12 mm (15 mm for larger specimen) cover glass. Identification methods Identification of insect and mite specimens was performed using stereoscopic microscopes (Olympus SZ60 and Olympus SZX16, Tokyo, Japan) and optical microscopes (Olympus BH-2 and Olympus BX41, Tokyo, Japan) by Tadashi Ishikawa, Yoshihiro Yamada, and Naoki Kaneko according to the following studies: Kawai (1980) , Dworakowska (1982), Moritsu (1983), Kimoto and Takizawa (1994), Iwasaki et al. (2000), Yasunaga et al. (2001), Umeya and Okada (2003), Furukawa (2005), Orthopterological Society of Japan (2006), Matsumoto (2008), Ehara and Gotoh (2009) , Yasuda et al. (2010), Japan Plant Protection Association (Ed) (2011), Kobayashi and Matsumoto (2011) , Harada and Takizawa (2012), Ishikawa et al. (2012), Okajima and Araya (2012), Tanaka and Uesato (2012), Yasuda et al. (2012), Carapia Ruiz and Castillo-Gutiérrez (2013), Masumoto and Okajima (2013), Yasuda et al. (2014), Aoki (2015), Yasunaga et al. (2015), Sakamoto (2018), Tokumaru (2018), along with the original descriptions and/or redescriptions of corresponding species if necessary. Collected specimens were regarded as pests only in this paper if these were insects or mites that directly damaged pepino plants, were known as pests of pepino plants in the native range and introduced regions of pepino plants other than Japan (Galbreath and Clearwater 1983; Larraín 2002; Grinberg et al. 2005; Akyazi 2012) , or were known as pests of major solanaceous crops such as tomato, eggplant, potato, and green pepper, in Japan, with reference to studies such as Umeya and Okada (2003) and The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology (2006). All examined specimens are preserved in the Insect Collection (IC) at the Laboratory of Entomology, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa, Japan (LETUA). Results In this study, 701 individual insects and mites belonging to 38 species were recognized as pests of pepino plants (Suppl. material 1). They consisted of 34 hexapod species belonging to 17 families in seven orders (which are classified into two classes, the Entognatha and the Insecta) and four mite species in one family and one order (Table 1). Of these 38 species, 35 have been known as pests of solanaceous crops such as tomato, eggplant, potato, and green pepper in Japan (Yasunaga et al. 1993; Yasunaga et al. 2001; Umeya and Okada 2003; Komine and Matsuo 2005; Yokohama Plant Protection Station 2005; Ono et al. 2006; The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology 2006; Harada and Takizawa 2012). The remaining three species, the spotted grasshopper (Atractomorpha sinensis Bolivar, 1905), the black chafer (Nigrotrichia kiotoensis (Niijima et Kinoshita, 1923)), and the tussock caterpillar (Orvasca taiwana (Shiraki, 1913)), were newly recognized as pests of pepino plants. leaf + + + Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895) (Fig. 6b) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) (Fig. 6c) adult leaf + leaf leaf adult adult adult adult leaf + adult adult adult adult adult leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + adult adult adult adult adult adult adult leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf adult, nymph stem leaf adult leaf + + + + + + + + + + + adult leaf leaf + adult adult adult leaf, fruit leaf leaf fruit leaf leaf leaf leaf a: a Chinese thrips (Haplothrips chinensis, Phlaeothripidae). b: a flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa, Thripidae). c: a western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thripidae). d: a chrysanthemum thrips (Thrips nigropilosus, Thripidae). e: a melon thrips (Thrips palmi, Thripidae). f: an onion thrips (Thrips tabaci, Thripidae). Whiteflies and aphids feeding on pepino. a: a cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, Aleyrodidae). b: a greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum, Aleyrodidae). c: a cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii, Aphididae). d: a Spiraea aphid (Aphis spiraecola, Aphididae). e: a potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae, Aphididae). f: a green peach aphid (Myzus persicae, Aphididae). True bugs feeding on pepino. a: a chrysanthemum lace bug (Corythucha marmorata, Tingidae). b: a Campylomma plant bug (Campylomma livida, Miridae). c: a Prolygus plant bug (Prolygus bakeri, Miridae). d: a Taylorilygus plant bug (Taylorilygus apicalis, Miridae). e: a brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, Pentatomidae). f: a winter cherry bug (Acanthocoris sordidus, Coreidae). b Leaf beetles feeding on pepino. a: a false melon beetle (Atrachya menetriesi, Chrysomelidae). b: a tobacco flea beetle (Epitrix hirtipennis, Chrysomelidae). c: a solanum flea beetle (Psylliodes angusticollis, Chrysomelidae). d: a cabbage flea beetle (Psylliodes punctifrons, Chrysomelidae). a Coleopterans feeding on pepino. a: a twenty-eight-spotted ladybird (Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata, Coccinellidae). b: an orientalis garden beetle (Maladera orientalis, Scarabaeidae). c: a black chafer (Nigrotrichia kiotoensis, Scarabaeidae). a c e Lepidopteran caterpillars feeding on pepino. a: a tussock caterpillar (Orvasca taiwana, Lymantriidae). b: a hibiscus looper (Gonitis mesogona, Noctuidae). c: a cabbage looper (Trichoplusia ni, Noctuidae). d: a tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae). e: a tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura, Noctuidae). a c a: a clover mite (Bryobia praetiosa, Tetranychidae). b: a tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi, Tetranychidae). c: a ludeni spider mite (Tetranychus ludeni, Tetranychidae). d: a two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychidae). Discussion Prior to the present study, the following 13 species of insects and mites were recognized as pests of pepino plants in Japan (Furusato 1984; Takahashi 1985; Takagi 1985; Kita 1986; Odagiri et al. 1986; Ozawa 1986; Kim et al. 2017, see also in Table 2) : flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895)), cotton whiteflies ( Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius, 1889)), greenhouse whiteflies (Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood, 1856)), cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877), solanum mealybugs ( Phenacoccus solani Ferris, 1918), Campylomma plant bugs (Campylomma livida Reuter, 1885), tobacco flea beetles (Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsheimer, 1847)), vegetable leafminer (Liriomyza sativae Blanchard, 1938), potato tuberworms (Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller, 1873)), tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775)), cabbage loopers ( Trichoplusia ni (Hübner, 1803)), broad mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904)), and two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836). In the present study, our surveys conducted in different locations in Japan revealed the presence of 38 species of insect and mite pests on pepino plants, as mentioned above (Table 1). Ten pest species were frequently recorded in the previous studies (Furusato 1984; Takagi 1985; Takahashi 1985; Kita 1986; Odagiri et al. 1986; Ozawa 1986; Kim et al. 2017) as well as in the present study. In addition, three species, namely solanum mealybugs, potato tuberworms, and broad mites, were not found in our surveys. present study Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878) Order Family Including the results of the present study, a total of 41 species of insects and mites have been recorded as pests of pepino plants in Japan (Table 2). Therefore, 28 species are newly recorded as pepino pests in Japan. This increase in the number of pest species is likely the result of not only the longer sampling period in this study, but also the fact that more study sites were sampled in the present study than in the study by Kim et al. (2017), who undertook surveys for approximately one and a half years in three sites located within a radius of 250 m in Kanagawa Prefecture (sites 3, 4, and 5 in this study correspond to plots A, B, and C in Kim et al. (2017), respectively). In particular, the inclusion of study sites on Okinawa Island (sites 8–11), which has a subtropical climate, may be one of the major factors behind the increase in the number of pest species recorded, since Okinawa has insect species unique to the region, such as spotted grasshoppers, tussock caterpillars, Chinese thrips (Haplothrips chinensis Priesner, 1933), and Prolygus plant bugs (Prolygus bakeri (Poppius, 1915)). Among the 38 species detected in the present study, onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman, 1889), two-spotted spider mites, and cotton whiteflies were collected from more than half of the study sites, that is, from 8 sites, 7 sites, and 6 sites, respectively. Moreover, these three species, on an empirical basis, were much more abundant on pepino plants than the other pest species, and from several hundred to thousands of individuals of these three species were found on each pepino plant (Fig. 15). In Japan, these three species may be considered the most important insect and mite pests of pepino plants. a Two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae, Tetranychidae) damaging leaves of pepino. a: Pepino infested with two-spotted spider mites. b: Two-spotted spider mites collected from pepino. In the world, 25 species of insects and mites are known as pests of pepino plants and seven species of them are considered as important pests (Larraín 2002; Galbreath and Clearwater 1983; Akyazi 2012) . Of these seven, four species, namely two-spotted spider mites, green peach aphids, solenopsis mealybugs ( Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, 1898), and broad mites, are distributed in Japan. The former two species are common to Japan and the world as pests of pepino plants. The latter two species have not been found so far from pepino plants in Japan, but attention should be paid to future trends. On the other hand, onion thrips and tobacco whiteflies, which are considered to be likely the most important pests in Japan in the present study, are not important in other countries to date; however, these two species might be important pests because they are distributed worldwide. Although most of the Japanese pest species of pepino plants are leaf-feeders, two lepidopteran species, tussock caterpillars and tobacco budworms (Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1808)), were observed feeding on the fruits of pepino plants in the current study (Fig. 16). This results in holes in the fruits, which may negatively affect the commercial value of pepino. Pest management will be important for the cultivation of pepino plants, because no pesticides applicable to these plants have been registered in Japan to date. Therefore, biological control will have to be used for the commercial cultivation of pepino at the moment. • Insect pests feeding on the fruits of pepino. a: A tobacco budworm (Helicoverpa armigera, Noctuidae). b: A tussock caterpillar (Orvasca taiwana, Lymantriidae). Acknowledgements We are highly grateful to farmers and staff of garden centers for kindly allowing us to collect insects and mites in their fields and garden centers, and to Yoshihiro Yamada, Yuki Ono, and Naoki Kaneko (LETUA) for kindly offering materials, supporting our field investigations, and/or identifying species. We also thank the members of the Laboratory of Vegetables and the Laboratory of Plant Pathology of our university for their committed cultivation and management of pepino plants in our experimental fields. We are also indebted to Jenő Kontschán, Luiz Alexandre de Castro, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira Bernardi, and an anonymous reviewer for their critical reading of the manuscript and for giving valuable comments. This study was financially supported by the Strategic Research Project from Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan. We would like to thank Editage (www.editage.jp) for English language editing. Larraín SP (2002) Incidencia de insectos y ácaros plagas en pepino dulce (Solanum muricatum Ait.) culticado en la IV Región. Agricultura Técnica 61: 15‑26. [In Spanish]. https://doi.org/10.4067/S036528072002000100002 Masumoto M, Okajima S (2013) Review of the genus Thrips and related genera (Thysanoptera, Thripidae) from Japan. Zootaxa 3678: 1‑65. https://doi.org/10.11646/ zootaxa.3678.1.1 Matsumoto Y (2008) A Guide Illustrated Book of Aphids. Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai, Tokyo, (10)+239 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-88137-134-3] Moritsu M (1983) Aphids of Japan in Colors. Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai, Tokyo, 545 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-88137-017-0] Odagiri T, Nishiyama T, Inaba K, Fukuoka N, Saida Y (1986) Cultivation management and plant physiology and ecology. 12. Establishment of cultivation system for pepino. Sosai Shiken Seisekisho 1986: 120‑122. [In Japanese]. Okajima S, Araya K (2012) The Standard of Scarabaeoid Beetles in Japan. Gakken, Tokyo, 444 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-05-403847-9] Ono T, Koyano S, Noji Y, Ohbayashi T (2006) Occurrence of okra leaf hopper, Amrasca biguttula (Ishida, 1913), and its damage to some economic crops in Chichijima and Hahajima, Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands, Japan. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society (53): 141‑144. [In Japanese]. URL: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ ktpps1999/2006/53/2006_53_141/_article Orthopterological Society of Japan (2006) Orthoptera of the Japanese Archipelago in Color. Hokkaido University Press, Sapporo, 687 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-8329-8161-4] Ozawa A (1986) Pepino no Seitaiteki-tokusei to Saibaijô no Ryûi-ten. [Ecological properties and points of attention for cultivation in pepino]. Shisetsu Engei 28 (1): 26‑29. [In Japanese]. Sakamoto Y (2018) The Handbook of Lady birds. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo, 88 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-8299-8158-0] Sakata Y (2011) Pepino. In: Nosangyoson-bunkakyokai Encyclopedia of growing vegetable 20. 2nd edition. Nosangyoson-bunkakyokai, Tokyo, 305-309 pp. [In Japanese]. Takagi K (1985) Kasai Pepino. [Pepino, a fruit vegetable]. Garden Life 3: 67‑70. [In Japanese]. Takahashi M (1985) Pepino. In: Kiyota I (Ed.) Yûbô-shin-yasai no Tsukuri-kata. [Cultivation methods for new prospective vegetables]. Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo, 112-120 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-540-85003-2]. Tanaka H, Uesato T (2012) New records of some potential pest mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47: 413‑419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13355-012-0134-6 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology (2006) Major Insect and Other Pests of Economic Plants in Japan. Revised Edition. The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology, Tokyo, 387 pp. Tokumaru S (2018) Hamoguribae Boujo Handobukku. [Handbook of agromyzids for pest control]. Rural Culture Association Japan, Tokyo, 130 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-540-15154-5] Umeya K, Okada T (Eds) (2003) Agricultural Insect Pests in Japan. Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai, Tokyo, 1203 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-88137-103-7] Supplementary material Suppl. material 1: PEPINO_PESTS data Authors: T. Ishikawa, K. Takahata Data type: occurrences Brief description: Occurrences of insect and mite species of pests of pepino plants in Japan. Download file (195.50 kb) Akyazi R ( 2012 ) First report of Aculops lycopersici (Tryon, 1917 ) (Acari: Eriophyidae) on Pepino in Turkey . Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research 2012 44: e20 . https://doi.org/10.4081/jear. 2012 .e20 Aoki J (Ed.) ( 2015 ) Pictorial Keys to Soil Animals of Japan. The Second Edition . Tokai University Press, Hadano, xliv+1969 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4 - 486 -01945-9] Carapia Ruiz VE , Castillo-Gutiérrez A ( 2013 ) Estudio comparativo sobre la morfologia de Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) y Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) . Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 29 : 178 ‑ 193 . URL: http://www.redalyc.org/ articulo.oa?id=57525802008 Dworakowska I ( 1982 ) Empoascini of Japan, Korea and North-east Part of China. Reichenbachia 20 : 33 ‑ 57 . Ehara S , Gotoh T (Eds) ( 2009 ) Colored Guide to the Plant Mites of Japan . Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai , Tokyo, vi+349 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-05-402370 -3] Furukawa M ( 2005 ) Noctuidae . In: Ishiwata S, Hanada S , Hayashi F , Yamazaki T , Uemura Y , Aoki N , Hayashi M , Nozaki T , Fukuda H , Kishida Y , Hayashi N , Shinohara A , Shinonaga T (Eds) Insect Larvae of Japan. Gakken, Tokyo, 217 - 225 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-05-402370-3]. Furusato K ( 1984 ) Atarashii-Yasai “Pepino” to sono-Tsukuri-kata. [A new vegetable “pepino” and its cultivation] . Nogyo Gijutsu Kenkyu 38 ( 7 ): 36 ‑ 37 . [In Japanese]. Galbreath RA , Clearwater JR ( 1983 ) Pheromone monitoring of Sceliodes cordalis, a pest of pepino . In: Hartley M (Ed.) Proceedings of 36th New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Hastings , 9 - 11 August 1983 . The New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc ., Palmerston North, New Zealand. 128 -130 pp. Grinberg M , Perl-Treves R , Palevsky E , Shomer I , Soroker V ( 2005 ) Interaction between cucumber plants and the broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus from damage to defense gene expression . Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 115 : 135 ‑ 144 . https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1570- 7458 . 2005 . 00275 . x Harada H , Takizawa H ( 2012 ) Occurrence of Epitrix hirtipennis (Melsheimer) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an alien insect pest , in Japan. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology 56 : 117 ‑ 120 . [In Japanese with English summary]. https://doi.org/10.1303/ jjaez. 2012 .117 Ishikawa T , Takai M , Yasunaga T (Eds) ( 2012 ) A Field Guide to Japanese Bugs - Terrestrial Heteropterans - . Vol . 3 . Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai , Tokyo, 573 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-88137-168-8 ] Iwasaki A , Kasugai K , Iwaizumi R , Sasakawa M ( 2000 ) A newly recorded pest, Liriomyza sativae Blanchard in Japan . Plant Protection 54 ( 4 ): 142 ‑ 147 . [In Japanese]. Japan Plant Protection Association (Ed) ( 2011 ) Azamiuma-rui no Miwake-kata. [How to identify thrips] . Plant Protection, special edition, ( 14 ). Japan Plant Protection Association , Tokyo, 60 pp. [In Japanese]. Kawai S ( 1980 ) Scale Insects of Japan in Colors . Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai , Tokyo, viii+455 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-88137-011 -1] Kim O , Ishikawa T , Yamada Y , Sato T , Shinohara H , Takahata K ( 2017 ) Incidence of pests and viral disease on pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait .) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. Biodiversity Data Journal 5 : e14879. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.5. e14879 Kimoto S , Takizawa H ( 1994 ) Leaf Beetles (Chrysomelidae) of Japan . Tokai University Press, Tokyo, xvii+539 pp. [In Japanese, with English keys] . [ISBN 4-486-01287 -9] Kita N ( 1986 ) Pepino no Saibai-gijutsu. [Cultivation technique of pepino] . Yasai Engei Gijutsu 13 ( 9 ): 6 ‑ 10 . [In Japanese]. Kobayashi H , Matsumoto T ( 2011 ) Atlas of Japanese Scarabeoidea Vol. 3 . Phytophagous group II. Roppon-Ashi Entomological Books , Tokyo, 178 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-902649-04 -8] Komine M , Matsuo K ( 2005 ) Occurrence of thrips on potato in Nagasaki Prefecture , Japan. Kyushu Plant Protection Research 51 : 53 ‑ 59 . [In Japanese]. https://doi.org/10.4241/ kyubyochu.51.53 Yasuda M , Takahashi M , Nakajima H ( 2010 ) The Handbook of Japanese Caterpillar . Bunichi Sogo Shuppan , Tokyo, 100 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-8299-1079 -5] Yasuda M , Takahashi M , Nakajima H ( 2012 ) The Handbook of Japanese Caterpillar . Vol. II. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan , Tokyo, 100 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-8299-8119 -1] Yasuda M , Takahashi M , Nakajima H , Shikata K ( 2014 ) The Handbook of Japanese Caterpillar . Vol. III. Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan , Tokyo, 108 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 978-4-8299-1079 -5] Yasunaga T , Takai M , Yamashita I , Kawamura M , Kawasawa T ( 1993 ) A Field Guide to Japanese Bugs - Terrestrial Heteropterans . Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai , Tokyo, 380 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-88137-052 -9] Yasunaga T , Takai M , Kawasawa T (Eds) ( 2001 ) A Field Guide to Japanese Bugs - Terrestrial Heteropterans . Vol. 2 . Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai , Tokyo, 350 pp. [In Japanese]. [ISBN 4-88137-089 -8] Yasunaga T , Schuh RT , Duwal RK ( 2015 ) Taxonomic review of the plant bug genus Campylomma Reuter from Japan (Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae: Nasocorini), with descriptions of two new species . Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 158 : 49 ‑ 69 . https:// doi.org/10.1163/ 22119434 -00002046 Yokohama Plant Protection Station ( 2005 ) Wagakuni de Arata-ni Bumpu wo Kakudaishiteiru Gumbaimushi. [Lace bugs currently extending their distribution in Japan] . Shokubutsu Bouekijo Byougaichuu Jouhou ( 77 ): 4 ‑ 5 . [In Japanese]. URL: http:// www.maff.go.jp/pps/j/guidance/pestinfo/pdf/pestinfo_077_ 4 - 5 .pdf


This is a preview of a remote PDF: https://bdj.pensoft.net/article/36453/download/pdf/

Tadashi Ishikawa. Insect and mite pests of pepino (Solanum muricatum Ait.) in Japan, Biodiversity Data Journal, 2019, DOI: doi:10.3897/BDJ.7.e36453