Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica
Gray et al. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sexuality among fathers of newborns in Jamaica
Peter B Gray 0
Jody-Ann Reece 1
Charlene Coore-Desai 1
Twana Dinnall-Johnson 1
Sydonnie Pellington 1
Maureen Samms-Vaughan 1
0 Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada , 4505 S. Maryland Parkway, Box 455003, Las Vegas, NV 89154-5003 , USA
1 Department of Child and Adolescent Health, University of the West Indies , Mona Campus, Mona , Jamaica
Background: While a growing body of research has addressed pregnancy and postpartum impacts on female sexuality, relatively little work has been focused upon men. A few studies suggest that a fraction of men report decreases in libido during a partner's pregnancy and/or postpartum, with alterations in men's sexual behavior also commonly aligning with those of a partner. Here, we investigate sexuality among fathers of newborn children in Jamaica. In Jamaica, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, relationship dynamics can be fluid, contributing to variable paternal roles and care, as well as a high fraction of children born into visiting relationships in which parents live apart from each other. Methods: During July-September, 2011, 3410 fathers of newborns with an average age of 31 (SD = 8) years participated in the fatherhood arm of a national birth cohort study (JAKids). These fathers answered questions about sociodemographic background, relationship quality and sexuality (e.g., various components of sexual function such as sex drive and sexual satisfaction as well as number of sexual partners the previous 12 months and sexual intercourse the previous week) during a visit to a hospital or birth center within a day or two of their child being born. Results: Showed that sex drive was more variable than other components (erections, ejaculation, problem assessment) of sexual function, though sexual satisfaction was generally high. Thirty percent of men reported two or more sexual partners the previous 12 months. Nearly half of men indicated not engaging in sexual intercourse the past week. Multivariate analyses showed that relationship status was related to various aspects of men's sexuality, such as men in visiting relationships reporting more sexual partners and more openness to casual sex. Relationship quality was the most consistent predictor of men's sexuality, with men in higher quality relationships reporting higher sexual satisfaction, fewer sexual partners, and higher frequency of sex, among other findings. Conclusions: These results provide an unusually large, quantitative look at men's sexuality during the transition to fatherhood in Jamaica, offering helpful insight to would-be parents, clinicians or others seeking to anticipate the effects of a partner's pregnancy on men's sexuality.
Fatherhood; Men; Parents; Caribbean; Sexual function; Sexual relationship
A small but growing body of research has addressed the
influence of pregnancy and postpartum phases on
sexuality [1,2]. An understanding of these effects is important
for various reasons, including to counsel would-be
parents on what can be dramatic yet normal alterations in
partners sexual dynamics. The vast amount of this
literature investigating the effects of having a child on
sexuality has focused on women, however. Decreases in
womens sexual desire and sexual frequency during late
pregnancy and postpartum have been well-documented
[3,4], along with moderating constitutional and
contextual factors such as mode of delivery (e.g., C-section vs.
vaginal birth), relationship quality (often more frequent
sexual activity in higher-quality relationships), and
acceptance of alternate sexual partners (e.g., post-partum
sexual taboos and polygyny) . But fathers also warrant
attention to determine how features of their sexuality
such as sexual desire, sexual behavior, and sexual
satisfaction are impacted during these same transitions.
A review of 59 studies, largely drawing upon European
and North American samples, noted that few studies on
fatherhood and peripartum sexuality had been published
. At that time, the limited available data suggested
that a fraction of fathers reported decreases in sexual
desire during pregnancy and up to a year postpartum,
along with alterations in sexual behavior during these
times, such as reduced coital frequency. A handful of
studies published since then have offered additional
insights into fatherhood and sexuality. A longitudinal
study of 30 German couples found that mens
masturbation rates were relatively constant across pregnancy and
six months postpartum, although various partnered
sexual behaviors such as intercourse and oral sex declined
to low levels after the birth of a child . In Nakic Rados
et als  study of 105 Croatian men, researchers found
that nearly a third of male participants reported lower
sexual desire along with decreases in sexual behavior
during their partners final trimester of pregnancy.
Although mens reported sexual satisfaction was generally
high, it decreased in nearly half of men, and was highly
related to relationship quality . A sample of 279 men
from southeastern Nigeria observed that approximately
40% reported decreased libido, over 70% reported
decreased sexual behavior, and yet 28% reported engaging
in extramarital sexual behavior during a partners
pregnancy, although extramarital sexual behavior was less
common among older men . A small, qualitative
study of Swedish fathers discussing their sexuality 36
months postpartum highlighted the need to renegotiate
sexuality within a relationship and focus upon an infant
. A larger qualitative study of 128 Australian fathers
drew upon questionnaire responses 6 weeks postpartum,
and featured decreases in sexual behavior, and
adjustments to the birth, a partners attention to their infant,
and being tired .
In the present study, we build upon this limited
literature to focus upon the sexuality of fathers of newborns
in Jamaica. Consistent with insights from this small body
of existing work, we seek to measure sexual behaviors
such as intercourse, but also other facets of sexuality
such as sexual desire and sexual satisfaction. We also
anticipate that relationship dynamics (e.g., relationship
quality and availability of alternative partners) are
important elements in contextualizing mens sexuality
during this process. Since late pregnancy and early
postpartum phases have the largest impact on womens
and, it seems, their partnered mens sexuality, a focus
upon fathers of newborns highlights a time when mens
sexual desire, satisfaction and behavior are apt to be in
flux, given the concern over a new child, but also
alterations in sleep, relationship quality, and other domains
[11,12]. The Nigerian findings also recognize the
importance of placing mens sexuality in cultural context, given
that the percentage of fathers in that sample reporting
extramarital sex (28%) during a partners pregnancy is
higher than indicated by European, North American or
Australian findings (see [13,14] for related discussion).
Jamaican cultural context
Family dynamics in the Caribbean, including Jamaica,
have long drawn attention from scholars, and have been
noted for standing out in cross-cultural perspective.
Early contributions like Edith Clarkes  My Mother
who Fathered Me and Smiths  West Indian Family
Structure recognized a high prevalence of matrifocal
household structures in the Caribbean, in which mothers
anchor the family unit (see also [17-22]). The fluidity of
sexual relationships can lead to males playing variable
paternal roles, and placing heightened importance on
maternal grandmothers as sources of family support.
Births frequently take place within so-called visiting
relationships, in which a man living separately maintains an
ongoing social and sexual relationship with his childs
mother . Visiting relationships sometimes transform
into common-law unions, and these into formal
marriage, but many also dissolve. Seventy percent of births
in the Caribbean occur outside of marriage, a higher
percentage than any other region of the world .
Households of mixed parentage often occur, meaning
that fathers frequently play both biological and
stepfather roles. The primary paternal responsibility of
African-Caribbean men tends to be viewed as
economicas financial providers, although in practice
economic constraints often mean men fail to meet this
overriding standard . Approximately 93% of Jamaicas
population claims African Caribbean descent, with the
remainder a mixture of European, Native Caribbean
(e.g., Taino), South Indian, Chinese, and Southwest
In Jamaica, recent data reveal that 49% of children are
born into visiting unions, 36% common-law unions, and
15% married unions . Religious affiliation and
socioeconomic status are both positively associated with
couples marrying, and particularly for children being born
within households of already-married couples. The
quality of a mans relationship to a coresidential mate also
helps predict his paternal involvement. This Jamaican
background thus recognizes considerable variation in
relationship and paternal dynamics, and also points toward
investigating the effects of socioeconomic status on
fathers sexuality. We draw upon these wider Caribbean
and Jamaican contextual considerations to embed the
present study on fathers sexuality with respect to
relationship status (visiting/common-law/marital unions),
relationship quality, expectations concerning mating
fluidity, and assessments of mens socioeconomic status.
Put another way, the aims of the present study are to 1)
provide descriptive quantitative data on the sexuality of
Jamaican fathers of newborns, and to 2) test the
potential impacts of relationship status, relationship
quality, and mens socioeconomic status on those mens
sexuality. The rationale for investigating these predictor
variables is that other research suggests these variables
structure features of mens sexuality, and they are central
features of the Jamaican cultural context in which this
study is situated.
Study design and recruitment
The proposed research builds on a new, national birth
cohort study (JAKids) initiated in Jamaica in summer
2011 by Samms-Vaughan, a Jamaican pediatrician and
researcher. The JA Kids study included all births
occurring throughout the island of Jamaica during the three
month period July-September 2011. Of the 11,124 births
across the island, some 9700 mothers (87% of the
population) were recruited, answering questions concerning
maternal behavior, relationship dynamics, and other
domains at the time of their childrens birth. The
fatherhood arm of the cohort study relied upon biological
fathers participating by answering a standardized set of
questions during the day or two postpartum when they
attended birthing facilities. Responses to questions
provided basic sociodemographic information as well as
outcomes on various facets of mens lives, including
relationship dynamics and sexuality. Birthing centers
included private centers, large public hospitals, and
smaller public facilities throughout the island. These
fathers were drawn from across the island with the
support of an extensive team of research assistants and staff
at both public and private birthing locations.
A large sample of 3410 fathers participated, which
represents 31% of all Jamaican fathers who had a child
during summer 2011. This sample includes both first-time
and experienced fathers. Fathers were not paid for their
participation in a standardized face-to-face interview
with trained staff that lasted 30 minutes on average, and
that took place during the one or two hours of visiting
time at a birth center in the day or two after their child
was born. Fathers at virtually all Jamaican birthing
centers are not allowed to attend births due to space and
privacy concerns, proscribing interviews during a
waiting period at a birthing center. Under normal
circumstances, mothers and infants return home within two
days postpartum. Many fathers are unable to visit
birthing centers within this time due to work or other
constraints. The sample of fathers may represent a slightly
more invested set of fathers overall, but can also be seen
in light of the recruitment context. Some men did not
answer all items. The question most omitted referred to
sexual behavior the previous 7 days, completed by 2680
participants. For all other sexuality measures, number of
responses ranged from 32603398, and for dependent
variables the number of responses ranged from 3282
Ethical approval for the study was provided by the
University of the West Indies/University Hospital of the
West Indies Ethical Committee and University of Nevada,
Las Vegas Institutional Review Board. Written informed
consent was obtained from participants.
Basic sociodemographic information included items
asking about mens age and occupation. Educational
attainment was scored as 1 (primary or less); 2 (junior high); 3
(some or all secondary school, as well as vocational
school); or 4 (some or all tertiary school). A measure of
wealth was indexed as the total number of a possible 10
household items (refrigerator, living room set, washing
machine, vehicle, VCR/DVD, computer, AC, generator,
fans, water tank) present and working in a participants
home. Relationship status was divided into three
categories: visiting relationship, common-law (living
together), and married. Relationship quality was measured
by a 17-item scale drawn from the Avon Longitudinal
Study of Pregnancy and Childbirth (ALSPAC: see )
based on questions such as Did you think your
relationship with your babys mother would end soon?), with all
questions referring to relationship quality before the
pregnancy. Answers ranged from almost always to
almost never, and possible scores on this measure of
relationship quality were from 17 (highest quality) to 68
(lowest quality). Sexual function was assessed by
administration of the Brief Male Sexual Inventory , which
distinguishes four components of sexual function (sex
drive, erections, ejaculation, and problem assessment)
and also quantifies sexual satisfaction over the preceding
30 days. Mens sexuality was also assessed by three
individual items (With how many different partners have
you had sex with in the past 12 months?; I can imagine
myself being comfortable and enjoying casual sex with
different partners?; and How many times have you had
sexual intercourse during the past 7 days?). The item
about casual sex was scored from strongly disagree (1)
to strongly agree (9).
Descriptive data are reported as frequencies and means
(SD). Univariate and multivariate models rely upon
general linear models. Multivariate models enabled testing
for predictive ability of relationship status, relationship
quality, age, and male socioeconomic status (education
and wealth) on components of sexual function, sexual
satisfaction and number of sexual partners. Alpha was
set to 0.05, and two-tailed tests were employed.
Relations between sociodemographic factors and
Univariate Pearson correlations among sexuality
variables, relationship quality and fathers age are provided
in Table 2. As shown in that Table, many of the variables
are statistically significantly correlated with each other,
but with low correlation coefficients. Among those
variables correlated with each other are components of
mens sexual function, such as sex drive and erectile
function. Relationship quality is also associated with
sexual satisfaction, with men in higher quality relationships
reporting higher sexual satisfaction, as also depicted in
Results of multivariate GLMs are given in Table 3.
These analyses draw upon key predictors of mens
sexuality: relationship status (with the three categories of
married, common-law unions, and visiting relationships
employed), educational attainment, paternal age, wealth,
and relationship quality. The findings show that
education is the only significant predictor of sex drive, with
men reporting some or completed secondary school
having higher sex drive than those men with some or
completed tertiary school. Men in higher quality
relationships report better erectile and ejaculatory function,
and fewer sexual problems. Educational attainment is
also associated with ejaculatory function and problem
assessments, with men having some or completed
tertiary school reporting lower ejaculatory function than
the preceding two educational categories and more
problems compared with men with some or completed
lower secondary (Jr. High) school.
Sexual satisfaction differs by four of the five predictor
variables. Married men report lower sexual satisfaction
than men in visiting relationships. Men in the highest
category of educational attainment report lower sexual
satisfaction than men in the other three categories of
educational attainment. Wealth is inversely related to
sexual satisfaction. And higher sexual satisfaction is
related to more positive relationship quality. For number
of sexual partners in the past 12 months, these vary by
relationship status, with married men reporting the
fewest and men in visiting relationships the most partners.
These differences are also shown in Figure 2. Number of
sexual partners also differs by education, with men in
the highest category of educational attainment reporting
fewer partners than men in the first two categories.
Lower relationship quality is also associated with more
Openness to casual sex varies by education, with men
in the highest educational category reporting less
openness to sex than men in the lowest educational category.
Openness to casual sex also decreases with mens age
and is inversely related to relationship quality (i.e., men
in higher quality relationships are less open to casual
sex). With respect to the frequency of sex in the past
seven days, there were differences in relationship status.
Married men reported lower frequency of sex than men
in visiting relationships. The frequency of sex was
negatively associated with mens age, positively associated
with wealth, positively associated with relationship
quality, and also differed by education. Men reporting some
or completed secondary school had higher frequency of
sex than men reporting some or completed tertiary
The present study represents a large and yet relatively
rare contribution to an understanding of the impacts of
becoming a father on mens sexuality. The sample size of
3410 men is unprecedented for the study of fatherhood
and sexuality in the Caribbean but possibly for
Table 1 Descriptive sexual function and behavioral
measures for Jamaican fathers of newborns
Percentage of fathers
Erections (past 30 days)
Ejaculations (past 30 days)
0-4 (lower sex drive)
7-8 (higher sex drive)
10-12 (higher function)
Problem Assessment (past 30 days)
10-12 (fewer problems)
Overall, during the past 30 days, how
satisfied have you been with your sex life?
Very or mostly dissatisfied
With how many different partners have you
had sex with in the past 12 months?
I can imagine myself being comfortable and
enjoying casual sex with different partners.
1-3 (largely disagreeing)
How many times have you had sexual
intercourse during the past 7 days?
fatherhood and sexuality generally. That said, the sample
is likely biased toward more invested partners and
fathers. In order to participate, men had to report to a
hospital or birth center (so were sufficiently invested to
visit facilities to see a newborn and childs mother) and
were not remunerated for their efforts. After considering
alternative recruitment strategies of fathers at baseline,
such as phone interviews and home visits, the
recruitment strategy was employed to capture many fathers in
an economically efficient means. The lower percentage
of visiting fathers (33%) in the present sample than
previous findings by Samms-Vaughan (closer to 50%) in
Jamaica is consistent with some bias toward fewer
visiting fathers, who may also be in more fragile
relationships with a childs mother. We also note that the
relationship dynamics of this Jamaican sample bear some
similarities to the U.S. Fragile Families study, in which it
has also been pointed out that visiting fathers are less
likely to participate in fatherhood research than fathers
in common-law or marital relationships . These
considerations mean that any inferences drawn from the
study should recognize the potential sampling bias
against less-invested fathers of newborns generally and
visiting fathers more specifically.
Mens sex drive showed more variation than did other
components (erections, ejaculations, problem
assessments) of sexual function. This observation suggests a
fraction of men do report quite variable sex drive
associated with a transition to fatherhood, adding to the
literature on this topic. At the same time, as also found in
previous research, mens overall sexual satisfaction
tended to be high. It could be that the relatively young
age spread (e.g., mean around 29 years of age) of
fathers-of-newborns in this sample contributes to the
same patterns: erectile function, for example, tends to
diminish at older ages than represented in the present
sample, whereas mens sex drive may be more labile at
these younger ages with respect to factors such as family
Approximately 30% of men reported two or more
different sexual partners the previous 12 months. The time
frame could include partners prior to the one with
whom a man has fathered a child, meaning that this
number may not align fully with concurrent partnerships
or extra-pair sex during a partners pregnancy. This
percentage is nonetheless quite high when viewed in light
of inferences of multiple-partnering in Western samples.
Rather than view this is an anomaly or driven primarily
by reporting bias (which is always a consideration with
sexuality data), there are reasons to see these data as a
realistic account of partner number among fathers.
These data are consistent with the wider Caribbean and
Jamaican cultural contexts in which relationship fluidity
is situated. An independent body of public health
Table 2 Correlations among sexuality variables, relationship quality and paternal age
1 Sex drive
4 Problem assessments
5 Sexual satisfaction
6 Number of different partners
7 Casual sex
8 Frequency of sex
10 Relationship quality
**p 0.01, * 0.05.
research on sexually transmitted infections is also
consistent with ethnographic accounts of mate shifting and
sexual networking, leading to the Caribbean having the
highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS outside of sub-Saharan
Africa . A previous study on hormones and
fatherhood in Jamaica we conducted also found many fathers
in co-residential and visiting relationships reporting
multiple sexual partners in the previous 12 months .
The patterning of partnering is also similar to the
percentage of men in a southwest Nigerian sample of
fathers who reported extramarital sex during a partners
pregnancy, suggesting another ethnographic parallel .
The number of sexual partners in the past 12 months
reported by fathers is also patterned in notable ways,
perhaps lending further credence that these are realistic
estimates. Number of sexual partners varied by
relationship status, with married men reporting the fewest and
men in visiting relationships the most sexual partners.
These differences are consistent with the more fragile
state of visiting relationships. The number of sexual
Figure 1 Relationship quality is inversely associated with sexual satisfaction. Men reporting more sexual satisfaction show higher relationship
quality (lower relationship quality scores indicate higher quality).
Table 3 Multivariate GLM results predicting sexuality measures
Sex drive Erections Ejaculations Problem assessment Sexual satisfaction No. partners Casual sex Frequency
507.75** 1386.01** 1912.84** 1992.48** 1614.61** 56.97** 6.62** 9.94**
Relationship status 0.19
Relationship quality 2.60
partners also decreased with mens age, varied by mens
education, and was lower among men in higher quality
relationships. The age-related effect could be viewed as
consistent with expectations of male reproductive
senescence , in which males may be less sexually
motivated to pursue new partners while also investing in
existing offspring with advancing age. Such an
agerelated effect would also be consistent with age-related
decreases in openness to casual sex and frequency of
sexual behavior observed in the present analyses, but are
at odds with the lack of age-related differences in sex
drive (which would be expected to decrease with age,
although this might show up with a wider age range of
men than in the present sample).
Another way to view the relatively high percentage of
men reporting multiple sexual partners is with respect
to sexual conflicts. A growing literature highlights
womens fluctuations in sexual desire and behavior
across pregnancy, postpartum and while resuming
cycling. Those fluctuations can be quite profound,
particularly during late pregnancy and early postpartum [3,4].
While a fraction of men report decreases in sexual
desire, and we have noted variation in mens sex drive in
the present study, the magnitude of impacts of a
partners pregnancy and in the postpartum phase on men
pale in comparison to those on women. This can amplify
potential sex differences in sexual desire, making these
manifest at their maximum during this peripartum
Figure 2 Relationship status is associated with differences in the number of different partners reported in the past 12 months. Married
men report fewer partners than men in common-law unions, who in turn report more partners than men in visiting relationships.
transition across the reproductive years . The
consequence is that many men may be tempted to seek
additional sexual outlets if finding their sexual desires are
not met with a pregnant or postpartum partner. Indeed,
in their classic work on the Human Sexual Response,
Masters and Johnson  suggested this could be a time
in which men might stray. Hewlett and Hewlett  also
referred to the postpartum phase as a risky time for
Ngandu and to a lesser degree Aka men of Central
African Republic to seek another sexual partner.
Crossculturally, societies that allow polygynous marriage (and
thus alternative sexual outlets to a man) are more likely
to proscribe a womans sexual behavior during
pregnancy or postpartum . A study of U.S. single parents
of young children also found that fathers did not report
lower dating or sexual behaviors . The point of these
considerations is that they may contribute to why a
fraction of fathers-of-newborns are involved in multiple
sexual partnerships: their sexual desires are variably but less
impacted by having a child than are womens.
At the same time, and returning to the patterning of
data with respect to relationship status and relationship
quality, mens sexuality during a partners pregnancy and
postpartum is often highly contingent upon the nature
of a relationship within which a child is born and raised.
In this vein, visiting relationships tend to be less and
marital unions more stable, helping account for
differences in sexual partner number across relationship
status. A relatively high percentage of Jamaican fathers of
newborns (33% in the present sample) are in visiting
relationships when seen in international perspective. With
the exception of sex drive, each other measure of fathers
sexuality was associated with relationship quality. Men
in higher quality relationships had fewer sexual partners,
were less open to casual sex, had sex more frequently,
had higher erection and ejaculation performance, fewer
sexual problems, and reported more sexual satisfaction.
Indeed, relationship quality tended to be the most
powerful predictor of these measures of sexuality,
particularly for sexual satisfaction. These findings are
consistent with the idea that a high quality and stable
relationship can serve as an effective channel for a mans
sexuality and paternal investment. These findings are
also consistent with some larger concepts that view
fathering as part of a triadic (mother-father-child) rather
than dyadic (father-child) social phenomenon, and that
recognize the importance of long-term partnering as a
regular context in which humans tend to reproduce
(unlike most other mammals) (e.g., ).
Of the two socioeconomic measures employed in
multivariate analyses, mens education was related to six
of the eight sexuality measures, whereas mens wealth
was only related to two sexuality measures. This
indicates that mens education and wealth are not equivalent
indicators of socioeconomic status in the present
sample. Many of the differences with respect to education
refer to more highly educated men being more likely to
report less interest in sex and more problems with sex;
as examples, more highly educated men reported lower
erection function, interest in casual sex and sexual
satisfaction. Education-related differences in mens sexuality
could represent somewhat distinct partnership strategies,
with more educated men displaying a suite of
characteristics indicative of more narrowly channeling their
sexuality (e.g., into a single partner), but attended by lower
overall sexual function. With respect to wealth, a
number of cross-cultural studies have observed positive
relationships between mens status, wealth and marital
partners (see ), and some North American studies
(e.g. ) have found male wealth positively associated
with additional access to sexual partners. However,
mens wealth in the present study was not related to
number of sexual partners, though it was positively
associated with frequency of recent sexual behavior.
More research teasing apart the role of different
measures of male socioeconomic status in relation to
sexuality would be a fruitful avenue for research.
This research was subject to limitations. The data on
mens sexuality relied upon self-report. This is true of
the bulk of research on human sexuality, and is a reason
for interpreting the findings with caution. Findings from
the study likely under-represent the prevalence of fathers
in visiting relationships. This could mean that results are
biased toward men in more stable and positive
relationship dynamics. Women were not asked parallel sexuality
questions in the cohort study, preventing the alignment
of partners responses, even though this could be
particularly informative with respect to negotiating sexuality
in the face of escalating sexual conflicts during
pregnancy and postpartum. More rigorous evaluation of the
psychometrics of sexuality measures in a Jamaican
context would be helpful. The study is of fathers of
newborns, meaning that results speak largely to the impacts
of a partners late pregnancy on mens sexuality, but do
not directly address impacts during earlier stages of a
partners pregnancy or at specific and variable times
In summary, the present research involves an unusually
large sample of men, addressing the impacts of
becoming a father on mens sexuality. Over 3000 men in
Jamaica participated during a three month span in 2011.
Results show that mens sex drive is more variable than
other components of sexual function such as erections
or ejaculations, although overall mens sexual satisfaction
is generally high. Approximately 30% of men reported
multiple partners the previous 12 months, consistent
with ethnographic accounts of Caribbean relationship
dynamics. Number of sexual partners was predicted by
different variables, including relationship status,
relationship quality and education, and can also be situated
within discussions of increased sexual conflicts during
the transition to childrearing. Relationship quality was
regularly related to other sexuality measures, serving as
the most powerful predictor of mens sexual satisfaction.
This speaks to the importance of relationship factors in
structuring mens sexuality and experience as fathers.
This study thus not only provides quantitative insight
into the sexuality of Jamaican fathers of newborn
children, but also shows compelling patterns in mens
sexuality. The findings may also be of interest to counselors
and would-be parents contemplating how a partners
pregnancy may impact a mans sexuality.
PG, JAR, CCD, TDJ, SP and MSV conceived of the study. JAR, CCD, TJD, and
SP collected the data. PG and JR performed analyses, PG initially drafted the
manuscript, and JAR, CCD, TDJ, SP and MSV critically revised it. PG, JAR, CCD,
TJD, SP and MSV approve of the submitted manuscript. All authors read and
approved the final manuscript.
We thank all of the men who participated in this study and the field
research team who conducted interviews. For comments on an earlier draft
of the manuscript, we thank Michelle Escasa-Dorne, Carol Franco and
Timothy McHale. For financial support, we are indebted to the Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB), United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF), University
of the West Indies (UWI), Michigan State University (MSU), and University of
Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV).
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