A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research: the European Communication on Research Awareness Need project
Mosconi et al. Trials
A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research: the European Communication on Research Awareness Need project
Paola Mosconi 0
Cinzia Colombo 0
Silvio Garattini 0
Maria Rosa Valetto
0 Laboratory for Medical Research and Consumers involvement, Department of Public Health, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri , Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milano , Italy
Background: The ECRAN (European Communication on Research Awareness Needs) project was initiated in 2012, with support from the European Commission, to improve public knowledge about the importance of independent, multinational, clinical trials in Europe. Methods: Participants in the ECRAN consortium included clinicians and methodologists directly involved in clinical trials; researchers working in partnership with the public and patients; representatives of patients; and experts in science communication. We searched for, and evaluated, relevant existing materials and developed additional materials and tools, making them freely available under a Creative Commons licence. Results: The principal communication materials developed were: 1. A website (http://ecranproject.eu) in six languages, including a Media centre section to help journalists to disseminate information about the ECRAN project 2. An animated film about clinical trials, dubbed in the 23 official languages of the European Community, and an interactive tutorial 3. An inventory of resources, available in 23 languages, searchable by topic, author, and media type 4. Two educational games for young people, developed in six languages 5. Testing Treatments interactive in a dozen languages, including five official European Community languages 6. An interactive tutorial slide presentation testing viewers' knowledge about clinical trials Conclusions: Over a 2-year project, our multidisciplinary and multinational consortium was able to produce, and make freely available in many languages, new materials to promote public knowledge about the importance of independent and international clinical trials. Sustained funding for the ECRAN information platform could help to promote successful recruitment to independent clinical trials supported through the European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network.
Independent clinical trial; Patients; Lay people; Health research; Information; Access to information
At the end of 2013, the European Clinical Research
Infrastructure Network (ECRIN) was awarded the status
of European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC)
to continue designing and conducting independent and
multinational clinical trials throughout Europe . In
2014, the European Parliament approved the new Clinical
Trials Regulations intended to make it easier to conduct
multinational clinical trials [2, 3]. However, there has not
been yet any strategic coordination for communicating
the clinical and societal benefits of clinical trials to
patients and the European public.
The public and patients have been reached with
different messages and materials used by many
communicators: research centres; patients’ advocacy groups; and
pharmaceutical companies. The quality of the existing
disparate communication activities ranges from reliable
information to deliberate misinformation, and efforts to
engage the public in understanding health research at
the European level are rare. For example, the website of
the European Science Foundation provides no materials
addressed to the public, and there is no common
strategy on how to communicate the importance of
independent randomised clinical trials. Although randomised
clinical trials and systematic reviews of such trials are
recognised as essential for providing reliable evidence to
inform medical practice, patients and the public more
generally, still lack knowledge and awareness of the
importance of these research methods [4–7].
In most European countries clinical trials are rarely
the focus of public debate or patient organisations .
Even more rarely are research priorities debated by
researchers, clinicians, and patients . The involvement
of the European public in supporting independent
clinical trials to inform healthcare decisions varies among
countries, misconceptions about clinical trials are
frequent [10, 11], and the level of participation in clinical
trials is low .
Increasing the awareness of independent clinical trials
among patients and the public, supporting
patientoriented trials and avoiding wasteful research are
important goals to promote better research for better
healthcare [12–15]. In Europe, for example, Germany’s
drug regulators suspended the use of 29 generic drugs
on suspicion that they were given marketing licences
based on forged medical reports of human trials
supplied by GVK Biosciences, an Indian contract research
organisation, and authorities in France and Belgium have
taken similar action. The European Medicines Agency is
reported to believe that GVK Biosciences has been
systematically manipulating its medical studies for a number
of years. The suspension led to a major outcry by
pharmacists who were faced with disgruntled clients who still
wanted to buy their drugs. These events illustrated why
the public and patients need to understand the
importance of independent clinical trials, as pharmacists
complained that they found it impossible to explain the
reasons to customers, in particular because the
authorities had made clear that there was no threat to patients’
Although ECRIN exists to design, coordinate, and
facilitate the work of European clinical trialists, it lacks
information materials for patients and the general population.
In 2012, to address this gap and support the participation
of patients in independent and multinational clinical
trials in Europe, the European Commission funded the
European Communication on Research Awareness
Needs (ECRAN) project. ECRAN’s principal aims are to
inform the public and patients about (1) the importance
of independent clinical trials driven by healthcare needs;
(2) the need for transparency and optimal use of clinical
trial data; and (3) multinational cooperation, taking
advantage of Europe’s population size and diversity. This
article summarises the different phases of the ECRAN
project and presents the materials developed.
The project started on 1 September 2012 and ended on
31 August 2014; as reported in Fig. 1 three work phases
characterised the project: an exploratory phase aimed to
collect opinion from consumers and materials already
available; a development phase aimed to produce new
ECRAN materials; and the dissemination phase aimed to
publicise the results.
A multidisciplinary consortium handled the project:
clinicians and methodologists involved in clinical trials;
researchers working in partnership with the public and
patients; representatives of patients; and experts in
science communication. The materials developed took
advantage of this diversity. The documents were reviewed
to develop simple, readable materials for the public, and
to be potentially useful for clinicians and researchers.
For some materials, such as the website and the
educational games, there was preliminary user-testing.
The consortium agreed to promote the following
The importance of public understanding of the need
for, and basic principles of, clinical trials, fostering
active involvement of the public, patients, and their
representatives in trial design
The need for independent clinical trials driven by
healthcare and patients’ needs, not only on drugs
but on all interventions, to optimise strategies,
support evidence-based clinical practices, and
reduce healthcare inequalities
Fig. 1 European Communication on Research Awareness Needs (ECRAN) project overview. Legend: RCT randomised clinical trials
The need for transparency and optimal use of
clinical trial data to allow their use in re-analysis,
new analysis, and meta-analysis, but also to prevent
bias in presenting and analysing results
The need for multinational cooperation, taking
advantage of Europe’s population size, diversity,
and medical expertise
Exploratory phase: survey and database
Public users of health information in the European
Union were surveyed to see what they already
understood about clinical trials, and what they wanted to learn
more about. The survey also aimed to identify
differences between the perspectives and approaches of the
public and those of experts concerning what they need
to learn about clinical trials, and to systematically
identify open access resources that explain important aspects
of clinical trials. The purpose was to inform subsequent
resources development and enable new resources to be
tailored to the public’s self-identified needs.
For the survey the ECRAN experts developed a list of
the important concepts needed to understand clinical
trials. The survey was piloted informally with a few
people from the Cochrane Consumer Network, without
further validation, because these concepts are
wellestablished. The questions used were multiple-choice,
free-text and matrix-type.
The surveys were distributed through: (a) PatientView,
an organisation that holds a database of patient groups,
through emails to 20,000 English-speaking patient groups
across Europe, and (b) National Health Service Choices, a
website funded by the English Department of Health,
dedicated to informing the public on health issues. No
reminders or follow-up emails were sent to non-responders.
Open access resources that explained important aspects
of clinical trials were sought through (1) professional
contacts (e.g. survey of members of the Network to Support
Understanding of Health Research); (2) online searches by
ECRAN partner organisations; (3) clinical trials search
engines or trial registers; and (4) websites communicating
information about clinical trials to patients, the public
and/or professionals, developed by governments,
institutions, and patient organisations. Resources focusing on
one or more of ECRAN’s key messages were collated.
These resources were catalogued in an online Koha
database, so further data could be collected and the resources
reviewed and evaluated.
Koha was chosen as it is a highly developed and
reliable open source library cataloguing system that has
templates for the major categories of resources (e.g.
videos), the ability to add or edit templates, a flexible
frontend design, Web 2.0 functionality for rating resources,
and the ability to use iFrames to host particular content
elsewhere to facilitate dissemination. The Koha database
is also searchable in all 23 European languages. It works
through a search engine into which people, in order to
identify and link to learning resources, can put the terms
about which they wish to learn more. The users can search
for materials according with their information needs.
Resources identified were assessed by one person for
relevance, and target audience and reviewed by a second
person. Collected resources were assessed by members
of the consortium for the following domains: correctness
of the materials (correct and complete; correct but not
complete; not quite correct; incorrect on an important
matter); how much prior knowledge assumed (4-point
scale from none to advanced knowledge required);
language level; engagement level; educational value; general
or specific topic covered.). Twenty-five health service users
from the Cochrane Consumer Network also assessed
the content online and gave free-text comments and a
star rating. Multiple resources were allocated to them
by the topic areas in which they had expressed an
interest so that they could compare resources addressing
similar issues. The data were collected using the Web
2.0 functionality of the database. A link to an
instructional video, which also illustrates how the database
works, was sent to all volunteers (http://bit.ly/15iEw7F,
last accessed 8 September 2015).
Development phase: materials
Starting from the review of the resources, the ECRAN
materials – the website, the film, the educational games,
for example – were developed through a process of peer
review among partners, patients, and the public. The
ECRAN film was developed in collaboration with
RAISuperQuark, the longest and most successful scientific
programme on Italian public television.
The accessibility and readability of the website were
assessed during its early development (interim evaluation
about structure and navigation using a three-language
version, English, Italian, and Danish, by experts in health
communication) and again just before its publication. The
latter test was done by 20 users, selected by the European
AIDS Treatment Group , the Cochrane Consumer
Network , Oxford University Hospital, and IRCCS
Istituto Mario Negri-PartecipaSalute .
We also ran a user test of the educational games in a
secondary high school in Milan, where students and
teachers were asked to consult and comment on the
materials published on the ECRAN website.
To ensure efficient dissemination, all the materials
developed for lay people have been translated and dubbed
into at least six European languages. All materials and
tools are published under a Creative Commons licence
on the ECRAN website (http://www.ecranproject.eu).
Exploratory phase: survey and database
A total of 1852 completed survey responses were
received. Although the survey was directed at lay people,
less than half the respondents were health service users,
patients, parents or carers. The other responders were
health advocates (e.g. health organisations), medical or
allied health professionals, health educators,
policymakers or librarians. The overwhelming majority had a
college/university-level qualification or higher.
Nonetheless, over half of the respondents said their main reason
for seeking health information was for personal use.
Three quarters of respondents were women.
The survey provided a glimpse into the lack of public
understanding about how clinical trials are conducted.
While most participants (73 % or 1358/1852)
understood why clinical trials are necessary, over half (57 % or
1060/1852,) understood ‘little or not at all’ about the
four pre-licensing phases. Figure 2 ranks the needs and
preferences of the respondents with respect to key
concepts involved in understanding clinical trials, according
to the total number of positive responses.
Fig. 2 Requests for more information on the following terms. Blue: slightly interested in learning more. Red: very interested in knowing more.
Green: I already understand this concept
Regarding the collected resources, most were judged
suitable for beginners and less than 5 % required
advanced knowledge. The majority used language suitable
for a lay audience, about a third assumed some
understanding of technical terms. Few resources were assessed
as engaging and a third were classified as ‘serious and
dull’. Most materials were generic but about a third of the
resources used examples of specific conditions or were
related to specific conditions. The ratings of responders
were generally good and free-text comments ranged
widely in content but were predominantly positive.
Ten learning resources were rejected as incorrect on an
important matter. After that, 181 unique online learning
resources through English-speaking patient groups, an
additional 45 through the National Health Service Choices
website, and 79 through ECRAN partner organisations
were identified. The database includes open educational
resources, websites, videos, books, interactive applications,
or Wikipedia chapters. Our general conclusion was that
further resources were needed and they needed to be
Development phase: materials
Several materials were developed by the ECRAN project,
available at www.ecranproject.eu, including the Koha
database. The materials differed according to target users as
shown in Table 1. Although we received suggestions for
improving translations of materials on our website during
the development phase, we did not receive any negative
comments about the style or our approach to the topics
The animated film  starts with the story of Scottish
naval surgeon, James Lind, and his quest to learn how to
treat scurvy by conducting an intervention experiment in
1747, hailed today as one of the earliest clinical trials in
the world. The film’s modular structure allows either
the whole film or its eight different modules to be
displayed, covering: a clinical trial, ethics committees;
randomisation; double blinding/masking; analysing the
data; ‘one trial is not enough’; outcomes to be
important to patients; and some pitfalls. Examples of images
of the film are in Fig. 3.
About clinical trials  is a section of the website
with different documents. These include a 76-page
original interactive tutorial, in which the phases of clinical
research are described in simple language, with a
In this section, several glossaries have been assembled
using information collected in the database of resources
and the analysis of websites. No ECRAN glossary was
developed because many good-quality glossaries are
already available through academic institutions, scientific
societies, patients’ organisations, or other European
projects. At the voice glossary of the ECRAN website a list
of available glossaries with related links is available for
each of the six languages of the project. The list includes
ten glossaries in English, six in Italian, two in French,
seven in German, two in Spanish, and one in Polish
selected on the basis of the information collected in the
database of resources, an analysis of existing websites,
and suggestions from partners. The frequently-asked
questions (FAQs) section includes an original document.
It is one of the most challenging materials, since it
endeavours to explain in detail, using plain language, the
essential aspects of clinical trials. This section addresses
common doubts and the questions raised by patients
potentially interested in participating in clinical trials. The
principal topics are: clinical trial phases; the importance
of clinical research; risks and benefits of clinical trials;
clinical trial participation (who can participate, who can
be contacted); conscious participation and informed
consent; and clinical trial funding.
Two educational games – ECRAN Lab and ECRAN
Maze – were developed to attract the interest of young
Table 1 European Communication on Research Awareness Needs (ECRAN) materials according to the ECRAN project’s targets
Materials No. of languages Main targetc
General population Clinicians and researchers Journalists Young people
✓ ✓ ✓
Discover randomised clinical trials: interactive
tutorial, FAQs, glossary, leaflet, etc.
Testing Treatments interactive sibling websitesb
a23 official European languages, plus Norwegian and Luxembourgish versions
bEnglish, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish
cWhen the material is not addressed to a target, the related box is blank
FAQs frequently-asked questions
Fig. 3 Examples of pictures used in the animated film, tutorial, and educational games. Legend: graphics and animation by Studio Bozzetto & Co.
European people. The ECRAN Lab explains how a
new drug is made: finding its ideal dose; checking its
safety and effectiveness; comparing it to existing
treatments; and looking at its adverse effects. The ECRAN
Maze exploits the tablet accelerometer, since the
movement of the tablet drives the path through the
labyrinth. The game is organised in 12 levels, each
corresponding to a question of increasing difficulty
about clinical trials.
Testing Treatments interactive sibling websites: Testing
Treatments is a book written for the public, covering
many questions pertaining to clinical research [22, 23].
The book and translations (currently in a dozen other
languages), together with audio materials, videos, and
cartoons to enhance general knowledge of fair tests of
treatments, are freely accessible from the Testing
Treatments interactive  sibling websites . The ECRAN
website includes a direct link to each Testing Treatments
interactive sibling site available in a European and other
A Media centre  written by professionals, serves
journalists and peer-to-peer dissemination of the
ECRAN project across countries. The Media centre is
exclusively in English. It has been conceived as a
professional toolkit to introduce different aspects of clinical
trials (methodological aspects; how to obtain reliable
information; how to report results; how to explain
technical terms using plain language).
The materials developed by the ECRAN project are
available through its website which is accessible in
multiple languages. Landing on the homepage, the
netsurfer will find contents in the language automatically
selected by his browser preferences.
Some data on dissemination of the ECRAN project are
reported in Table 2. As all the materials developed are
available and downloadable by the ECRAN website it is
difficult to know the number of people or organisations
receiving the materials, as well as the geographic
distribution. To celebrate the completion of the project and
to facilitate dissemination about it, ECRIN and ECRAN
organised a 3-day event in Luxembourg in 2014. Here
the audience largely consisted of ECRIN and ECRAN
participants. On 20 May 2014 the whole ECRAN project
as well as the ECRAN video were presented to an
international audience during the ECRIN and ECRAN
celebrations of International Clinical Trials Day. The audience
consisted of patients’ representatives, ECRAN partners,
ECRIN researchers, international researchers, and
journalists. On 21 May 2014 the different parts of the ECRAN
project were presented in detail and discussed with the
Table 2 Diffusion of European Communication on Research
Awareness Needs (ECRAN) materials
Animated film (July 2013
to September 2015)
Serious games downloaded
Open letter (petition)
(May 2014 to August 2015)
Link to ECRAN web
Brochures distributed during
congresses and events
English, German, Italian and Spanish
are the most used language
1120 links from 85 sites
international audience, including representatives from
patient organisations, researchers, and the press.
Since the website was launched, two issues of a
newsletter reporting ECRAN events have been published.
The first issue (April 2014) focused on ECRAN materials
and announced the meeting in Luxembourg; the second
issue (August 2014) summarised the results of the
project and tried to plan the future management and
dissemination of the materials produced. The newsletters
were sent to lists of journalists, journalism schools and
European universities with relevant courses, patient
organisations, and registered users.
Providing simple and independent information to
patients and the public about clinical trials is important
and challenging. Although some educational materials
already exist, there has been no previous European
initiative focussed specifically on promoting independent
information for the public on clinical research. The need
and demand for more information have been shown by
the described survey despite the responders tending to
have a higher educational level than the general public
and the low response rate obtained – although a precise
response rate cannot be calculated for open surveys on
websites due to lack of denominator information.
Over the project duration of only 2 years, we have
been able to organise a multidisciplinary, multinational
consortium that produced and made freely available new
materials to promote public knowledge about the
importance of independent, international clinical trials in
The ECRAN project has developed materials to begin
to meet this identified need, and these materials are now
available for the general population. They are also
available to clinicians and researchers to facilitate the
discussion of clinical trials with patients. All the information
materials reflect the principles of evidence-informed
practice, and have been inspired by the objective of
patient-centred medicine. The ECRAN materials have
been developed within a public project using European
Community funds and, all of them are freely available.
The multi-lingual aspect of the ECRAN project needs to
be stressed. Materials are available in six languages
(English, French, Italian, Spanish, German, and Polish),
which cover about 70 % of European citizens . Some
materials, such as the animated film, are available in the
23 official European languages. As the language of
medical science is English, people who cannot understand
English face a barrier to obtaining intelligible
information. This has been partially overcome by ECRAN.
Dissemination of the ECRAN materials is clearly vital,
but a widespread strategy directed to individuals and
patients was incompatible with the aims and resources of
this 2-year project. The impact of ECRAN materials
should be assessed and we already have some
encouraging information: the website, and the film in particular,
have been covered in several articles for lay people, at
medical congresses and workshops, and also linked from
other websites, patients’ organisations included.
In the light of the successful research and development
described in this article, it is important that the website
is maintained and the inventory of resources is kept up
to date as new materials are identified. This task can be
delegated to stakeholders in the ECRAN consortium
(clinicians, researchers, healthcare professionals,
policymakers, patient associations, communicators, journalists,
etc.) and, in the future, to a new research project.
Moreover, this task is integral to promoting efficiency in the
programme of clinical trials being done by ECRIN,
which was recently awarded the status of European
Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC), to continue
designing and conducting independent and
multinational clinical trials throughout Europe. Continued
updating of the inventory of relevant resources in the
ECRAN website will make clear that researchers respect
the information needs of past, present, and potential
participants in their clinical trials.
ECRAN materials may also be used by ethics
committees. These are responsible for ensuring that patients are
given accurate and complete information to help them
decide whether to participate in a clinical trial. However,
it is often not easy to explain the trial or the technical
terms involved. Ethics committees could consider
referring patients to the ECRAN materials, and clinicians
could also use them during medical visits when the
nature and results of a clinical trial are explained or when
patients are invited to participate.
Two educational games are among the materials
developed by the ECRAN project to educate young European
people about medical research and raise, more generally,
their early awareness about scientific topics, a distinct
novelty in the European context. Even with all limitations of
this ‘first entry’ experience and the possibility of further
improvement in both project and production, ECRAN Maze
and ECRAN Lab may help to cover gaps in school
education and programmes in several European countries. These
gaps involve scientific subjects in particular, and more
specifically knowledge of present-day topics (e.g. energy
sources, urban environment and pollution, and medical
and healthcare system topics which encompass the
participation of the public and patients in clinical research).
The existence of these gaps was indirectly confirmed by
another initiative of the ECRAN consortium, the open
letter sent to the ministers of education . The
consortium expressed its concern about the scarce knowledge of
clinical research and proposed steps to equip European
people with better information and understanding. Since
the younger generation will be crucial in addressing these
gaps in knowledge, it was proposed that all high schools
introduce, as part of their curricula, three 2-day education
workshops over three consecutive years on the theme of
clinical research. Materials from the ECRAN project, as
well as from other ongoing initiatives, may be used to
support these educational needs.
We expect that the information will reach both the
general public and patient organisations because it is very
important to involve patients and patients’ representatives
in the design of clinical trials, and in using the information
from clinical trials and systematic reviews in shared
healthcare decision-making. The public needs access to
information to help them understand clinical trials so that their
participation will be meaningful and influential. We believe
the ECRAN website makes an impressive beginning. The
involvement of lay people and patients’ groups, such as the
Cochrane Consumer Network and the European AIDS
Treatment Group, both members of the ECRAN
consortium, in dissemination is central to identify the best way to
increase participation and the public debate in promoting
better research for better healthcare.
During the development of the project, it became
increasingly clear that the results obtained could
contribute to the development of high-quality clinical research,
in particular with joint initiatives with clinical groups,
such as ECRIN. There was strong support from the
participants at the ECRAN event to try to raise central
funds to make ECRAN viable for the future given its
multi-stakeholder representation and balanced view on
evidence-based healthcare. Sustained funding for the
ECRAN information platform could help to promote
successful recruitment to independent clinical trials
supported through ECRIN.
The continuing scandal of poor and wasteful medical
research has emphasised the need for research funders and
regulators, healthcare providers, clinical investigators,
patients, and the public to work together to increase
transparency and quality in research [13–15, 29–31]. In the
near future, topics such as research priorities, important
treatment outcomes, and trial design will be openly
discussed among all parties involved to promote research of
real value to patients and the wider community.
Health literacy in both patients and public is needed to
foster collaboration and participation. The ECRAN
project has developed useful materials to facilitate
understanding of the principles of clinical research, particularly
independent clinical trials. However, this is not enough.
Additional steps are needed to spread the culture of
research and evidence-based healthcare, and so help to
develop valid research for the common good. As the BMJ
put it recently – ‘Let the patient revolution begin’! .
ECRAN: European Communication on Research Awareness Need;
ECRIN: European Clinical Research Infrastructure Network; ERIC: European
Research Infrastructure Consortium; FAQs: Frequently-asked questions.
All the authors contributed to the ECRAN project. All the authors had full
access to all the data. CG, IC, SG, JD, and PM had the idea for the project, and
designed it. PM coordinated the project. AB, IC, RS, CG and PM coordinated
the different work packages (units of work) of the ECRAN project. GA, GB, CC,
GG, CM, MP, NP, MRV, BW, and SW contributed to the different phases of the
work packages of the ECRAN project. All the authors critically reviewed the
manuscript and approved the final version. PM is the guarantor for the study.
ECRAN is a project funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme, grant
agreement no. HEALTH-FX-2012-305125. The funder played no role in the
project design; in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; or in the
writing of the report and the decision to submit the article for publication.
All researchers were independent from funders.
The authors thank a large number of dedicated people working in the
different work packages of the ECRAN project: Alicja Szofer-Araya, Christine
Kubiak (Institute National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, France);
Christa Bast (University Medical Centre Freiburg, Universitätsklinikum Freiburg,
Germany); Koen Block and Nikos Dedes (European AIDS Treatment Group,
Belgium); Insa Bruns (KKS-Network of the Coordinating Centres for Clinical
Trials, University Hospital of Cologne, Germany); Simona Calmi, Giulia
Candiani, Sergio Cima, Davide Coero Borga, Paolo Griselli, Marco Milano, Debora
Serra and Valentina Vecellio (Zadig, Science and Health Communication, Milano,
Italy); Berit Grevstad (The Copenhagen Trial Unit, Centre for Clinical Intervention
Research, Copenhagen, Denmark); Gianna Costa, Niccolò Pieri, Anna Roberto
(IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Italy).
The authors thank the members of Advisory Board Committee of the project:
Jan Geissler, LeukaNET/Leukämie-Online, Germany; Kalypso Chalkidou,
Commonwealth Fund Harkness Fellow in Health Care Policy and Practice,
United Kingdom; Max Parmar, MRC Clinical Trials Unit, London, United
Kingdom; Christiane Druml, Vice Rector for Clinical Affairs, Medical University of
Vienna, Austria; Claire Glenton, Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Service,
Oslo, Norway; Kirsten Steinhausen, European Science Foundation, Biomedical
Science Unit, Strasbourg Cedex, France – for their contributions of expertise.
The authors thank the following colleagues for their advice and comments
during the revision process of the texts of ECRAN film and Wiki translated in
different languages: Erika Balogh (University of Szeged, Albert Szent Györgyi
Clinical Centre Clinical Research Coordination Centre, Szeged, Hungary);
George Blaskó (University of Szeged, Albert Szent Györgyi Clinical Centre
Clinical Research Coordination Centre, Szeged, Hungary); Marianna
Brabencová (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk
University Kamenice, Czech Republic); Pedro Caetano (Faculdade de Ciências
Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal); Edward Callus
(Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Adult with Congenital Heart Defect,
IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milano, Italy); Regina
Demlova (Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk
University Kamenice, Czech Republic); Siobhan Gaynor (Molecular Medicine
Institute, Ireland); Susan Lennon (Molecular Medicine Institute, Ireland); Emilia
Monteiro (Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa,
Lisboa, Portugal); Ron de Winter (Julius Centre for Health Sciences and
Primary Care, Biostatistics and Research Support, Utrecht, The Netherlands);
Erika Sajtine (University of Szeged, Albert Szent Györgyi Clinical Centre
Clinical Research Coordination Centre Szeged, Hungary); Cesary Szmigielski
(Medical University of Warsaw, Poland); Heli Pehrman (FinnMedi Oy,
Tampere, Finland); Stefanos Bonovas (Department of Pharmacology, School
of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece); Marien Gonzalez Lorenzo
(Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Italy);
Martina Chripkova (Department of Oncology, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche
Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano, Italy); David Drutovic (Department of
Oncology, IRCCS Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milano,
Italy); Liliane Chatenoud (Department of Epidemiology, IRCCS Istituto Mario
Negri, Milano, Italy), Ann-Isabelle von Lingen (European AIDS Treatment
Group Policy Officer, Brussels, Belgium).
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