Nanomaterials: A Foundational Building Block to Nanotechnology Breakthroughs Past and Future

JOM, Jul 2016

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Nanomaterials: A Foundational Building Block to Nanotechnology Breakthroughs Past and Future

JOM Nanomaterials: A Foundational Building Block to Nanotechnology Breakthroughs Past and Future Daniel S. Gianola Kevin J. Hemker Daniel S. Gianola Kevin J. Hemker Always interested in hearing the thoughts of our readers, JOM offers For Your Consideration as a forum for individual opinions and thoughtful discourse on topics pertaining to JOM coverage areas. Find out more about this occasional feature at Opinions expressed are the author's and not necessarily those of TMS or the editorial staff. The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) was launched in 2001 to promote a broad interagency goal of understanding and controlling materials at the nanoscale to produce disruptive advances in NNI's 15th anniversary, to be observed in October 2016, provides a salient - It is our view that over the course of NNI’s service, the early hype of nanotechnology has been supplanted by tangible applications ranging from medical theragnostics, to high-performance computers and data storage, to high articles on nanotechnology outpaced the number of awarded patents, but that trend has been reversed and successful nanotechnology patents and products For a more concrete example, consider the story of Novak Djokovic, who this equipment of choice? A racquet frame enhanced by graphene, the 2D allotrope of carbon celebrated for its high strength questions about the fundamental nature of materials at the nanoscale persist, nanotechnology is poised to have a massive Take, for instance, the nanotechnologyin recent memory to hold all four major vein, consider the European Commission’s 3 These challenges represent complex multidisciplinary issues, with nanostructured materials underpinning a nanomaterial, while the other places nanomaterials in the mix as solutions to scalable computing and novel conformable sensors for understanding neurological focus on nanoscience has greatly advanced our ability to synthesize, characterize, and model nanomaterials with unprecedented Talks that were nanotechnology-related, as a percentage of total presentations given at the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition over the last four years. Nanotechnology at TMS 5,000 Number of nanotechnology-related papers that have been published in TMS journals, based on an archival search utilizing the word “nanotechnology.” 40% Percentage of the 50 most cited papers in JOM that are related to nanotechnology. #1 The most highly cited paper in JOM’s history falls under the nanotechnology realm: "Producing Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Materials by Severe Plastic Deformation," by Ruslan Z. Valiev et al., JOM, April 2006. physical and chemical properties that are applications where engineered components must bear load, structural nanomaterials show clear promise and take advantage a scarcity of defects, many nanomaterials can withstand elastic stresses near integration of nanoscale building blocks into meso- and macroscale materials— the enrichment of polymer matrix composites with carbon nanotubes, the development of nanocrystalline ceramics, and the incorporation of nanoprecipitate strengthened alloys, to name a few possibilities—hold great promise and are expected to deliver unprecedented bridging nano- to mesoscale fabrication, Functional materials—such as electrodes for rechargeable batteries, active light harvesting materials for photon to electrical energy conversion, and thermal management materials—have all made use of nanostructuring to match physical length scales associated with transport Consider thermoelectrics, which convert a temperature gradient to an electrical current and where a resurgence in interest Nanoscaled materials—judiciously sized to fall between the electron and phonon mean free paths for facile transport of the former and abundant scattering of the latter—show structural materials, the highest performing thermoelectrics rely on precipitating nanoscale phases coherent with an active matrix that at once scatter heat-carrying phonons and energetically align with the maturation of nanoscience and the and its members are having, but our work efforts are required that make use of the collaborative environment fostered by international materials societies such as nanotechnology have paid undeniable dividends, and the stage is set for continued Daniel S. Gianola is currently associate professor in the Materials Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where his research group specializes in the microand nanomechanical behavior of materials. He has been a TMS member since he was a graduate student, and has been involved in co-organizing several symposia at TMS annual meetings and Materials Science and Technology conferences. He received the TMS Early Career Faculty Fellow Award in 2013. Kevin J. Hemker is the Alonzo G. Decker Chair and Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Johns Hopkins University, holding joint appointments in the Departments of Materials Science and Engineering and Earth & Planetary Sciences. Currently the Vice President of the TMS Board of Directors, Hemker is a 2014 TMS Fellow and served two terms on the TMS Board of Directors as Public & Governmental Affairs (P&GA) Director from 2008 to 2013. 1. “Beyond the Nanohype,” The Economist ( 2003 ). 2. “ A Little Risky Business ,” The Economist ( 2007 ). 3. L. Whitman , T. Kalil, “ A Call for Nanotechnology-Inspired Grand Challenges ,” blog/2015/06/17/call-nanotechnologyinspired -grand-challenges.

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Nanomaterials: A Foundational Building Block to Nanotechnology Breakthroughs Past and Future, JOM, 2016, 2307-2308, DOI: 10.1007/s11837-016-2053-4