Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2—A novel type of ceramic material for thermal barrier coatings

Journal of Advanced Ceramics, Jul 2016

In this study, Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2 ceramics were synthesized by sol–gel route and solid state sintering method. The phase structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The morphologies of the synthesized powders and the corresponding bulk samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their thermal diffusivities and thermal expansion coefficients were measured by the laser-flash method and the pushing-rod method, respectively. Results show that pure Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2 powders with single fluorite structure are synthesized successfully, and their microstructures of the corresponding bulk samples are very dense. With the increase of Sm2O3 content, their thermal expansion coefficients decrease due to the higher electro-negativity of Sm3+ ions as compared with that of Ce4+ ions. Their thermal conductivities at 1000 °C lie in the range of 1.62–2.02 W/(m·K) due to the phonon scattering caused by the substituted atoms and oxygen vacancies. The Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2 ceramics can be used as ceramic candidates for novel thermal barrier coatings (TBCs).

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Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2—A novel type of ceramic material for thermal barrier coatings

Journal of Advanced Ceramics 2226-4108 Ce1xSmxO2x/2-A novel type of ceramic material    for thermal barrier coatings Xiao-ge CHEN Haoming ZHANG Hong-song ZHANG 0 1 a b Yong-de ZHAO Gang LI 0 c 0 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Henan Institute of Engineering , Zhengzhou 450007 , China 1 Institute of Chemistry Henan Academy Sciences , Zhengzhou 450052 , China 2 Department of Construction Engineering, Henan Institute of Engineering , Zhengzhou 450007 , China In this study, Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics were synthesized by sol-gel route and solid state sintering method. The phase structure was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The morphologies of the synthesized powders and the corresponding bulk samples were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their thermal diffusivities and thermal expansion coefficients were measured by the laser-flash method and the pushing-rod method, respectively. Results show that pure Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders with single fluorite structure are synthesized successfully, and their microstructures of the corresponding bulk samples are very dense. With the increase of Sm2O3 content, their thermal expansion coefficients decrease due to the higher electro-negativity of Sm3+ ions as compared with that of Ce4+ ions. Their thermal conductivities at 1000 ℃ lie in the range of 1.62-2.02 W/(m·K) due to the phonon scattering caused by the substituted atoms and oxygen vacancies. The Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics can be used as ceramic candidates for novel thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). thermal barrier coatings (TBCs); CeO2 oxides; doping; thermophyscial properties - properties, 7–8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) ceramic has been widely employed as the top coat material by the current commercial thermal barrier coatings in high temperature turbine components. However, the thermal insulation ability and working lifetime of the YSZ thermal barrier coating can be injured severely for long-term application above 1200 ℃ due to its inherent phase transformation and enhanced sintering [5,6]. Therefore, it is very urgent to develop alternatives to YSZ for advanced TBC applications. The excellent ceramic candidates for TBCs must possess a few important performances, such as low thermal conductivity, appropriate thermal expansion, good phase stability at high temperature, low sintering rate, high melting point, chemical inertness, and good adherence to the metal substrate [7]. However, ceramic materials matching all the requirements are still very rare in light of the current standard. Now, low thermal conductivity and appropriate thermal expansion coefficient have been regarded as the primary selection criterions of the ceramic materials for TBC applications. In recent years, ceramic oxides with pyrochlore structure or defect fluorite structure have been widely studied [8–11]. Except for the A2B2O7-type (A = rare earth element, B = Zr, Ce, Hf, Sn) oxides [1–10], the cerium oxides with fluorite structure have recently attracted extensive attention due to a diversity of applications, such as conversion catalysts for selective hydrogenation of unsatured compounds, catalysts for three-way automobile exhaust systems, abrasives for chemical polishing slurries, gates for metal-oxide semiconductor devices, and luminescent materials for violet/blue fluorescence [12–14]. Now, the rare earth doped CeO2 (RE2O3–CeO2) have also been considered to be new materials for TBCs and solid oxide fuel cells due to the excellent electrical, mechanical, and thermophysical properties [15–17]. For example, Cao et al. [18] studied the thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient of La2Ce2O7. Patwe et al. [19] reported the lattice thermal expansion of Gd2CexZr2xO7. Zhang et al. investigated the thermophysical properties of (Sm1xGdx)2Ce2O7 [20] and (Sm1xDyx)2Ce2O7 [21]. Zha et al. [22] found that the electrical conductivities of Ce1xGdxO2x/2 (GDC) and Ce1xSmxO2x/2 (SDC) at 700 ℃ are almost equal to the value of YSZ at 1000 ℃. Compared with pure doped ceria oxide (DCO) electrolyte, the DCO–chloride or DCO–carbonate composite electrolyte not only has much higher ionic conductivity, but also shows higher ionic transference number at intermediate temperature range [23,24], and these electrolytes also have good chemical stability [25]. Although thermophysical properties of a few rare earth stabilized CeO2 have been reported by some researchers, the present reports about rare earth stabilized CeO2 applications for TBCs are still not systemic. Therefore, investigation of the thermophysical properties of rare earth stabilized CeO2 is still of notable significance. Previous works have discussed the electrical conductivity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 system, but did not deal with thermophysical properties of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 oxides. In the present study, Ce1xSmxO2x/2 oxides were synthesized by sol–gel method and pressureless sintering technology, and the 2    Experiment  In the current investigation, Sm2O3 powders (Rare-Chem Hi-Tech Co. Ltd., Guangdong, China; purity ≥ 99.9%) and Ce(NO3)·6H2O (Zibo Huantuo Chemical Co. Ltd.; analytical pure) were chosen as the raw materials. Before weighting the raw powders, the samarium oxide powders were firstly calcined at 800 ℃ for 2 h to remove the adsorptive water and carbon dioxide in air, and then weighted samarium oxide powders were dissolved in diluting nitric acid. Ce(NO3)·6H2O was dissolved in distilled water and all solutions were mixed with constant stirring. Subsequently, the pH value of the mixed solution was adjusted to 6 by adding ammonia hydroxide drop wise. At the same time, ethylene glycol was put into the resultant solution, and the mole ratio of ethylene glycol to cerium was 1.8:1. The mixed solution was then continuously evaporated on a water bath till a viscous liquid was obtained, and the viscous liquid was heated at 130 ℃ using air oven till a porous solid mass was obtained. The obtained porous solid mass was ground in an agate mortar and activated at 800 ℃ for 2 h in a muffle oven. At the end, the achieved powders were isostatically cold pressed into pellets at 100 MPa, and the pellets were pressureless sintered at 1600 ℃ for 10 h in air to fabricate dense bulk samples. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD, D8advance Bruker) with Ni filtered Cu K radiation (0.1542 nm) was used to analyze the phase structure of the synthesized powders and the corresponding bulk samples. The infrared spectra and Raman patterns of the synthesized powders were recorded by a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer (Nicolet 380) and a laser Raman spectrometer (Renishaw inVia-Reflex), respectively. A scanning electron microscope (SEM, Quanta-250, FEI) was selected to observe the microstructure of the synthesized powders and the corresponding bulk samples. A high temperature dilatometer (Model Netzsch DIL 402C/7, Germany) was utilized to measure the thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) of bulk samples in the temperature range of 20–1200 ℃. The thermal diffusivity measurement () in 200–1000 ℃ was carried out using laser-flash method (Model LFA1000, Linseis, Germany) in an argon atmosphere. The specific heat capacity (cp) from 20 to 1200 ℃ was calculated using Neumann–Kopp rule in light of the reference specific heat values of Sm2O3 and CeO2 [26]. The actual bulk density () of the sintered samples was measured by the Archimedes drainage method at room temperature. The thermal conductivity (k) of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 oxides was achieved by Eq. (1), and the actual thermal conductivity (k0) was computed using Eq. (2) [21] in order to eliminate the influence of porosity () on thermal conductivity of bulk samples. k      cp (1) 3    Results and discussion  3. 1    Characterization about powders  The X-ray diffraction patterns of the synthesized powders are displayed in Fig. 1 together with the data of CeO2. Clearly, the X-ray diffraction patterns of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders are consistent with that of CeO2, which means that pure Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders with single fluorite structure are synthesized successfully in the current study. The diffraction peaks near 28.51°, 33.01°, 47.17°, and 55.88° can be indexed to the (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes of fluorite structure, respectively. With the increase of Sm2O3 content, the X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to the (111), (200), and (220) planes shift gradually to the lower angles, which also implies that the Sm3+ ions have entered the crystal lattice of CeO2, and this result can also be confirmed by the increasing crystal lattice parameters displayed in Fig. 2. From Fig. 1, the peak width of Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.95 is greater than those of Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85 and Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75, which signifies that Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.95 has a small particle size as compared to those of Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85 and Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75. In addition, several weak peaks in the XRD pattern of Sm0.5Ce0.5O1.75 near 30° and 32° can also be found, which can be attributed to the tiny amount un-dissolved Sm2O3 in the procedure of sol–gel synthesis. Figure 3 reveals the FTIR spectra of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders calcined at 800 ℃ for 2 h in the wave number range of 500–4000 cm1. Obviously, several typical infrared absorption bands can be found at about Fig. 2 Relationship between lattice parameter and doping content in Ce1xSmxO2x/2 system. Fig. 3 FTIR spectra of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders. 570–590, 620–680, 1620–1640, and 3400–3500 cm1. Another absorption band at about 1010 cm1 can be observed in FTIR pattern of Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75, which can be attributed to the little residual Sm2O3 powders [27]. The absorption band near the 3400–3500 cm1 is the evidence of water molecules contained in the powders [28], and the band located at 1620–1640 cm1 represents another vibration of the water molecules [29]. The bands near 570–590 and 620–680 cm1 are the typical absorption peaks of CeO2, and the variation of intensity and wave number of these two infrared bands can be attributed to the doping of Sm2O3 [30]. The typical Raman patterns of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders are plotted in Fig. 4 together with the data of micron-size CeO2. In the case of micron-size CeO2, the main peak at 461.49 cm1 can be attributed to the F2g Raman band from the space group Fm3m of cubic fluorite structure [31,32]. With the increasing content of Sm2O3, the width of the main Raman band enhances clearly, which means that a large number of oxygen vacancies are created [31,33]. Furthermore, the main peak of Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 obviously shifts to higher position compared to those of Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.95 and Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85, which can be attributed to the small distortions of the atomic positions caused by Sm2O3 doping [34]. In the Raman spectra of Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85 and Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75, a small shoulder at 600 cm1 can be assigned as a longitudinal optical mode arising due to the relaxation of symmetry rules [35], and the additional low intensity Raman bands around 250.65 and 375.22 cm1 are usually assigned to the presence of extrinsic oxygen vacancies generated into the ceria lattice improving diffusion rate of bulk oxygen after samarium addition [36]. The micro-morphology of the Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders is displayed in Fig. 5. Obviously, the synthesized Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders exhibit a certain agglomeration. Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85 and Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 have a size of about 50 nm; however, the average particle size of Ce0.9Sm0.1O1.95 is only about 15 nm. The average particle size obtained from SEM is consistent with the analytical results of XRD. Fig. 4 Raman patterns of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders. Fig. 5 Micro-morphology of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders: (a) x = 0.1, (b) x = 0.3, (c) x = 0.5. 3. 2    Characterization of bulk samples  The XRD patterns of the sintered Ce1xSmxO2x/2 samples are plotted in Fig. 6. Obviously, the X-ray diffraction patterns for bulk samples are very close to those displayed in Fig. 1, which means that the densified samples still remain the single fluorite structure. From Fig. 6, the weak peaks near 30° and 32° in the XRD pattern of Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 disappear, which means that the residual Sm2O3 also enters the lattice of CeO2 in the procedure of sintering. It can be observed clearly from Fig. 7 that the grain size of these bulk ceramics is inhomogenous, and the average grain size is several micrometers. The obtained bulk samples have dense microstructure; however, some apparent pores can still be seen in Fig. 7. Their relative densities determined by actual density and theoretical density in sequence are 93.7%, 92.8%, and 95.6%; the grain Fig. 6 XRD patterns of the Ce1xSmxO2x/2 bulk samples. boundaries are very clean and no other phases can be found in these interfaces. 3. 3    Thermal expansion coefficients  The dilatometric measurement data of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics with calibration are presented in Fig. 8. Clearly, the typical linear thermal expansion property can be noted in the measuring temperature range of 20–1200 ℃, which also means that there is no phase transformation occurred in the measuring temperature range. In order to minimize the mismatch between the ceramic layer and the metal substrate, a high thermal expansion coefficient for ceramics of TBCs is required. The temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics is exhibited in Fig. 9, together with the data of 8YSZ which were measured in the former research of the authors. As shown in Fig. 9, the thermal expansion shows an increasing temperature tendency owing to the increasing atomic spacing at high temperatures. From Fig. 9, the thermal expansion coefficient of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 decreases gradually with increasing Sm2O3 content, and Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 has the lowest thermal expansion coefficient, which is still higher than that of 8YSZ. It is well known that the thermal expansion has close relationship with the ionic bond strength, and the ionic bond strength is affected by the electro-negativity of cations composing the crystal expressed as the following equation [37]: (xA xB ) 4 where IA-B represents the ionic bond strength between ions at A site and B site, and xA and xB are electro-negativity of ions at A site and B site respectively. For CeO2, the ions at sites A and B are Fig. 7 Microstructure of the sintered Ce1xSmxO2x/2 samples: (a) x = 0.1, (b) x = 0.3, (c) x = 0.5. Fig. 9 Thermal expansion coefficient of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 as a function of temperature. Ce4+ and O2, respectively; partial substitution of Sm3+ for Ce4+ can increase the electro-negativity of cations at A sites owning to the higher electro-negativity of Sm3+ ions (1.17) compared with that of Ce4+ ions (1.12). Therefore, it can be concluded that the thermal expansion coefficient of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics decreases with increasing Sm2O3 content. However, the thermal expansion coefficients of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics are still higher than that of 8YSZ, which still fulfills the basic requirement for thermal barrier coatings. 3. 4    Thermal conductivity  Based on the specific heat values of CeO2 and Sm2O3, the computed specific heat capacities of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics according to the Neumann–Kopp rule are plotted in Fig. 10. Obviously, the specific heat capacity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics increases with the increasing temperature, and decreases with Sm2O3 content at identical temperatures. The dependence of thermal diffusivity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics on temperature is shown in Fig. 11, and the data displayed in Fig. 11 are average values of every three measurements at identical temperature. It can be observed clearly that the thermal diffusivities decrease gradually with increasing temperature in the present measuring temperature range, which shows a typical phonon thermal conduction mechanism. In light of the values of thermal diffusivity, density, and specific heat capacity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics, the final values of thermal conductivity are plotted in Fig. 12. It can be noted that the thermal conductivity is inversely proportional to the increasing temperature in the current temperature range, and the thermal conductivities of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics decrease obviously with the increase of Sm2O3 content. However, the thermal conductivity of Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 is slightly higher than that of Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85. According to the phonon thermal conduction theory, the thermal conductivity in electrical insulation solids is proportional to the mean free path of phonon. The Fig. 11 Thermal diffusivity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics. phonon mean free path can be reduced when they interact with lattice defects existed in actual crystal lattice, and the influence of lattice defects including vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries, and substituting atoms, on phonon mean free path can be expressed as 1  1  1  1  1 (4) l( ,T ) li ( ,T ) lp ( , t) lv ( ,T ) lgb where 1 , 1 , 1 , and 1 li ( ,T ) lp ( ,T ) lv ( ,T ) lgb represent the phonon mean free paths due to interstitial scattering, point defect scattering, vacancy scattering, and grain boundary scattering, respectively [38]. Because only the nanometer grain boundary can result in significant influence on phonon mean free path, so the influence of grain boundary can be ignored according to the microstructure plotted in Fig. 7 [39]. Thus, only point defects can result in obvious influence on the phonon mean free path. In crystal lattice of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics, there exist two types of point defects, including oxygen vacancies and substituting atoms, due to the substitution of Sm3+ cation for Ce4+ cation. On one hand, the oxygen vacancies can increase the effective phonon scattering and decrease the phonon mean free path. On the other hand, the differences of atomic mass and ionic radius between Sm3+ and Ce4+ can also decrease the phonon mean free path in light of Eq. (5) and Eq. (6) [21], which contributes to the lower thermal conductivity of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics. 1  lp where a3 is the volume of each atom, v the transverse wave speed,  the phonon frequency, c the concentration per atom, J the constant,  the Grüneisen parameter, M and R the average atomic mass and ionic radius of the host atom respectively, M and R the difference of mass and ionic radius between the substituting and the substituted cations respectively. Thus, doping of Sm2O3 oxide clearly reduces the thermal conductivities of the Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics. The slightly higher thermal conductivity of Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 as compared to that of Ce0.7Sm0.3O1.85, can be attributed to the formation of oxygen vacancy pairs, which means the reduction of effective-oxygen number in the Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 crystal lattice [40,41]. The thermal conductivities of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics are in the range of 1.62–2.02 W/(m·K) at 1000 ℃, which are clearly lower than that of dense 7.0 wt% YSZ (3.0 at room temperature to 2.3 W/(m·K) at 700 ℃ reported by Wu et al. [8]). Therefore, the synthesized Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics are promising candidate materials for future thermal barrier coatings. 4    Conclusions  (1) Pure fluorite-type Ce1xSmxO2x/2 powders and the corresponding dense bulk ceramics were prepared successfully by sol–gel route and pressureless sintering method, respectively. The synthesized powders exhibit a certain agglomeration, and the bulk samples have dense microstructure whose relative densities are greater than 90%. (2) Because of the higher electro-negativity of Sm3+ ions as compared to that of Ce4+ ions, the thermal expansion coefficients of Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics decrease gradually with the increasing Sm2O3 content. Their thermal expansion coefficients are higher than that of 8YSZ, which still fulfills the basic requirement of thermal barrier coatings. (3) The thermal conductivities of the Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics lie in the range of 1.62–2.02 W/(m·K) at 1000 ℃, which are obviously lower than that of 7.0 wt% YSZ. The lower thermal conductivities can mainly be attributed to the phonon scattering caused by substituted atoms and oxygen vacancies in Ce1xSmxO2x/2 crystal lattice. (4) The excellent thermophysical properties indicate that the Ce1xSmxO2x/2 ceramics are promising candidates for the next generation thermal barrier coatings. The authors would like to thank the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1304512), the Scientific and Technological Projects of Henan Province (No. 132102210142), the Program for Science & Technology Innovation Talents in Universities of Henan Province (No. 13HASTIT018), and the Postaldoctoral Research Sponsorship in Henan Province (No. 2014069). Open  Access The articles published in this journal are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. [1] Slámečka K , Čelko L , Skalka P , et al. Bending fatigue failure of atmospheric-plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY + YSZ thermal barrier coatings . 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Xiao-ge Chen, Haoming Zhang, Hong-song Zhang, Yong-de Zhao, Gang Li. Ce1−x Sm x O2−x/2—A novel type of ceramic material for thermal barrier coatings, Journal of Advanced Ceramics, 2016, 244-252, DOI: 10.1007/s40145-016-0196-y