Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Dec 2009

A total of 1,003 barrows and gilts (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 113.5 lb) were used in an 88-d study to determine effects of various levels of balanced amino acid density on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Balanced amino acid refers to balancing the dietary amino acids according to the ideal protein ratio, at least for the first 4 limiting amino acids; the other amino acids may be at or higher than required levels. In this study, this balance was accomplished by using supplemental amino acids and formulating to meet the first 4 limiting amino acids: lysine, threonine, methionine, and tryptophan. Three experimental diets were tested using 6 replicate gilt and 7 replicate barrow pens per treatment. These diets were tested over 2 different phases, a grower phase (d 0 to 28) and a finishing phase (d 28 to 88). Dietary treatments included a diet that met the NRC (1998)5 requirements, a diet that met Evonik Degussa (Hanau, Germany) requirements, and a diet that was formulated to be 10% greater than Evonik Degussa recommendations. No gender × dietary treatment interactions were observed (P > 0.30) for any of the growth or carcass characteristics. During the growing phase, ADG and F/G improved (linear; P < 0.03) as amino acid density increased in the diet. Also, gilts had decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and improved (P < 0.001) F/G from d 0 to 28 compared with barrows. During the finishing phase, no differences were observed (P > 0.62) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G from increasing dietary lysine or balanced protein levels. Gilts had decreased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI compared with barrows. Over the entire 88-d trial, F/G improved (linear; P < 0.04) and a trend was detected for improved (linear; P < 0.06) ADG as dietary amino acid density increased. No dietary treatment differences were observed (P > 0.28) for carcass yield, backfat depth, loin depth, percentage lean, live value, or calculated income over feed cost. In this experiment, increasing the amino acid density (dietary lysine level) over the NRC (1998) requirement offered improvements in the grower phase but not the finishing phase.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 19, 2009

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Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs

Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs N W. Shelton J K . Htoo M Redshaw Robert D. Goodband Part of the Other Animal Sciences Commons Recommended Citation Shelton, N W.; Htoo, J K.; Redshaw, M; Goodband, Robert D.; Tokach, Michael D.; Nelssen, Jim L.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; and Dritz, Steven S. (2009) "Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs," Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: Vol. 0: Iss. 10. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.6791 - See next page for additional authors Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 2009 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs Abstract A total of 1,003 barrows and gilts (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 113.5 lb) were used in an 88-d study to determine effects of various levels of balanced amino acid density on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Balanced amino acid refers to balancing the dietary amino acids according to the ideal protein ratio, at least for the first 4 limiting amino acids; the other amino acids may be at or higher than required levels. In this study, this balance was accomplished by using supplemental amino acids and formulating to meet the first 4 limiting amino acids: lysine, threonine, methionine, and tryptophan. Three experimental diets were tested using 6 replicate gilt and 7 replicate barrow pens per treatment. These diets were tested over 2 different phases, a grower phase (d 0 to 28) and a finishing phase (d 28 to 88). Dietary treatments included a diet that met the NRC (1998)5 requirements, a diet that met Evonik Degussa (Hanau, Germany) requirements, and a diet that was formulated to be 10% greater than Evonik Degussa recommendations. No gender × dietary treatment interactions were observed (P > 0.30) for any of the growth or carcass characteristics. During the growing phase, ADG and F/G improved (linear; P < 0.03) as amino acid density increased in the diet. Also, gilts had decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and improved (P < 0.001) F/G from d 0 to 28 compared with barrows. During the finishing phase, no differences were observed (P > 0.62) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G from increasing dietary lysine or balanced protein levels. Gilts had decreased (P < 0.001) ADG and ADFI compared with barrows. Over the entire 88-d trial, F/G improved (linear; P < 0.04) and a trend was detected for improved (linear; P < 0.06) ADG as dietary amino acid density increased. No dietary treatment differences were observed (P > 0.28) for carcass yield, backfat depth, loin depth, percentage lean, live value, or calculated income over feed cost. In this experiment, increasing the amino acid density (dietary lysine level) over the NRC (1998) requirement offered improvements in the grower phase but not the finishing phase.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 19, 2009 Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. Authors N W. Shelton, J K. Htoo, M Redshaw, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. DeRouchey, and Steven S. Dritz This Research Report article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: http://newprairiepress.org/ kaesrr/vol0/iss10/951 Effects of Feeding Varied Levels of Balanced Protein on Growth Performance and Carcass Composition of Growing and Finishing Pigs1,2 Summary A total of 1,003 barrows and gilts (PIC 337 × 1050, initially 113.5 lb) were used in an 88-d study to determine effects of various levels of balanced amino acid density on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Balanced amino acid r-efers to balanc ing the dietary amino acids according to the ideal protein ratio, at least for the first limiting amino acids; the other amino acids may be at or higher than required levels. In this study, this balance was accomplished by using supplemental amino acids and formulating to meet the first 4 limiting amino acids: lysine, threonine, methionine, and tryptophan. Three experimental diets were tested using 6 replicate gilt and 7 replicate barrow pens per treatment. These diets were tested over 2 different phases, a grower phase (d 0 to 28) and a finishing phase (d 28 to 88). Dietary treatments included a that met the NRC 5(19r9e8q)uirements, a diet that met Evonik Degussa (Hanau, Germany) requirements, and a diet that was formulated to be 10% greater than Evonik Degussa recommendations. No gender × dietary treatment interactions were observed (P > 0.30) for any of the growth or carcass characteristics. During the growing phase, ADG and F/G improved (Plin<ear0;.03) as amino acid density increased in the diet. Also, gilts had decreaPse<d 0(.001) ADFI and imprPov<ed 0.(001) F/G from d 0 to 28 compared with barrows. During the finishing phase, no differences were observed (P > 0.62) in ADG, ADFI, or F/G from increasing dietary lysine or balanced protein levels. Gilts had decreaPse<d 0(.001) ADG and ADFI compared with barrows. Over the entire 88-d trial, F/G improvedP <(lin0e.0ar4;) and a trend was detected for improved (linearP; < 0.06) ADG as dietary amino acid density increased. No dietary treatment differences were obserPve>d 0(.28) for carcass yield, backfat depth, loin depth, percentage lean, live value, or calculated income over feed -cost. In this experi ment, increasing the amino acid density (dietary lysine level) over the NRC (1998) requirement offered improvements in the grower phase but not the finishing phase. Key words: amino acid, lysine Introduction A current emphasis in the pork industry is to maximize lean growth in pigs through genetic selection and proper nutrition. Maximum lean growth can be achieved only when nutrients, specifically amino acids and energy, are supplied in the diet at the 1 Appreciation is expressed to New Horizon Farms for athned ufasecilitoiefs paignsd to Rich-ard Brob jorg, Scott Heidebrink, and Marty Heintz for technical assistance. 2 The authors thank Evonik Degussa for partial funding of this project. 3 Evonik Degussa GmbH, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau, Germany. 4 FooAdnimal Health and Management Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University. 5 NRC. 1998. Nutrient Requirements of Swine. 10th ed. PrNesast,l. WAacsahdi.ngton, DC. appropriate amount. Amino acid requirements can be influenced by many factors, including dietary protein level, dietary energy density, environmental temperature, sex, and lean growth potential of the pig. Lysine is the first limiting am- ino acid in most tical swine diets. It is a common practice to first define the adequate lysine level in diet and then derive the required level of other essential amino acids from lysine on basis of an ideal protein ratio, thus giving a balanced protein diet. A balanced protein diet contains sufficient levels of each essential amino acid to meet the biological needs the animal while minimizing the amounts of excess amino acids. Some recent studies have suggested that the dietary lysine requirements for pigs with high genetic potential for lean gain are higher than the NRC (1998-) estimated require ment values. For example, Main et6 ) al.rep(o2r0t0ed2 that the optimal total lysine:ME ratio for maximizing growth parameters in 130- to 190-lb gilts was 2.80 g/Mcal. In addition, Shelton et al. 7)(20o0b8served improvements in ADG and F/G up through 2.55 g SID lysine/Mcal ME in 185- to 245-lb gilts. Therefore, it is important to eval the optimal level of balanced amino acids in the diet to maximize the rate and efficie of pig lean tissue growth and carcass quality of modern high lean growth pigs. Procedures Procedures in this experiment were approved by the Kansas State -University Institu tional Animal Care and Use Committee. The experiment was conduc-ted at a commer cial research finishing facility in southwestern Minnesota. The facility was double curtain sided with completely slatted flooring. Pens were 10 × 18 ft and were equipped with a 5-hole conventional dry feeder and a cup waterer. Pigs (PIC 337 × 1050) were moved to the finisher at approximately 60 lb and placed into single-sex pens with 27 pigs per pen. Pens were randomly allotted to a gender treatment prior to the arrival of the pigs. Pigs were fed standard grower diets that we adequate in all nutrients (NRC, 1998) for approximately 5 wk until the beginning of the trial. A total of 1,003 barrows and gilts (initially 113.5 lb) were then selected and used in an 88-d study to determine effects of various levels of balanced amino acid density on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Three experimental diets were tested using 6 replicates (pens) of gilts and 7 pens of barrows per treatment. Experimental diets were allotted to gender-specific pens in a completely randomized design, and initial weight was equalized across dietary treatments within gender. Three experimental diets with different amino acid densities were tested for the growing phase (d 0 to 28; approximately 120 to 170 lb BW) and the finishing phase (d 28 approximately 170 to 280 lb BW; Table 1). The low diet was formulated to contain t dietary amino acid content according to the NRC (1998) requireme-nts. The moder ate diet was formulated to the current recommendations of Evonik Degussa (Hanau, Germany). The high diet was formulated to be 10% greater than the moderate diet. Al diets within each phase contained similar NE concentrations. Thetotal and standardized 6 Main et al., Swine Day 2002, Report of Progress 897, pp. 135-150. 7 Shelton et al., Swine Day 2008, Report of Progress 1001, pp. 82-92. ileal digestible (SID) amino acid values of ingredients were based on the database in diet formulation. AminoDat 3.0 Pig weights (by pen) and feed disappearance were measured throughout the trials. On the basis of these measurements, ADG, ADFI, and F/G were calculated for each pen. At the conclusion of the growth portion of the trial, the majority of the pigs marketed to a USDA-inspected packing plant, and carcass data were collected. Any pigs weighing less than 200 lb (n = 15 head) were removed and not included in the mar data. Pen data for yield, backfat depth, loin depth, and percentage lean were determined by the packing plant. Yield reflects the percentage of HCW in the live weight (obtain at the packing plant). Live value, feed cost per pound of gain, and income over feed (IOFC) were also calculated. Live value was determined by taking a base carcass price $61.45, adding lean premiums, subtracting discounts, and converting to a live weight basis. Income over feed cost was determined on a per head basis by taking the full v for each pig and subtracting the feed costs incurred during the trial. Data were then analyzed as a 2 × 3 factorial design (2 genders and 3 dietary treatme using the PROC MIXED procedure in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Dietary lysine values were used as dose levels to test for linear and quadratic responses to diet treatments. Pen was used as the experimental unit in all analyses. Results and Discussion Analyzed amino acid levels for the major ingredients and diets are shown in Table 2. Ingredient samples reflect the mean of 4 subsamples that were analyzed using nearinfrared spectroscopy. Diet samples reflect means of 2 subsamples that were analyzed utilizing wet chemistry amino acid analysis. Formulated diet values are included in parenthesis. The analyzed diet levels coincided with formulated values. No gender × dietary treatment interactions wereP >obse0r.3v0e,d T(able 3) for any of the growth or carcass characteristics. During the growing phase (d 0 to 28), ADG and F/G improved (linPe<ar; 0.03) as amino acid density increased in the diet. The most advantageous values were seen in the high treatment, indicating that the lysine requirement is greater than current NRC (1998) requirement estimates. Gilts had lower ADFI and better PF</G0.0(01) than barrows. During the finishing phase (d 28 to 88), no dietary treatment differences were observed (P > 0.62) for ADG, ADFI, or F/G, indicating that the low amino acid density diet was adequate to meet the requirement of the finishing pigs in this study. However, th analyzed total lysine content (0.65%) in the finisher diets was about 8% higher than the NRC (1998) recommendation of 0.60%. Gilts hadP <dec0re.0as0e1d) A(DG and ADFI compared with barrows. Despite the lack of response in the finishing phase, F/G improved (linePar<; 0.04) and ADG tended to increaPse< (l0i.n0e6a)r; over the entire 88-d trial as amino acid density increased in the diets. In both barrow treatments, the most beneficial values were seen in the high treatment. Overall, gilts had decreasedP <( 0.001) ADG and ADFI and iPm<prov0e.d01) ( F/G in compared with barrows. and also Similar to the finishing phase growth data, no dietary treatment differences were observed P(> 0.28) for carcass yield, backfat depth, loin depth, percentage lean, live value, or IOFC. Feed cost per pound of gain inPcr<ease0d.004(l)ineaasr; dietary amino acid density increased, which was not surprising because the improvements in feed efficiency were not substantial enough to offset the added diet cost. In addition, gilts had improvePd< ( 0.02) backfat depth, loin depth, and percentage lean figures compared with barrows. These improvements in carcass composition resulted in increases P(< 0.001) in the live value and IOFC of the gilts. Also, the improvement in F/G for gilts resulted in imPp<rove0d.01)( feed cost per pound of gain. Lysine requirement studies have been conducted with this genetic line (PIC 337 × 1050) in these facilities by Main et al. (2002) and Shelton et al. (2008). The ADG F/G responses to the SID lysine:ME ratio for the grower portion of the current study are compared with responses in the earlier studies in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Bot the Main et al. (2002) and Shelton et al. (2008) studies showed the impact of increa SID lysine:calorie ratio for gilts. The present study shows lower pig growth performance than the earlier studies; however, the requirement of 2.58 g SID lysine/Mcal ME seen by Shelton et al. (2008) matches the improvements found through the high level (2.62 g SID lysine/Mcal ME) in this study. The ADG and F/G responses for the finishing portion of this study are compared wit results of several earlier trials in Figures 3 and 4, respectively. All weight categories wer not similar for all studies. Therefore, a variety of weights groups were graphed in each figure. Figure 3 shows that ADG for pigs fed the lowest lysine level in this trial (N requirement) was similar to the ADG in Shelton et al. (2008). However, improvements in gain due to increasing dietary lysine were seen in the earlier study, but no benefits were observed in the present study. As seen from Figure 4, F/G showed a similar pattern; Shelton et al. (2008) showed benefits to feeding lysine levels higher than the NRC (1998) requirement, but the present study showed no benefit.- This raises ques tions as to the difference in response between trials. The present study used different formulation techniques than the earlier trials. Also, diets in this trial had much lower energy levels than diets used by Shelton et al. (2008) and Main et al. (2002), with 3 and 6% added fat, respectively. The difference in fat levels helps explain the overall increase in F/G in the present trial. Feed efficiency results from this portion of the t are similar to responses seen by Main et al. (2002), in that for 170- to 225-lb and to 265-lb gilts, only a slightly higher response was determined above the NRC (1998) requirement. This study indicates that in the grower stage, feeding diets with higher lysine levels than previously recommended can improve gains and efficiency. In the finishing stage, however, the NRC (1998) recommendations were adequate to meet the biological needs of the animal for growth and conversion of feed to lean tissue. 28) (d 88) Finishing Low1 82.23 15.60 ----------0.87 0.87 0.35 0.08 100.00 ) 4ighH ..166)(07 .100 .240 .650 .114 ..111)(00 ..633)(04 ..616)(40 .870 ..66)(805 ..(20002 .470 .380 .175 .720 .182 .640 .790 .770 i-frrreeaadn 1 1 0 0 0 0 n s m t e i d an .644 .633 .612 .08 94 .38 .64 33 .32 38 .64 .22 --- --- .69 --- --- --- --- m d e 2 .3 2 0 .1 2 .1 0 2 0 fro .is an st yb n o ts ie S n d e e i r d g s y . lse la e C i n .lea2bTC 1,tIe%m PC iiregnnA iiistednH lisIceeoun ieecunL iseynL iiteohnnM te+M lleaayhnnP ireeohnnT trayopphT lieanV lieannA istrcapA isteeynC litcauGm liecynG lireonP ireeSn lseauV1Iregn reeaw2oLw3eodM4ighH 5 1 re In n o i t i s o p m o c l a c i m e h . s p an s leu am d .ste ion av ssbu ica a ad t d itm en c d ry em D sten seab ist ir sa rep ree cehm requ segu tahn e r D ) r s w tew 1(989 ivko treag se s n e teh ean yb C E en m % r R = 10 ap st ed N z e in iedn layn = tra = 6 5 7 9 1 9 7 8 5 7 1 en 1% .8 .9 .9 .0 .1 .9 .0 .9 .7 .4 .7 .62 .02 .66 is 8 . 0 0 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ly .(0 ir o t t rep son ab a i d n a l leev ISD 7 e t % t ithw reaod .0 78 to sbu sh P i n i f d n a n G o i t i s o p m o c s s a c r a c d n a n o y t i s n e d n i e t o r p E . 3 e l b a T h t w lit rea 2 1 1 o .0 .0 .50 .79 r G od .113 2 5 2 61 g M d e c n a l a b te f w a lso rro red .37 .198 .652 .662 .1700 e a o 11 v B e M l s u o ira ow .39 .69 .30 .17 .99 v L 11 1 5 2 61 m h s q % tre yb on = s tp ,h $ row re 0 st itttrreeaaym ,ltbw to82 ,lbAGD ,lIbFAD /FG ,litteeabdw to88 ,lbAGD ,lIbFAD /FG ,ltbw to88 ,lbAGD ,lIbFAD /FG sssreeeaunmm3,liedY% ftcaakB ieopdnL ,eanL%4,ltcea/v$uw 5,listca/gobn ,65,ea/$dh ,lf13ttaoo00b 1(899=RCN ;iagdhn=H iisssreeexpddn istreeeeaddnwm issrreeecaabpd fsreeceevoodm t ed t ra ) 1 D lita 0 rem 28 la 0 ca C ow )dn lie lu ed co in tn in ra iev eed F A L co Y aV eF In I d I d F d C L F IO1 2 se 3 4 5 6 igh .32 .30 .78 .36 .99 .167 .157 .362 .2279 .185 .540 .329 .605 .66 .49 .63 .770 .42 .74 6 e Madn litreaon ,sadn H 11 2 4 2 61 7 0 2 5 4 0 1 n /p ;) s e g d t ip con irod in iu m .167 .158 .329 .3227 .184 .554 .310 .3570 .607 .625 .635 .7485 .402 .6622 ta72 isteeaoddhn liifsstreeypn ssrccaa regpnm .ireopd 2 4 5 0 6 seud irepn IeShD toh iadd litra oLw .1132 .139 .495 .257 .6187 .17 .57 .334 .628 .179 .547 .360 .750 .608 .247 .559 .4727 .104 .672 reeoh .ifstre055% .it88n% teh ,.1654 irgun w th (0 in $ .) d )0 in n t fo isc st s ighH .3119 .162 .315 .642 .1447 .119 .654 .338 .3285 .199 .670 .350 .4774 .280 .542 .357 .6314 .440 .4572 105× liseyn iteaodn ieghw ircep ecoonm seecod .187 .360 .338 .3682 .119 .594 .312 .149 .84 .14 .33 .355 .34 .34 IC s aom sea I(n eah 7 0 2 5 4 0 65 (P .66% sa u b 80 re e .119 .365 .334 .7289 .192 .600 .132 .497 ..i82n .240n .355 .6459 .042 .699 adn ireeum eavob fso isgun Jeun lavu 7 ,0 i 5 f m fo ss a 7 m a m 33 ISD rceo tun rca fo d c r st (0 egD teh a 02 p l ig t n Main et al. 2002, 130-190 lb Shelton et al. 2008, 120-180 lb Shelton et al. 2009, 115-170 lb gilt Shelton et al. 2009, 115-170 lb barrow 1.6 2.0 G / F 2.25 2.00 Main et al. 2002, 130-190 lb Shelton et al. 2008, 120-180 lb Shelton et al. 2009, 115-170 lb gilt Shelton et al. 2009, 115-170 lb barrow 1.6 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 SID lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal 2.35 Shelton et al. 2009, 170-270 lb gilt 1.0 1.6 2.2 2.8 SID lysine:ME ratio, g/Mcal 1.0 1.6 2.2 2.8 .62 .37 32 .24 .34 .35 .87 .63 an 0 0 0 .1 5 2 6 0 0 5 0 0 .1 0 2 0 0 0 ,y . 6 .2 .4 .5 .1 p 0 0 0 0 0 co s s 8 8 n i ra 2 4 3 3 4 8 1 8 7 7 3 7 1 7 3 .3 . 5 .0 .4 .7 .9 .8 .7 .3 .9 .2 .9 .5 .5 .08 .48 .820 .660 litra ifr e aud .09 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 e -d th


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N W Shelton, J K Htoo, M Redshaw, Robert D Goodband, Michael D Tokach, Jim L Nelssen, Joel M DeRouchey, Steven S Dritz. Effects of feeding varied levels of balanced protein on growth performance and carcass composition of growing and finishing pigs, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 2009,