Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, Dec 1993

A total of 152 lactating sows was used to determine the influence of dietary valine level on sow and litter performance. During lactation, sows were fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing .9% lysine and either .75 or .9% valine. Lactation diet had no influence on litter birth weight, pig survivability, pigs weaned per litter, or daily sow feed intake. However, sows fed the .90% valine diet had increased pig and litter weaning weights. These differences were magnified as number of pigs weaned and sow milk production increased. These results indicate that further research is needed to determine the valine requirement of the high-producing sow. However, the practical implication of this trial is that valine deficiencies limit the amount of synthetic lysine that can be used in high protein diets for the lactating sow.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 18,1993

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Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows

Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows Michael D. Tokach Robert D. Goodband Jim L. Nelssen Follow this and additional works at: http://newprairiepress.org/kaesrr Part of the Other Animal Sciences Commons Recommended Citation Tokach, Michael D.; Goodband, Robert D.; and Nelssen, Jim L. (1993) "Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows," Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: Vol. 0: Iss. 10. https://doi.org/10.4148/2378-5977.6418 - Article 578 This report is brought to you for free and open access by New Prairie Press. It has been accepted for inclusion in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports by an authorized administrator of New Prairie Press. Copyright 1993 Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Contents of this publication may be freely reproduced for educational purposes. All other rights reserved. Brand names appearing in this publication are for product identification purposes only. K-State Research and Extension is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows Abstract A total of 152 lactating sows was used to determine the influence of dietary valine level on sow and litter performance. During lactation, sows were fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing .9% lysine and either .75 or .9% valine. Lactation diet had no influence on litter birth weight, pig survivability, pigs weaned per litter, or daily sow feed intake. However, sows fed the .90% valine diet had increased pig and litter weaning weights. These differences were magnified as number of pigs weaned and sow milk production increased. These results indicate that further research is needed to determine the valine requirement of the high-producing sow. However, the practical implication of this trial is that valine deficiencies limit the amount of synthetic lysine that can be used in high protein diets for the lactating sow.; Swine Day, Manhattan, KS, November 18,1993 Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. This Research Report article is available in Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports: http://newprairiepress.org/ kaesrr/vol0/iss10/578 Swine Day 1993 VALINE: A LIMITING AMINO ACID FOR HIGH-PRODUCING LACTATING SOWS1 Summary A total of 152 lactating sows was used to determine the influence of dietary valine level on sow and litter performance. During lactation, sows were fed corn-soybean meal based diets containing .9% lysine and either .75 or .9% valine. Lactation diet had no influence on litter birth weight, pig survivability, pigs weaned per litter, or daily sow feed intake. However, sows fed the .90% valine diet had increased pig and litter weaning weights. These differences were magnified as number of pigs weaned and sow milk production increased. These results indicate that further research is needed to determine the valine requirement of the high-producing sow. However, the practical implication of this trial is that valine deficiencies limit the amount of synthetic lysine that can be used in high protein diets for the lactating sow. (Key Words: Valine, Amino Acids, Sows.) Introduction Recent research at Kansas State Univer sity, University of Kentucky, and University of Minnesota suggests that the lysine requirement of the high-producing sow is much greater than listed by NRC (1988). This change in lysine recommendations has led to questions concerning the requirement of other amino acids. We typically use an ideal amino acid ratio to determine the requirement for other amino acids based on lysine. The amino acid ratios suggested by NRC (1988) and ARC (1981) are used most often (Table 1). The ARC ratio is based on the composition of milk, whereas the NRC ratio was developed from feeding trials. These ratios are similar for all amino acids except valine. The reason that the valine to lysine ratio is important is that, according to the NRC ratio, valine is the second limiting amino acid in high protein diets for the lactating sow. If 3 lb of synthetic lysine is added to the diet, valine actually is the first limiting amino acid using the NRC ratio. However, valine is not a concern using the ARC ratio. Therefore, this experiment was designed to determine if the valine to lysine ratio suggested by ARC (1981) is too low. 1Appreciation is expressed to Nutri-Quest, St. Louis, MO for providing amino acids for this study. The authors also wish to thank Phillips Farm, Drexel, MO for data collection and use of facilities and animals. Procedures On a commercial swine operation, 152 lactating sows were randomly allotted at farrowing to the experimental diets. Diets were formulated to contain .9% lysine and .75 or .9% valine giving valine to lysine ratios of .83:1 and 1:1, respectively (Table 2). L-valine replaced corn to formulate the high valine diet. All other amino acids were fortified at 105% of the ratio suggested by NRC (1988) (Table 3). Diets were corn-soybean meal-based and contained equal amounts of all synthetic amino acids except valine. Diets were calculated to contain .9% Ca and .8% P. Litters were equalized by 24 h after farrowing. Litters were weighed at birth and weaning (21 + 2 d after farrowing). Sows were provided ad libitum access to feed and water, and feed intake was recorded daily. Following weaning, sows were moved to a breeding facility and checked twice daily for signs of estrous. Days from weaning to estrous were recorded. This experiment was conducted from July 1 to October 25, 1992. Sows were housed in individual farrowing crates in environmentally controlled farrowing rooms. Flooring under the sow and creep area was plasticcoated expanded metal. The minimum air temperature in the farrowing room was 70°F. Drip coolers were activated when air temperature exceeded 80°F. Results Lactation diet (.75 vs .90% valine) had no influence (P > .45) on litter birth weight (35.0 vs 34.9 lb), pig survivability (91.8 vs 92.7%), pigs weaned per litter (10.12 vs 10.25), and daily sow feed intake (9.2 vs 9.2 lb). However, sows fed the .90% valine diet had increased pig (P < .09) and litter (P < .04) weaning weights (Table 4). These differences were magnified as the number of pigs weaned and sow productivity increased (< 10 vs > 10 pigs). Discussion Increasing dietary valine from .75% to .90% resulted in a substantial increase in litter weaning weights. These results indicate that the ideal valine to lysine ratio is greater than .83:1 (.75% valine in a diet containing .90% lysine). Certainly, the ratio of .70:1 proposed by ARC (1981) from the amino acid composition of milk is too low. We are currently conducting further research to more closely determine the valine requirement of the high-producing sow. The practical aspect of this research is the impact that it has on synthetic amino acid use in sow lactation diets. Previously, most nutritionists believed that the most limiting amino acids in corn-soybean meal diets for lactating sows were lysine, threonine, methionine, and tryptophan. Thus, a common recommendation was to use .15% L-lysine HCl in sow lactation diets. The impact of synthetic lysine on the order of limiting amino acids in sow lactation diets is demonstrated in Tables 5 and 6. For these tables, the NRC (1988) and ARC (1981) ratios were used to determine the deficient amino acids in corn-soybean meal diets formulated without (Table 5) or with (Table 6) L-lysine HCl. These tables demonstrate that the order of limiting amino acids changes as lysine levels increase. Lysine is the first limiting amino acid at the lower dietary lysine levels. However, at high lysine levels (> .90%), valine becomes the first limiting amino acid using the NRC (1988) ratio (Table 5). When synthetic lysine is used in formulation (Table 6), valine becomes limiting at a relatively low lysine level (.7%). Our research indicates that valine deficiencies limit the use of L-lysine HCl in sow lactation diets and that diets formulated on predictions of amino acid requirements based on milk production and maintenance will underestimate the valine requirement of the lactating sow. Litter weaning wt, lbb aP<.09. bP<.04. All Sows < 10 Pigs > 10 Pigs .75 75 10.12 12.7 aDeficient according to NRC (1988) amino acid ratio. aDeficient according to NRC (1988) amino acid ratio. bDeficient according to ARC (1981) amino acid ratio.


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Michael D Tokach, Robert D Goodband, Jim L Nelssen. Valine: a limiting amino acid for high-producing lactating sows, Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports, 1993,