Neonatal Calf Care

Iowa State University Veterinarian, Aug 2018

Calf mortality is important economically in dairy and beef herds. Calf losses substantially reduce the returns from cattle raising. The economic losses are those derived from the loss of the calf, planning and labor already invested by the herdsman, and veterinary expenses from obstetric and post-natal care. Indirect losses are infertility, chronic disease, and impaired development of the calf.

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Neonatal Calf Care

Neonatal Calf Care J. Todd Minor 0 1 Richard L. Riese 0 1 Iowa State University 0 1 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Student Publications at Iowa State University Digital Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Iowa State University Veterinarian by an authorized editor of Iowa State University Digital Repository. For more information , please contact , USA 1 Minor , J. Todd and Riese, Richard L. (1984) "Neonatal Calf Care , " Iowa State University Veterinarian: Vol. 46 : Iss. 1 , Article 4. Available at: , USA Follow this and additional works at; http; //lib; dr; iastate; edu/iowastate_veterinarian Introduction Calf mortality is important economically in dairy and beef herds. Calf losses substantially reduce the returns from cattle raising. The eco­ nomic losses are direct and indirect. Direct losses are those derived from the loss of the calf, planning and labor already invested by the herdsman, and veterinary expenses from obstetric and post-natal care. Indirect losses are infertility, chronic disease, and impaired development of the calf. . The occurrence rate of calf mortahty de­ pends on many factors: breed, farm manage­ ment, farm climate and locale, age of the dam, lactation number of the dam, the bull, the duration of the pregnancy, and sex of the calf. 1 Calf mortality appears to be similar in beef and dairy cattle. Perinatal deaths are very impor­ tant. In some European countries this accounts for 50-60 % of mortality in calves born to heifers. Dystocia associated with large calves is also a significant cause of perinatal death. There is a close relationship between problem births and perinatal mortality. 1 The increasing use of large breeds, earlier calving, selection for growth rate, size, and production, a?d more intensive management systems has In­ creased the incidence of dystocia and calf mor­ tality. The future of the cattle industry is based on the birth of healthy calves. With the advent of embryo transfer, the value of many of these calves has greatly increased. The death of any calf in the periparturient period is becoming a loss of greater importance to the herdsman. This paper presents some of the advice that can be given and the steps that a veterinarian can take to limit the losses of newborn calves. Pre*Mr. Minor is a fourth-year student in the College of Veterinary Medicine at Iowa State University. . **Dr. Riese is an assistant professor of Vetennary Clinical Sciences at Iowa State University. ltDl. 46, No. 1 parturient care of the dam, problems arising from congenital malformations, and tec?­ niques for relief of dystocia will not be dIs­ cussed. Delivery A normal full-term fetus' survival depends in large part on its dam's ability to deliver it quick!y. The fetal factors exerting ~he gre~test influence on parturition are sex, bIrth weIght, and presentation. The fetus determin~s when it is born. The dam's influences are chIefly feto­ pelvic compatibility and parity. 2 Upon natural delivery of a healthy calf, the following calf blood gas and acid-base parame­ ters have been found: 3 peo2 = 58.15 mm Hg p02 = 25.34 mm Hg pH = 7.245 Base deficit = 3.86 mmole/L Upon delivery of a healthy calf by caesari.an section, the following calf blood gas and aCId­ base parameters have been found: 4 pC02 = 60.7 mm Hg pal = 19.0 mm Hg pH = 7.242 Base deficit = 3.13 mmole/L All calves immediately after birth have a slight combined respiratory and metabolic aci­ dosis. The metabolic part is compensated for by the calves in one to two hours. The respiratory portion lasts 24-48 hours. 3,4,5 • This data on normal calves wIll contrast sharply with the data from calves suffer~ng from dystocia and calves delivered by caesarIan section before physiologic parturition has be­ gun. Delayed passage through the birth canal with placental disruption and/or caruncle com­ pression compromises oxygenation. The .o:cy­ gen transport via uterus/placenta/~mbIhcal vein/fetal pathway is disturbed causIng fetal hypoxia to anoxia and acidosis. One sign that this may have occurred is finding the neonate stained with meconium. Hypoxic stress in utero may result in the anal sphincter relaxing and hyperperistalsis. Meconium voided into the amniotic fluid stains the fetus. The neonate can breathe with its nose past the labia of the dam, but it can't expand its chest in the narrow birth canal. The oxygenation compromise is aggravated by continuous traction. Calves subject to asphyxia in the uterus have distinct combined respiratory and meta­ bolic acidosis as compared to normal calves. Their blood gas and acid-base parameters have been found to be :4,6 pC02 = 72.7 mm Hg p02 = 18.0 mm Hg pH = 7.039 Base deficit = 10.6 mmole/L The metabolic con1ponent lasts for six hours before compensation by the calf is complete. Corticosteroids playa role in this acidosis. Cortisol and cortisone are at high levels at birth due to increased fetal adrenal activity which precedes and is part of the cascade of events leading to parturition. 7,8 A negative linear rela­ tionship exists in the neonate between pH and plasma cortisol. 9 Added fetal stress of dystocia will raise its cortisol level and consequently playa role in worsening the acidosis. Calves delivered by caesarian section before physiologic parturition takes place suffer two problems. Their acidosis is worse than that of naturally delivered calves,5 and they suffer worse respiratory distress from hypoxia and from a low ratio of lecithin to sphingomyelin, making a defective surfactant system in the lungs. 10 The type of delivery will often determine the steps a veterinarian will take in his attempt to keep a calf alive. The dystochic calf is fre~ quently in a life-compromising situation. Life support techniques may make a difference for many dystochic calves. Calves born by a natu­ ral parturition are not to be ignored as good husbandry techniques are vital to their contin­ ued health and well-being. Post-Delivery Once the calf is on the ground a prompt, quick evaluation of its viability must be made. All calves are slightly acidotic when born. This will cause some central depression which nets arteriolar constriction and decreased pulmonary circulation. How depressed is the calf? How dyspneic? Is there muscle tone or are the muscles flaccid? Are reflexes present (fore and hind limbs, swallowing, corneal, anal)? Is the pulse one hundred or better? Is the calf alive (presence or absence of corneal opacity)? An evaluation of these signs will tell if therapy is needed and/or warranted. Adaptation The signs listed above will give an assess­ ment of how well neonatal adaptation has pro­ gressed. The neonate must quickly adapt itself to its new extrauterine environment, overcome the stress of parturition, and solve the hypoxic crisis resulting from severance of the umbilical cord. Respiration is the most urgent adapta­ tion that must be made; all the other adapta­ tions the neonate makes hinge upon it. Al­ though it has been shown that there are intrauterine ventilatory efforts, they are weak because the stimuli to the central nervous sys­ tem are buffered by the intrauterine environ­ ment. The first breath marks the end of fetal life and the beginning of the post-natal period. The muscles of respiration must create a large negative intrathoracic pressure to pull air into the lung and move the fetal lung liquid through the airways. The lung liquid is primarily re­ moved by pulmonary capillaries and lym­ phatics. Little fluid drains externally. The de­ crease in pulmonary vascular resistance decreases the pulmonary artery pressure. Cir­ culatory pathways can then change by reversal of blood flow through the ductus arteriosus, its closure, the closure of the foramen ovale, and the sealing of the umbilical arteries by clots. Thermoregulation must begin or hypothermia will result. Neonatal calves must rise and suck­ le shortly after birth to establish a successful neonatal-maternal bond and to obtain passive immunity from colostrunl to change its agam­ maglobulinemic state of birth. In most cases the events of delivery and adaptation proceed smoothly. A veterinarian can relieve dystocia but is unable to correct an adaptational cardiovascular irregularity. He can intervene successfully with many respirato­ ry inadequacies. The veterinarian can also .as­ sist or advise the herdsman concerning avoid­ ance and treatment of cold stress, on the necessary feeding of colostrum, and other hus­ bandry techniques. Respiratory Support With the birth of the calf complete, one should express mucus from the nose and mouth with the thumbs pressed on the bridge of the nose and fingers in the intermandibular space. The hands are then slid from eyes to muzzle. 11 Stimulation of respiration can be ac­ complished by applying some cold water to the calfs head, rubbing the skin, tickling the nasal mucosa with straw, or tapping the thorax dor­ socaudal to the heartbeat on the phrenic nerve. Administration of doxapram, pentylenetetra­ zol, or nikethamide can also be performed. All of the above merely increase central nervous system stimulation and depend on the calfs innate ability to generate sufficient nega­ tive inspiratory pressure to inflate the lungs. A weak, depressed calf will not respond to added central nervous system stimulation. If the calf is truly asphyxic, don't delay ven­ tilatory support by using the above methods, but move to one of the following techniques: ( 1 ) artificial respiration - With the calf in lateral reculYlbency, extend the neck, hold the mouth open, grasp the uppermost hu­ merus and costal arch, and lift. Little as­ piration is noted at first as the lungs are atelectatic. Continue to raise and lower the humerus until breathing begins or another technique is employed. ( 2 ) intubation - This is the only way to insure lung inflation in a depressed calf. The best method of endotracheal intubation is the use of a long-bladed laryngoscope to dis­ place the tongue and epiglottis ventrally and illuminate the laryngeal opening. Blind intubation by externally palpating the trachea and larynx with one hand and manipulating the endotracheal tube with the other requires more time but is possi­ ble. Endotracheal tubes 6.0-10.5 mm in­ ternal diameter will fit most calves. A 7 mm tube with a large inflatable cuff will fit all but the very small calf.12 Be sure the tube is in the trachea; placement of the tube in the esophagus is easily done and easily checked by tracheal palpation. ( 3 ) ventilation by Hudson Demand Valvea ­ The goal of this support is to inflate the calfs lungs in order that circulatory adapta­ tions occur. This device will perform this operation without the danger of high gas pressure causing lung damage. It can de­ liver oxygen via an endotracheal tube to a maximum pressure of 39 mm Hg. The valve works by either manually pressing a button on the valve housing to supply gas aHudson Demand Valve, Hudson Oxygen Therapy Sales Company, Wadsworth, Ohio. VOL. 46) No. 1 flow or by demand of the calf after sponta­ neous ventilation begins. The apparatus is small, consisting of the demand valve and hose, an oxygen tank, a two-stage regula­ tor, and an endotracheal tube. It would be an asset not requiring much room in a clinic or a vehicle. ( 4 ) ventilation by ambu resuscitation bag­ This device cannot deliver the pressure one can get from compressed gases. Manual ventilation with either room air or oxygen can be achieved. These bags require little space needing only an endotracheal tube or face mask for operation. ( 5 ) ventilation by Vetaspiratorb - This device will provide both suction and positive pres­ sure. The attempt at suction of fluid from neonatal calf lungs is of little benefit. As pointed out earlier, the majority of lung fluid "vill be removed by lymphatics and pulmonary capillaries. The primary goal here is adequate lung inflation. The posi­ tive pressure side of this equipment will ac­ complish the lung inflation. The apparatus is somewhat bigger than the demand valve. It is also more complex to operate. An oxy­ gen tank, two-stage regulator, hose, and face mask or endotracheal tube are re­ quired for operation. ( 6 ) oxygen rich environment - This can be provided by a cage, tent, nasal cannulas, or face mask and an oxygen tank with reg­ ulator. This technique will not expand the lungs but will aid a struggling, breathing calf. Following the initiation of ventilation by the calf, medications may be warranted. Calves needing cardiovascular volume support will benefit from intravenous administration of Ringer's or 5 % dextrose in water. Acidotic calves with base deficits greater than 10 mmole/L develop severe respiratory distress. Morrow's suggested technique of administra­ tion of sodium bicarbonate and glucose in­ travenous solutions does alleviate the metabolic acidosis but makes the respiratory effects worse. 13 Treatment with sodium bicarbonate and glucose solutions were no better than sa­ line for survivability of acidotic calves. This lack of success has been ascribed to possible lung lesions before treatment (atelectasis, al­ veolar emphysema, hyaline membranes, inter­ stitial edema), brain hemorrhages, and/or inbVetaspirator Oxygen Resuscitator, Veterinary Special,­ ties, Inc., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. tracellular acidosis. 14 Umbilical Stump Severe the cord 10 cnl from the body with a sterile scissors. Don't dress the stump unless there is a farm history of omphalitis, joint ill, etc. If conditions merit treating the stump, press out the jelly found within the cord and paint it with copper sulfate, 20 % tincture of iodine, 5% lysol, or an aerosol antibiotic. 15 Colostrum The herdsman must be made aware of the value of colostrum and its proper administra­ tion. The worth of this practice cannot be stressed enough. Colostrum provides an energy source and important imn1unoglobu­ lins. The capacity of the fetus to respond to antigens is gradually developed to arrive at im­ munocompetency at birth. The calf fetus can respond to some antigens at 132 days and others not until term. Neonates are susceptible to disease because of the unprimed state of their immune system, not due to incapacity. The hazards associated with the failure of pas­ sive transfer of immunoglobulins to the agam­ maglobulinemic neonate are severe. A positive relationship has been found between low blood serum immunoglobulin levels and subsequent mortality in calves. 16 Low levels of immuno­ globulins are correlated with calf enteritis, om­ phalitis, and hyperthermia. Given this rela­ tionship with disease and mortality, proper colostrum ingestion is important for all calves. In one study, eighty percent of normal dairy calves stood within ninety minutes and had suckled within eight hours. Calves rarely suck­ le from .a recumbent dam. 17 Force-feeding two liters of colostrum ¥lithin one hour of birth is one guideline presented. 18 Two liters per calf at first feeding is a commonly suggested amount, while the time of feeding has sometimes been increased to within sixteen hours after birth. 19 This latter guide is questionable for two rea­ sons: closure of the calfs intestine to immuno­ globulin absorption (which will be discussed la­ ter) and the decrease in quality of colostrum which begins at nine hours after parturition. Consequently, tube or bottle administration is recommended as soon as possible after birth. The age of the calf when fed colostrum and the amount fed are very important in the ad­ ministration of colostrum or a blood-derived substitute. These two factors determine the serum immunoglobulin concentration of the post-colostral calf. With increasing age, there are fewer intestinal epithelial cells responsible for colostral immunoglobulin transfer. These enterocytes are capable of pinocytotic activity, colostral uptake, and transmission of colostral constituents into circulation. As these cells pro­ gressively decrease in number, there is a con­ comitant decrease in absorption rate in both the initial period after feeding and in succeed­ ing periods. 20 All of the three activities: pinocy­ tosis, uptake, and/or transmission to circula­ tion are affected. This process, termed "closure:' begins at twelve hours. Mean closure finish time is twenty-four hours. 21 Passive im­ munoglobulin transfer occurs in six to twenty­ four hours after feeding. 22 There is no immu­ noglobulin absorption from the gut after forty-eight hours. Production of the calfs own immunoglobulin begins at a very low level at seventy-two hours. 23 Two liters of colostrum is optimum to feed the average Holstein calf from birth to sixteen hours. After that time, less should be fed to avoid immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin M absorption inhibition due to excessive amounts. 19 Earlier absorption rates and maximum ab­ sorption of colostral immunoglobulin were greater in calves that suckled their dams than in those bottle-fed. Some labile factor is trans­ ferred to the calf in the dam's colostrum acting as a messenger to stimulate a burst of pinocy­ totic activity.24 Artifically feeding calves colos­ trum in the presence of their dam increased blood serum immunoglobulin levels. 16 Despite this, bottle feeding may be preferable because it allows confidence in the amount of colostrum ingested and when it occurs. Calves with acidosis (pH < 7.15) have been shown to ingest less colostrum and have subse­ quent lower in1munoglobulin levels. Normal calves fed the same amount as was ingested by the acidotic calves (smaller than normal) had higher immunoglobulin levels. 25 The effect of corticosteroids on dam production and calf ab­ sorption of colostral immunoglobulins is clouded. It has been shown that induction of parturition by corticosteroids decreases immu­ noglobulin G transfer to colostrum26 and de­ creases the efficiency of immunoglobulin ab­ sorption by calves born to such cows. 27 Corticosteroids, natural or introduced, in nor­ mally delivered calves have been shown to cause no reduction in immunoglobulin absorp­ tion. 28 Cold stress has been shown to delay onset and significantly decrease the rate of absorp­ tion of colostral immunoglobulins. Cold stress also affects calves adversely' by causing loss of body heat by conduction and evaporation when their skin and haircoat are wet, in addi­ tion to the normal loss by radiation and con­ vection. Calves are born wet with amniotic fluid and are extremely susceptible to chilling. Normal thermoregulation causes shivering and the catabolism of brown fat stores. In severe weather and/or housing conditions, calves' nat­ ural systems can't overcome cold stress. Ther­ moregulatory mechanisms of calves will re­ turn, so a heat lamp and/or a warm room is justifiable to augment their thermoregulatory systems. 29 If the dam doesn't lick her neonatal calf dry, sprinkling bran on the calf will help coax her along. Calves to be removed from their dams at birth should be rubbed vigor­ ously with straw or sacking. The dam licking the anal region of the calf is stimulation for passage of meconium, the debris accumulated during fetal life. Colostrum feeding prolongs the time of defecation of meconium. Contrary to the idea of colostrum being a purgative, the more colostrum fed, the longer before meco­ nium passage. 15 To define good quality colostrum, a number of variables must be considered. Advice from the veterinarian concerning what colostrum to freeze for future use is of benefit to the stock­ man. Colostrum is better from a cow without any or only a little prepartum colostral loss. A cow that delivers prematurely has inferior quality colostrum. The herdsman who wants to freeze colostrum should pick cows that are older, have been on his farm a long time, have no mastitis, that calve in the fall, have greater parity, and delivered normally, rather than caesarian. 30 The teats should be washed before the calf suckles or the colostrum milked out to remove E. coli and Salmonella spp. that arrived there with feces or vaginal discharge. 1 Colos­ trum may be frozen for some time. Reports vary on successful storage times ranging from nine months to fifteen years. Freezing single dose aliquots is suggested for ease of adminis­ tration. Thawing should be neither fast nor ac­ complished in a microwave. A natural thaw of the container placed out on a counter is best. The colostrum can be given while between room and body temperature. Colostrum at room temperature does not decrease intake nor blood serum immunoglobulin levels when compared to body temperature administravol. 46) No. 1 tion. 16 For a situation where no colostrum is avail­ able for calves, several substitutes can be used. They can be given bovine plasma, serum, or whole blood. The dam has approximately 2 g/ dl gammaglobulins and the desired level for the calf is the same. Blood volume is eight percent of body weight. If packed cell volume is thirty percent, then the blood is seventy percent fluids or serum. Give the calf one serum vol­ ume of serum or plasma intravenously rapidly through a fourteen gauge needle. Whole blood should be given over several hours. 31 Oral ad­ ministration of plasma or serum can also be of benefit if the calf can still absorb the immuno­ globulins from his intestine. An oral colostrum substitute given three times per day consists of: a whipped egg in 300 ml of water, 112 teaspoon of castor oil, and 600 rni of whole milk. Egg white is antibacterial for some E. coli. 15 This is not intended to replace colostrum but is a mixture to use when nothing else is available. There are no immunoglobulins in it. Conclusions Neonatal calf care is economically important and becoming more so. The veterinarian can assist in reducing calf mortality, particularly in respiratory support in asphyxic calves. Advice on herdsman husbandry will also aid in keep­ ing calf mortality and morbidity low. The im­ portance of colostrum, its proper dosage and administration, and the use of substitutes or frozen colostrum are ideas to stress to the cattle raiser. Keeping calves dry will reduce the weak calf syndrome induced by cold stress. Breeding programs to reduce the occurrence of dystocia will reduce the incidence of asphyxic, acidotic calves. 1. Hoffman B , Mason IL , Schmidt]: Calving Problems and Early Viability of the Calf . The Hague, Martinus Nijhoff , 1979 . 2. Dennis SM : Low viability of calves at birth . ~ t Ann 21 : 63 - 73 , 1981 . 3. Schlerka G , Petschenig W , Jahn]: Blood gases, acidbase relationship, electrolytes, some enzymes, and other constituents of blood from newborn calves. I. Blood gases and acid-base relationship . Dtsch Tierarztl Wschr 86 : 95100 , 1979 . 4. Mauer-Schweizer H , Wilhelm V , Walser K : Blood gases and pH value up to 24 hours after birth in calves by caesarian section . Berl Munch Tierarztl Wschr 90 : 215 - 218 , 1977 . 5. Eigenmann VGE , Grunert E , Koppe R : The delayed asphyxia of calves . Berl Munch Tierarztl Wschr 94 : 249 - 254 , 1981 . 6. Mauer-Schweizer H , Walser K : Acidosis and clinical status in calves with asphyxia . Berl Munch Tierarztl Wschr 90 : 364 - 266 , 1977 . 7. Cabello G : Neonatal changes in plasma levels of cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone in the calf . Bio Neonate 36 : 35 - 39 , 1979 . 8. Massip A : Relationship between the type of delivery and the acid-base and plasma cortisol levels of the newborn calf . Brit Vet] 136 : 488 - 491 , 1980 . 9. Massip A : Relationship between pH, plasma cortisol, and glucose concentration in the calf at birth . Brit Vet] 136 : 597 - 601 , 1980 . 10. Jahn D : Causes of dyspnea in prematurely born calves with reference to the surfactant system . Inaugural-Dissertation Tierarztl Hochschule Hannover ; 1982 . 11. Drost M : Perinatal care of the calf in Morrow DA (editor): Current Therapy in Theriogenology . Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders Co, 1980 , 274 - 275 . 12. Brunson DB : Ventilatory support of the newborn calf . Comp Cont Ed 3 : S47 - 52 , 1981 . 13. Eigenmann UGE , Rudiger B , Schoon HA , Grunert E : Sodium bicarbonate and glucose administration for asphyxial calves . Dtsch Tierarztl Wschr 89 : 21 7 ­ 260 , 1982 . 14. Falk B : Treatment of dyspnea in newborn calves by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate and glucose . Inaugural-Dissertation Tierarztl Hochschule Hannover; 1982 . 15. Roy JHB : The Calf London, Butterworth's, 1980 . 16. Fallon RJ : The effect .. of immunoglobulin levels on calf performance and methods of artificially feeding colostrum to the newborn calf . Ann Recherches Vet 9 : 347 - 52 , 1978 . 17. Suzuki S , Nakajima M ,' Nakamura Y : Natural sucking behavior in dairy calves during the first twentyfour hours after birth . ]ap] . Zoo Sci 50 : 778 - 781 , 1979 . 18. Blackmer PF : Dairy calf health management in Howard JL (editor): Current Veterinary Therapy, Food Animal Practice . Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Co, 1981 , 135 - 140 . 19. Stott GH , Marx DB , Menefee BE , Nightengale GT : Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves, III. Amount of absorption . ] Dairy Sci 62 : 1902 - 1907 , 1979 . 20. Stott GH , Marx DB , Nightengale GT : Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves, II. The rate of absorption .] Dairy Sci 62 : 1766 - 1773 , 1979 . 21. Bush LJ , Staley TE : Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins in newborn calves . ] Dairy Sci 63 : 672 ­ 680 , 1980 . 22. Fischer EW : Discussion of Congress' paper by Watt JG . Vet Record 77 : 1484 - 1486 , 1965 . 23. Devery JE , Davis CL , Larson BL : Endogenous production of immunoglobulin IgG 1 in newborn calves . ] Dairy Sci 62 : 1814 - 1818 , 1979 . 24. Stott GH , Marx DB , Menefee BE , Nightengale GT : Colostral immunoglobulin transfer in calves, IV. Effect of suckling .] Dairy Sci 62 : 1908 - 1913 , 1979 . 25. Eigenmann UGE , Zaremba W , Luctgebrune K , Grunert E : Investigations on the colostrum intake and absorption of immunoglobulins by calves with and without acidosis . Berl. .Nlunch Tierarztl Wschr 96 : 109 - 113 , 1983 . 26. Brandon MR , Husband AJ , Lascelles AK : The effect of glucocorticoid on immunoglobulin secretion into colostrum in cows . Aust] Exp BioI Med Sci 53 : 43 - 48 , 1975 . 27. Husband AJ , Brandon MR , Lascelles AD : The effect of corticosteroid on absorption and endogenous production of immunoglobulins in calves . Aust] Exp BioI Med Sci 51 : 707 - 710 , 1973 . 28. Stott G H: Immunoglobulin absorption in calf neonates with special considerations of stress . ] Dairy Sci 63 : 681 - 688 , 1980 . 29. Olson DP , Papasian CJ , Ritter RC : Effects of cold stress on neonatal calves, I. Clinical condition and pathological lesions . Can] Comp Med 44 : 11 - 23 , 1980 . 30. Frerking H , Aeikens T : About the importance of colostrum for the newborn calf . Ann Recherches Vet 9 : 361 - 365 , 1978 . 31. Hoffsis G : Saving the valuable calf in Proceedings, 1enth AABP Convention, PP 119 -124 , 1977 .


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J. Todd Minor, Richard L. Riese. Neonatal Calf Care, Iowa State University Veterinarian, 2018,