Time Taken for Lame and Non-lame Sows to Stand and Lie

Animal Industry Report, Mar 2017

This study aimed to characterize the postures and movements of the lying down sequence in multiparous sows,and to identify possible differences between lame and non-lamesows. Eighty-five multiparous sows were moved from their gestation housingto a gestation stall where they were video recorded for one lying down–standing up event on days 30, 60 and 90 of gestation. The digital video camera was positioned on the adjacent stall so the sows’ profile was visible while recording. Observations ceasedwhen the sow successfully lied down and stood up or if 2.5 hours elapsed since recording began. Prior to recording, sows were scored for lameness on a 3-point scale, (1 = normal to 3 =severely lame).From thevideo,postures and movements that occurred during the lying-standing sequence were identified. Lameness was not associated with any of the traits studied. However, a tendency to spend less time standing was observed in lame sows suggesting that lameness recorded in thisstudy was notsevere enough to affect the sequence.

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Time Taken for Lame and Non-lame Sows to Stand and Lie

Time Taken for Lame and Non-lame Sows to Stand and Lie Jared M. Mumm 0 1 2 Iowa State University 0 1 2 0 1 2 Samaneh Azarpajouh 0 1 2 Chelsey Smith 0 1 2 Iowa State University 0 1 2 Iowa State University 0 Mumm , Jared M.; Stock, Joseph; Azarpajouh, Samaneh; Smith, Chelsey; Elliott, Cassondra; Johnson, Anna K.; Stalder, Kenneth J.; and Calderón Díaz , Julia A. (2017) "Time Taken for Lame and Non-lame Sows to Stand and Lie , " Animal Industry Report: AS 663, ASL R3199. Available at: 1 Iowa State University , USA 2 This Swine is brought to you for free and open access by the Animal Science Research Reports at Iowa State University Digital Repository. It has been accepted for inclusion in Animal Industry Report by an authorized editor of Iowa State University Digital Repository. For more information , please contact , USA Recommended Citation - See next page for additional authors Authors Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Chelsey Smith, Cassondra Elliott, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, and Julia A. Calderón Díaz This swine is available in Animal Industry Report: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/ans_air/vol663/iss1/72 Jared M. Mumm, Graduate Research Assistant; Joseph Stock, Graduate Research Assistant; Samaneh Azarpajouh, Postdoctoral Research Associate; Chelsey Smith, Undergraduate Research Assistant; Cassondra Elliott, Undergraduate Research Assistant; Anna K. Johnson, Associate Professor; Kenneth J. Stalder, Professor, Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University; Julia A. Calderón Díaz, Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Pig Development, Teagasc Moorepark Grassland Research and Innovation Centre Summary and Implications This study aimed to characterize the postures and movements of the lying down sequence in multiparous sows, and to identify possible differences between lame and non-lame sows. Eighty-five multiparous sows were moved from their gestation housing to a gestation stall where they were video recorded for one lying down–standing up event on days 30, 60 and 90 of gestation. The digital video camera was positioned on the adjacent stall so the sows’ profile was visible while recording. Observations ceased when the sow successfully lied down and stood up or if 2.5 hours elapsed since recording began. Prior to recording, sows were scored for lameness on a 3-point scale, (1 = normal to 3 = severely lame). From the video, postures and movements that occurred during the lying-standing sequence were identified. Lameness was not associated with any of the traits studied. However, a tendency to spend less time standing was observed in lame sows suggesting that lameness recorded in this study was not severe enough to affect the sequence. Introduction The pig lying down and standing up sequence was first described by Baxter and Schwaller (1983). These authors suggested that locomotory problems would cause few behavioral alterations during this sequence. However, several studies have reported that sows with moderate to severe lameness are likely to show uncontrolled lying down sequences and spend more time lying down than non-lame sows. To our knowledge, there are no studies that describe the rising and lying down postural sequences in lame and non-lame sows. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the time taken to perform postural changes during a standing-lying and lying-standing sequence in multiparous sows when lame and non-lame. Materials and Methods The protocol for this work was approved by the ISUIACUC committee. This work was conducted from August 2015 to June 2016. Animals: Eighty-five multiparous crossbred and Yorkshire sows (parities 1 to 4), were moved from their home stall to a testing stall on 30, 60 and 90 days of gestation. Walking Lameness: Sows were scored for walking lameness on a 3-point scale when moving between their home stall and the testing stall (Table 1). Behavioral equipment: A digital video camera (GoPro Hero, GoPro Inc., San Mateo, CA, USA) was positioned on the adjacent stall next to the test stall by a camera clamp, approximately 51 cm from the floor. Digital video recording: The video provided a continuous sow side profile. Observations ceased when the sow successfully laid down (defined as the sow lying in either sternal or lateral recumbency not supported by any of her legs) and stood up or if 2.5 hours elapsed. Sow postures and movements that occurred during the lying-standing sequence were identified (Table 2). Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using mixed model equations in SAS PROC MIXED. Models included; walking lameness score (1, and ≥2), gestation day (30, 60 and 90), and parity (1, 2, and ≥3). Significance levels were set at P ≤ 0.05, and tendencies were noted at P ≤ 0.10. Each sow was considered the experimental unit. Results and Discussion Walking Lameness: Lame sows tended to take 2.6 seconds longer during KSR and LATENCY was quicker (15.7 minutes) compared with non-lame sows (P ≤ 0.10). Lameness status did not affect SRHQ, TLIE TLS, TSR and TRISE (P ≥ 0.10). Gestation Day: Gestation day effected TLS, with sows taking longer at 60 days of gestation than on 30 and 90 days of gestation respectively (P < 0.05; Table 3). At 90 days of gestation sows tended to take longer to perform KSR than at 30 days of gestation (P ≤ 0.10; Table 4). TSR, TRISE SRHQ, TLIE, and LATENCY were not affected by gestation day (P ≥ 0.10). Parity: Parity was not observed to be a source of variation in any aspect of the lying sequence or LATENCY. However, when standing, parity 2 sows took 16 seconds longer than parities 1 and ≥3 sows during TLS (P < 0.05) and TRISE tended to take longer by 9 and 7 seconds than parity 1 and ≥3 sows, respectively (P < 0.10). TSR did not differ between parities (P ≥ 0.10). Lameness status was not associated with time to perform the different movements within the lying sequence. The discrepancy between our results and previous reports could be due to lameness recorded in this study not being severe enough to affect the lying down sequence. In regards to the differences found in the rising up sequence the biological relevance remains to be explained. Acknowledgements This project was funded by the National Pork Board grant #15-004. We would like to thank the staff at the Lauren Christian Swine Research Center for all their help during this study. LATENCY Extending front legs forward from body and pushing head and shoulders off the ground to end in a sitting position Sitting with weight on front feet and hams on the ground to lifting hind end off the ground Total time to perform the rising process Unit Seconds Seconds Seconds Minutes Seconds Seconds TSR TRISE Seconds


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Jared M. Mumm, Joseph Stock, Samaneh Azarpajouh, Chelsey Smith, Cassondra Elliott, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Julia A. Calderón Díaz. Time Taken for Lame and Non-lame Sows to Stand and Lie, Animal Industry Report, 2017,