Implementing Authentic Materials through Critical Friends Group (CFG): A Case from Turkey
enting Group (C F G): A Case fro m Turkey Authentic M aterials through Critical
Elif Basak Gunbay
Professional Development Commons
Critical; Follow this and additional works at; http; //nsuworks; nova; edu/tqr
Case fro m
Authentic M aterials through Critical
Implementing Authentic Materials through Critical Friends Group
(CFG): A Case from Turkey
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.
This article is available in The Qualitative Report: http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol22/iss11/16
Implementing Authentic Materials through Critical Friends
Group (CFG): A Case from Turkey
Elif Basak Gunbay and Enisa Mede
University of Bahcesehir, Istanbul, Turkey
The purpose of this exploratory case study is to investigate the use of authentic
materials through Critical Friends Groups (CFG) in a language preparatory
program, at a private university in Turkey. Specifically, the study attempted to
identify the perceptions and observed behaviours of native and non-native EFL
instructors on the use of authentic materials, find out the potential reasons
behind the implementation of authentic materials in their classroom practices
and finally, examine the influence of incorporating authentic materials through
CFG on classrooms practices as well as teachers’ professional development.
The participants were eight EFL instructors offering English courses in the
exiting preparatory program. Data were collected through interviews, lesson
observations and reflective essays. The findings revealed that participating in
CFG has transformational impact on instructors regarding their classroom
practices as well as on their continuous professional development. Keywords:
Critical Friends Group (CFG), Authentic Materials, Classroom Practices,
Exploratory Case Study, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Continuous
Professional Development (CPD)
In the last few decades, much emphasis has been given to the use of authentic materials in
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes since they are considered as important tools in
language learning and teaching
(Berardo, 2006; Kılıçkaya et al., 2004; Peacock, 1997)
Authentic materials are generally defined as spoken or written language data produced in the
course of genuine communication and not specifically written for purposes of language
(Nunan, 1999; Richards & Schmidt, 2002)
. More specifically, authenticity is the
language produced by a real speaker/writer for a real audience, conveying a real message
(Bacon & Finnemann, 1990; Gilmore, 2007)
Many researchers interested in authentic materials emphasized the effectiveness of
using them in second/foreign language learning education highlighting their positive impact on
learners' levels of on-task behaviour, concentration, and involvement in the target activity more
than artificial material. This is not necessarily because the material itself is interesting but due
to the fact that such materials are natural and realistic sources
(Linder, 2000; Mishan, 2005;
Although authentic materials prove to have many advantages in the process of
language learning and teaching, it is sometimes challenging for teachers to adapt them into
their lessons. At this point, Critical Friends Group (CFG), as a form of training and professional
development, may aid teachers in the process of adapting and using authentic materials more
effectively in the classroom. CFG, which is a registered trademark of the NSRF® (National
School Reform Faculty) organization, consists of 5 to 12 educators who come together
voluntarily at least once a month. The purpose of CFG is to provide professional development
that translates into improved student learning. This adult learning is accomplished through
formal, ongoing interactions of small groups of staff that participate voluntarily. A trained CFG
coach, who is often a member of the faculty, leads the CFG. If these groups are engaging and
effective, they increase student learning, contribute to the participants’ professional growth,
and improve quality of education in the learning community.
In CFG, members of the group take on different roles, which are facilitator, presenter
and respondent. First, the facilitator is responsible for planning the protocol and focusing
question prior to the meeting and ensuring that the protocol is followed. S/he also monitors the
conversation to ensure that it is shared by everyone and invites comments from all participants
to encourage multiple perspectives. If needed, s/he also redirects the conversation. Finally, s/he
sets time limits and keeps time carefully.
In addition, the presenter decides together with the facilitator on an appropriate protocol
and the framing in addition to raising a perplexing question or reflecting on a dilemma. S/he
also listens and takes notes on responders’ comments and makes explanation at an appropriate
time as well.
The respondents discuss the work in-depth. They follow the protocol, pose questions
and give feedback that is both warm-positive and cool-critical. The feedback should be given
in a supportive tone and providing discussants with practical suggestions.
Besides, the presenter, who is different from the facilitator, presents the issue and
explains what questions or concerns should focus the feedback. In the next stage, participants
have the opportunity to ask questions to the presenter. Then, while the presenter remains silent,
listening and taking notes, the issue is discussed. Next, s/he reflects on the feedback. Finally,
the facilitator debriefs the session. Overall, a session in CFG lasts 35-40 minutes. In the end,
participants are encouraged to give positive or “warm” feedback and constructively critical or
“cool” feedback that is focused on the tuning questions.
In brief, CFGs allow teachers to explore complex issues in their classrooms in an
environment, which is both collegial and collaborative. They attempt to develop a community
for teachers’ questions, reflections, analysis, feedback, and learning, which, in return, aid with
the improvement of student achievement.
Based on these overviews, the present study aims to investigate the use of authentic
materials through CFG in EFL classrooms offered at a language preparatory program in a
private university in Istanbul, Turkey. Specifically, the study attempts to identify the
perceptions of the EFL instructors regarding the use of authentic materials through CFG in
their classrooms, find out the potential reasons behind the implementation of such materials in
their practices and finally, examine the impact of CFG on the CPD of the participating
As previously mentioned, CFG is a professional learning community which consists of
a small group of educators coming together voluntarily and regularly to have structured
professional conversations about their work. Different studies have been carried out to
investigate the effectiveness of participating in CFG on professional development in the fields
of education and even business
(Aktekin, 2013; Fahey, 2011; Franzak, 2002; Kersey 2014;
Key, 2006; Tolivar, 2005)
. This part of the thesis highlights some studies that focus on CFG
participation in terms of collaboration, professionalism, and improving teacher and student
learning. Since there are now more institutions and professional choosing to take part in CFG,
there has been some studies examining how Critical Friends Groups contribute to professionals
and their reflections on taking part in such an experience.
To begin with, an interpretive case study was conducted by
the impact of CFG participation on the professional identity of a student teacher. Data were
collected from various tools including reflective writings, lesson plans, and portfolio and
email communications. While the participants reported to have increasing confidence and
growing independence along with more commitment to their profession, the researcher
concluded that CFG was effective in enhancing the participant’s conception of the profession.
Through this study, it was suggested that teacher education programs such as CFG might
support the student teaching experience by providing access to authentic professional
, who has been a CFG coach since 2003, advocates that educators taking
part in CFG tend to say that their experience in CFG was “profound, inspiring, deep,
collaborative, exciting, rewarding, insightful, and safe.” Moreover, she adds by quoting the
people who took part in such experience: “I have grown as a person, a human being, and a
professional in just five days” and “This was a professionally and personally renewing
experience for me.” As a result, it is suggested that CFG, if engaging and effective, increase
student learning and contribute to the participants’ professional growth.
, who has done a review of research on the impact of CFG,
research reveals four main claims about the effectiveness of CFG. Firstly, CFG fosters a culture
of community and collaboration. By working together regularly, they create an atmosphere
where they can share opinions and learn from each other. Another impact is that encouraging
teachers to figure out their needs and look for ways to meet them enhance teacher
professionalism. In addition, CFG has the potential to change teachers’ thinking and practice.
Finally, CFG have the potential to affect student learning. Since teachers focus on addressing
the needs of the students throughout the process of CFG, the results they get from participating
in such a group also have an impact on understanding the learners and help create better
Another case of CFG was investigated in the case study conducted by
a means of supporting leadership learning. The sample population was school leaders who
came together over the course of 6 years to examine the dilemmas of leadership, analyze
student work as well as learn together. According to the obtained findings, the participants, the
school leaders, became more collaborative and reflective on their work and they became more
open to give and receive feedback in order to share their practices.
investigated the effects of CFG on teachers’ professional development
through the transcripts of the meeting, the journals kept and the researcher’s notes in Turkey.
The results showed positive attitudes from teachers about their experience in CFG.
Specifically, the participants found CFG to be effective because it was an adaptable process
where teachers could focus on their wants and needs. In addition, because of the fact that CFG
is an on-going process rather than a one-time experience, teachers could find the chance to
concentrate more on what they were doing. Overall, the teachers claimed that CFG contributed
to a change in their way of thinking as well as their classroom practices and motivated the
participants to share and support their experiences more.
examined how participants experienced a Critical Friends Group with
the purpose of understanding the process and the learning of the participants in a Critical
Friends Groups. The results revealed that there have been professionally significant
transformational moments for the educators participating in CFG. Moreover, the participation
in a CFG made the participants aware of what changes they personally need in their own
educational practice and in their own school community.
Overall, the studies supports the purpose of CFG since it fosters collaboration, enhances
professionalism, as well as plays a crucial role in changing teacher practices, which might have
an impact on student learning, and in aiding with their professional development. Based on the
findings obtained from these studies, CFG is perceived as a significant movement in the field
of education to improve student learning through teacher collaboration.
The Benefits of Authentic Materials in Second/Foreign Language Classrooms
Many researchers interested in authentic materials highlighted their benefits in
second/foreign language learning education and suggest that authentic materials have a positive
impact on learners' levels of on-task behaviour, concentration, and involvement in the target
activity more than artificial material. This is not necessarily because the material itself is
interesting but due to the fact that such materials are natural and realistic sources
2007; Kılıçkaya, 2004; Linder, 2000; Mishan, 2005; Nunan, 1999)
, for example, believes that such materials provide a more natural
environment that encourages students to be better readers and listeners. According to him,
exposing learners to authentic materials is indispensable because authentic materials provide
rich input for learners. When exposed to such language forms, inside or outside the classroom,
students will be able to cope with genuine interaction more effectively.
, authentic materials have a significant place in a lesson.
When used as realia, they are complementary to the lesson content and when used as texts or
in spoken language, they serve as rich sources for exposing students to real life language,
becoming the central focus of a lesson. In addition, authentic materials can serve as input tasks
as well as output tasks when focusing on language practices including vocab grammatical
structures and pronunciation.
advocates that language presented to the learners in the
class should be authentic because it enhances the learning process. Materials such as
magazines, newspaper, songs contain more realistic and natural examples of language than
those in textbooks enabling students to deal with real language and content. Therefore, learners
feel that they are learning the target language as it is used outside the classroom. For this reason,
instructors should be able to use authentic materials that has a communicative and social
purpose and therefore can arouse interest amongst students.
, authentic materials enhance not only the learners’
understanding of the language but also the society and the culture of where the language is
spoken. This has the potential of motivating students and making them interested in the
argues that materials provide a more creative approach to
teaching and they inform students about the real world.
To summarize, the arguments regarding authentic texts in language learning all lead to
one very significant point: that their use enhances second/foreign language learning and
teaching process. Since authentic materials provide rich and varied comprehensible input for
language learners, they expose learners to language serving a useful purpose. Thus, they
connect the learners to the world outside the classroom. Moreover, they provide a refreshing
change from the textbook; provide information about a wide range of topics. Finally, authentic
texts also have an impact on affective factors essential to learning, such as motivation, empathy
and emotional involvement.
The Effectiveness of Authentic Materials in Language Classrooms
Previous studies have reported the effectiveness of using authentic materials in
language teaching and learning
(Abdulhusseyin, 2014, Belaid & Murray, 2015; Ghaderpanahi,
2012; Omid & Azam, 2015)
. The findings have revealed that authentic materials are effective
tools to be used in classroom practices as they have positive impact on the language
development of students as well as the professional development of teachers.
, with an attempt to examine the influences of authentic aural
materials, applied pre- and post- listening comprehension tests to thirty female undergraduate
psychology majors studying English as a foreign language. The results from the interviews and
questionnaires revealed that the use of authentic materials enhanced EFL students' listening
comprehension ability in the EFL classroom. According to the findings, there was significant
improvement in the ability of the students in listening. The students seemed to have benefited
greatly from the authentic materials they were exposed to as they had much better results in the
post-listening comprehension tests.
Abdulhusseyin (2014) aimed to find teachers’ and students’ perceptions on the use of
authentic materials in language classrooms. Data was collected from third year college students
of English and their teachers using questionnaires that included a series of questions and other
prompts. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the attitudes of
teachers and learners. Specifically, learners had stronger positive attitudes than teachers. As a
result, the teachers were recommended to incorporate a variety of authentic materials and
consider giving learners the opportunity to choose authentic materials of their own choice to
incorporate into their classes.
Omid and Azam (2015)
aimed to explore the attitudes of Iranian English language
teachers toward using authentic materials concerning the receptive skills, gave out a
questionnaire to 57 high school teachers. The results of the study, regardless of teachers’
experience, academic degree, nationality or teaching experience, demonstrated that teachers’
attitudes towards using authentic materials in EFL classes were highly positive as they
perceived it as an important tool for providing meaningful input. They agreed that
implementing authentic materials in their classrooms played a significant role in improving
students’ receptive skills through exposure to real life language and situations.
Similarly, in a study by
Belaid and Murray (2015)
, investigating the EFL teachers’
attitudes and reactions toward using authentic materials in language teaching, fifteen potential
EFL teachers filled out a survey about their attitudes and reactions toward using authentic
materials in teaching English. The findings revealed that all EFL teachers, despite differences
in their teaching experiences and academic degrees, fully advocated the use of authentic
materials in their classrooms. The obtained results also showed that most preferred materials
by the teachers were the Internet and printed materials such as magazines and newspapers.
Concerning the level, they mostly preferred to use authentic materials and chose intermediate
level of L2 competency. Finally, the teachers expressed their need for training in using such
materials, which are selecting activities and curricula modifications.
Based on these overviews, it can be stated that both teachers’ and students’ perceptions
and attitudes towards the use of authentic materials are positive as they proved to be beneficial
both linguistically and culturally. In this regard, this study aims to explore the perceptions and
practices of EFL instructors towards using authentic materials in their classrooms by
highlighting the importance of participating in CFG and revealing its influence on their
classroom practices as well as on their continuous professional development.
As the primary researcher and author in this qualitative case study, I, Elif Basak Gunbay
held the responsibility for revealing my background information to the participants and readers.
I am an English instructor at a Language Preparatory Program of a private university in
Istanbul, Turkey. I have completed her M.A. at Bahcesehir University, Faculty of Educational
Sciences, Department of English Language Education, on the topic: “The use of Authentic
Materials through Critical Friends Group (CFG) for Continuous Professional Development
(CPD) of English Instructors in Turkey.” The present study is a part of my master’s thesis. I
got interested in this topic after reading some recent articles about CFG and discussing the
concept with my colleagues. I thought that it would be interesting to investigate this topic from
the perspective of using authentic materials in EFL classrooms. As I believe in lifelong
learning, I wanted to see how these two concepts; CFG and authentic materials would
contribute to the CPD of the EFL instructors.
As the second researcher and author, Enisa Mede, is an Assistant Professor and the
chair of the Department of English Language Teaching (ELT) at the Faculty of Educational
Sciences, Bahcesehir University, Istanbul, Turkey. She is the supervisor of this M.A. thesis.
She is interested in teacher education, program design and evaluation in teacher education as
well as teacher identity.
Both authors agree on the importance of CFG and use of authentic materials in EFL
classrooms. They have participated in prior qualitative research projects and have published
various articles in the field of teacher education. In this study, we narrowed down the thesis,
collaboratively drafted the manuscript and independently contributed to the other sections of
the research described below. We believe that this research would serve as a good sample for
teacher trainers, curriculum designers and program administrators revealing the strengths and
weaknesses of implementing authentic materials through CFG in EFL classrooms.
The two researchers guaranteed the confidentiality of the participants during and after
the research study. First, an approval from the Institutional Review Board at the Language
Preparatory School was received from the director of the program. Researchers of the present
study would like to express their gratitude to the program director for his continuous support
during the study.
After the official approval, each participant was provided with the background
information and purpose of the research study along with the assurance of confidentiality as
well as ethical research practice before they decided to sign their written consents. The
participants were also informed about the process, the nature and procedures of the study as
well as the estimated time for the data collection process. Finally, the participants were told
that they could withdraw at any time during the study, if they did not feel comfortable.
In this study, data credibility
(Guba & Lincoln, 1982)
was achieved through long term
participation, adequate interaction with the participants, collection of accurate information, as
well as taking the confirmation about the data collection from the study subjects. In addition,
data dependability was sustained though step-by-step data collection process, in-depth data
analysis and the review of the subject by two experts. The data comfirmability was increased
getting the approval of the university faculty members who were experts in the field of
qualitative research and language education. Finally, the subject matter was described in detail
to assess whether it is applicable in other contexts to achieve research transferability.
In line with the previous research, the present study is based on two main ideas. The
first one is that for the best student outcomes, teachers should be engaged in continuous
professional development (Vo & Nguyen, 2010). Secondly, as suggested by
language presented to the learners in the class should be authentic to enhance the learning
process. However, the emphasis on textbooks and lack of authentic materials used in EFL
classrooms bring about the need to raise more awareness on authentic material use. Therefore,
there is a need for teacher training on how to implement authetic materials in EFL classrooms.
To this end, the present study aims to investigate the implementation of authentic materials
through CFG in an English language preparatory program at a private university in Istanbul,
Turkey. To meet these objectives the following research questions were addressed in this study:
1. What are the perceptions and observed behaviours of the EFL instructors after
the implementation of authentic materials in EFL classrooms?
2. What barriers do the participating instructors come across while incorporating
authentic materials in their classrooms?
3. Does use of authentic materials through CFG have any influence on the
classroom practices of the instructors?
4. Does CFG have any impact on the CPD of the instructors?
In an attempt to achieve the goal and meet the objectives, a case study was adopted as
the research design in this study
. A case study is a variation of an ethnography in
that the researcher provides an in depth exploration of a bounded system (e.g. an activity, an
event, a process, or an individual) based on the extensive data collection
Specifically, exploratory case study is used to explore those situations in which the intervention
being evaluated has no clear, single set of outcomes
. As the aim this particular type
of research is to understand the complexity of a case in depth, it often requires various methods
of gathering data, including observation, interviews and testing. Therefore, case study research
can be considered versatile.
There are a number of advantages in using case studies. One of the advantages is, as
mentioned above, gathering data from a variety of sources to provide better insight into a case.
This enables the researcher to explore and describe the data to explain the complexity of the
case, which may not be entirely possible through experimental or survey research. Another
advantage is that case studies improve analytical thinking and communication of researchers.
A case study can also show how different aspects are related and they can encourage generating
new ideas. Finally, this method is important for a holistic or embedded point of view
Based on these overviews, in this study, the researchers decided to use an exploratory
case study with a qualitative approach in order to obtain in-depth and multi-faceted analysis of
CFG experiences of the EFL instructors enrolled in a preparatory program offered at a private
university in Turkey. Qualitative data were provided through different tools including
interviews, classroom observations and reflective essays, which are expected to give insight
and enable the researchers to explore and explain the use of authentic materials through CFG
as well as find its impact on the participating instructors’ classroom practices as well as their
Participants and Setting
The research was conducted at a Language Preparatory School in a private university
in Istanbul, Turkey within a period 8 months in two academic semesters. Purposeful sampling
was used to obtain the participants needed to complete this study
. This involves
identifying and selecting samples or group of samples that are particulalry knowledgeable
about or experienced with the research topic
(Creswell & Plano Clark 2011)
. In addition to
knowledge and experience,
highlights the importance of availability and
willingness to participate, and the ability to share experieces as well as express opinions.
communicate experiences and opinions in an articulate, expressive, and reflective manner.
In this study, one of the researchers first explained the concept of CFG to twelve EFL
preparatory program instructors employed in detail. During this meeting, she focused on the
definition of CFG, its objective, and procedures. As a result, a group of eight instructors agreed
to work with the researchers voluntarily which formed the bounded system throughout the
study with an attempt to discover more about the use of authentic materials through CFG.
Specifically, four female and four male instructors participated in the study. Their age
range was 25-35 with at least 3 years of teaching experience. As for their nationality, all
participating instructors were Turkish. They had their majors either in the field of English
Literature or English Language Teaching (ELT) and all of them held a CELTA teaching
Implementation of CFG
As for the implementation of CFG, meeting dates were arranged based on the convenience of
the participants. In other words, the two researchers came together with the participants every
two weeks (4 CFG meetings each lasting for 50 min.) to discuss each CFG focus point shown
in the table below. Finally, the CFG meetings were planned by the researchers based on the
interview and observation findings.
Before each meeting, the researcher sent related sources to the participants to inform
about the focus of the week and provided an area to discuss during the CFG. Each meeting was
recorded and a meeting log was filled out.
The first CFG meeting included an overview of authentic materials including
definitions made by researchers over the years and advantages and challenges about
implementing such materials in EFL classrooms. The facilitator who was also the researcher
asked questions to the participating instructors to guide the discussion. The atmosphere was
friendly and creative where all eight instructors had chance to express their opinions as well as
experiences about using authentic materials in their classrooms. At the end of the meeting, the
researcher provided some available sources to the instructors to be discussed in the next
In addition, the second CFG meeting was about the criteria for selecting the effective
authentic materials as well as implementing these materials in EFL classrooms. After the
discussion, the researcher and the participants decided that students’ abilities, their proficiency
level, learning styles and interests should be taken into account while choosing and
implementing authentic materials in language classes.
The focus of the third CFG meeting was adjusting the authentic materials in
accordance with the proficiency level of students. More specifically, the participating group
came together and discussed how they can decide on the level as well as tasks that would meet
their learners’ needs and interests effectively. To do this, an authentic reading text was shared
with the instructors one day prior to the meeting. During the meeting, the instructors worked
in pairs to create a task related to what they read. One pair tried to prepare a task for
lowerlevels while the other tried to come up with a task to be taught to a higher-level class. The
tasks prepared were shared and commented by other instructors. At the end of the meeting all
of the participating instructors were provided with an assignment. To put it simply, they had
to come up with practical ideas for using authentic materials in their lessons based on their
readings and discussions in the previous meetings.
Finally, in the last CFG meeting, the instructors tried to design some practical activities
and tasks a variety of using authentic materials such as songs, charts and pictures to be applied
in their classroom. The ideas were expanded through group discussions and were all written
down as a portfolio.
In this study, the first researcher took a sole role as the data collector. She scheduled
the interviews, classroom observations and reflective essays for all eight participants and met
with each of the according to the scheduled time. The following part describes each step of the
data collection procedure in detail.
First of all, the interviews were conducted with the participating instructors twice,
preand post- CFG meetings. The pre-CFG interview aimed to investigate the perceptions of the
participating EFL instructors about the use of authentic materials in their classrooms. The
attempt of the post-interview was to reveal whether CFG had any impact on the use of authentic
materials by the participating instructors on their practices.
The questions asked during the interviews were adapted from a study by
study which aimed to find out the teachers’ attitudes and perceptions about
using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms in Libyan Universities. The
questions were predetermined with the aim to link the perception to the relevant criteria to be
explored. Specifically, all four questions were related to the overall perceptions of using
authentic materials in EFL classrooms. The first question was whether the instructors used any
authentic materials and their reasons for doing so. Next, they were asked to explain how they
used them in their in terms of language skills, grammar and vocabulary, proficiency level of
students and types of preferred sources. They also commented on the importance of using
authentic materials in language classes. Lastly, they expressed their need for inservice training
about implementing authentic materials in their classroom practices effectively.
In addition to the interviews, classroom observations were carried out to collect the data
in real-life context and explore the research topic in detail. Specifically, 12 observations were
done before and after the participation to the CFG meetings with eight EFL instructors to find
out whether CFG had made any difference on their use of authentic materials in their classroom.
Before the observation, the participating instructors were notified about the observation
place and time. They were asked to prepare and implement a lesson using authentic materials;
however, they were not informed about the observation checklist items to avoid any influence
on their performance. During the observation, a checklist included four items parallel to the
interview questions to have a closer look at the classroom practices of each instructor. The
items in the checklist were as follows: the type of authentic material used; the skill and/or
language focus it is used for; the proficiency level of the material and lastly, the points that the
instructors need improvement in this area. At the end of the observation, the researcher shared
her notes with the instructors for confirmation and validation purposes.
As the last data collection tool in this study, all of the participants were asked to write
a reflective essay after their participation in CFG meetings. To put it differently, they were
asked to express their thoughts about taking part in CFGs about using authentic materials in
their classrooms as well as provide in-depth information about its impact on their CPD.
The present study was based on the qualitative case study as a research design. This
type of study is a variation of an ethnography in that the researcher provides an in depth
exploration of a bounded system (e.g., an activity, an event, a process, or an individual) based
on the extensive data collection (Stake, 2005). In the case of qualitative studies, where survey
or interview questions are open ended, some sort of coding scheme needs to be identified
(Friedman et al., 2003; Ketyon, King, Mabachi, Manning, Leonard, & Schill 2004)
For the purposes of this study, the process of data analysis followed the steps
recommended by Granheim and Lundman (2004). First, the transcription of interviews and
classroom observations was done, and then, read for several times to come up with a general
and accurate understanding. The whole interviews and observations were grouped as units
including notes that were analysed and coded. Besides, meaning units were formed including
the words and sentences related to each other in terms of content. In other words, the meaning
units were compiled based on their content and provisions. Then, they were conceptualized and
given a code. Once the codes were identified, they were compared and contrasted as well as
grouped under specific categories. Finally, the categories were compared to one another and
the related “themes” and “subthemes” were introduced.
After the data analysis of the interviews and observations, a, deeper analysis took place
while writing up the manuscript. The two researchers associated the main themes with the
research questions with an attempt to seek answers and evidence from the data.
Finally, to identify the degree of agreement between the two researchers regarding the
development of themes and subthemes, the inter-rater reliability was calculated based on the
agreement between the two raters. As a result, the inter-rater reliability was found to be .81
indicated close agreement between the two raters (researchers of the study) on the general
themes apart from the different verbalizations of similar concepts.
The findings from this exploratory case study are presented in four parts. All parts
describe thematic analysis developed through the coding process and supported by the
theme/subtheme table. Specifically, the findings are presented in according with the research
questions which aimed to identify the perceptions of the EFL instructors about using authentic
materials through CFG in their classroom practices, discover the barriers encountered during
this process, examine the impact of CFG on the use of authentic materials and lastly, find out
the influence of CFG on the CPD of the participating instructors.
The Perceptions of the EFL Instructors about using Authentic Materials in their
Considering the first research question which aimed to reveal the perceptions and
observed behaviours of the EFL instructors related to the implementation of authentic materials
in their classroom, the data were obtained through interviews prior to CFG meetings.
To begin with, the EFL instructors were asked about their thoughts regarding the use of
authentic materials in their classroom practices. The qualitative evidence revealed that they
prefer to use such materials when they have enough time to prepare their lesson plan before
their class as shown in the following excerpt:
[…] I try to use authentic materials in my classes when I find time to prepare
my lesson plan before I teach. (Interview data, 9th Sept., 2015)
Moreover, the participants were asked which factors should be considered while
integrating authentic materials in their classrooms practices. They all agreed that the
proficiency level of the students and the types of sources are crucial points to be closely
addressed while using these type of materials in their lessons. Specifically, they found authentic
materials such as songs, newspapers and magazines to be effective particularly with students
at upper-intermediate and advanced level of proficiency. Considering this issue, an instructor
made the following comment:
[…] In my opinion, using authentic materials is related with the proficiency
level of the students. Use of various sources like magazines, songs and
newspapers is also important. I think that such materials are very effective with
upper-inter and advanced students. (Interview data, 9th Sept., 2015)
Moreover, during the interviews, all of the instructors emphasized the importance of
using authentic materials in their classrooms. They agreed that such materials make the lesson
more engaging, connect classroom setting with real life and expose students to more
meaningful contexts. The following comment clarify this assertion:
[…] I think that when we use authentic materials, the lessons are more engaging.
The students are more eager to participate because they are engaged in
meaningful tasks which help them to relate the lesson with the outside world.
(Interview data, 9th Sept., 2015)
Finally, the participating instructors were asked whether they needed any training about
incorporating authentic materials in their classrooms. Although they stated that they are
familiar with using these type of materials during their lessons, they still needed training
particularly related to implementing these materials with different proficiency levels. One of
the participants said:
[…] Although I am familiar with using authentic materials while teaching
English, I still need training about which material is appropriate for what
proficiency level. (Interview data, 9th Sept., 2015)
In brief, the findings gathered from the pre-CFG interviews suggested that all of the
participating instructors shared similar perceptions towards the use of authentic materials in
their classrooms. In other words, they focused on their as well as effectiveness during the
language learning and teaching process.
Furthermore, pre-CFG classroom observations were carried out to find out the observed
behaviours of the EFL instructors before participating in CFG meetings. A checklist including
four items: type of authentic material used; the skill and/or language focus it’s used for; the
proficiency level of the material and lastly, points that needed improvement was used.
First, in each lesson prepared by the eight participants, video was the mostly preferred
authentic material. To illustrate, all of the instructors showed a video at the beginning of the
lesson to introduce the new topic and gain attention of their students. In addition, they also used
pictures and newspaper articles while teaching reading strategies such as skimming and
introducing new vocabulary.
Besides, as observed from the reactions of the students and their participation in the
lesson, the difficulty level of the real life materials varied from too easy to above students’
level of proficiency. This variety of materials was more challenging and engaging for the
students. Finally, during the observations, there was not a specific task designed to deal with
the material from a linguistic or non-linguistic aspect. All of the instructors preferred to use
these type of materials to make the subject more interesting and meaningful for the students.
The Barriers faced with the Implementation of Authentic Materials in EFL Classrooms
As for the second research question of this study, the participating instructors were
asked to share the barriers behind implementing authentic materials in their classroom
practices. Data were collected from the interviews (pre-CFG) and observations. The interview
findings revealed that no real barriers existed with the implementation of the authentic
materials in EFL classrooms. Rather, the participants highlighted the using these types of
materials led to effectiveness, creativity and student engagement in their classroom practices.
The following quotation support this finding:
[…] Authentic materials make the lesson more effective, creative and engaging.
(Instructor 4, Interview, 19th Oct., 2015)
Furthermore, the instructors expressed that that using authentic materials with students
at higher proficiency levels such as intermediate and advanced was more challenging and
purposeful as displayed below:
[…] I tend to use authentic materials more in classes with higher-level classes
as it is more challenging and purposeful for my students. (Instructor 1, Interview
data, 20th Oct., 2015)
Finally, based on the classroom observations, getting the attention and raising students’
interest were the other two reasons behind the implementation of authentic materials in their
classrooms. Regarding this point, one of the participating instructors said:
[…] I use authentic materials such as videos to get the attention of my students
and attract their interests as well. (Instructor 1, Interview data, 20th Oct., 2015)
To wrap up, all eight participating EFL instructors focused on the importance of using
authentic materials in their classrooms sharing no barriers during this process. They all agreed
that such materials increase the effectiveness, creativity and student engagement. They are
more effective with higher level students as they have a clear purpose and meaning which
attracts the attention as well as interest particularly of the higher level students.
The Impact of CFG on use of Authentic Materials in EFL Classrooms
As for the third research question of this study, the impact of CFG on the use of
authentic materials in English language classrooms was explored. The data were obtained from
classroom observations (post-CFG) comparing it with pre-CFG observations and
semistructured interviews (post-CFG) which are thoroughly reported in the following section.
For the post-CFG classroom observations, the same checklist as in the pre-observation
was used emphasizing the same components namely, type of authentic material used; the skill
and/or language focus it is used for; the level of the material (appropriateness) and lastly, other
(points need improving).
Based on the post-CFG observations, there was an obvious change in the variety of
materials integrated by all of the instructors. To exemplify, all of the participants started to use
more various authentic materials such as online applications, maps and charts in their lessons,
apart from using videos, songs, newspapers and magazines.
Moreover, after CFG meetings, the participating instructors started to use the authentic
materials for a wider range of purposes in their classroom practices. The biggest change was
noticed in the proficiency level of the materials that the instructors brought to the classroom.
While the majority of instructors found it difficult to select materials appropriate to students’
level of proficiency in their first lesson, the materials they used after CFG meetings were more
various and appropriate for their students’ level of proficiency. In other words, they could
easily find an article from a newspaper and support it with charts and maps to introduce a new
topic in their classes. Finally, the tasks/activities designed for each authentic material had a
clearer and more meaningful purpose after CFG meetings. For example, the instructors used
charts to teach skimming to their students.
Furthermore, the participating instructors were asked to express their viewpoints
whether CFG had any influence on the use of authentic materials in their classroom practices.
The interviews findings showed that they all shared positive responses. To put it simply, they
all expressed that after CFG, they were more aware about how to use these types of materials
during their lessons as illustrated in the excerpt below:
[…] I can say that after the CFG meetings, I started to think about the integration
of such materials into my lesson more often. It was good to share ideas with
each other as we became more aware of how to use them in our classroom.
(Instructor 2, Interview data, 3rd Feb., 2016)
Similarly, after CFG meetings, all of the instructors had chance to exchange ideas with
their colleagues and discuss the effective ways of integrating authentic materials in their classes
as shown in this assertion:
[…] After our CFG meetings, I know better what is important and what is
appropriate about using authentic material in my lesson. I shared my ideas with
my colleagues and we discussed how we can use these type of materials more
effectively in our classrooms. (Instructor 4, Interview, 3rd Feb., 2016)
In brief, based on the responses of the participants gathered both from the
pre-/postCFG interviews and post-CFG observations, it is obvious that the CFG meetings had positive
influence on the awareness of the instructors on selecting and using such materials, their
collaboration with other colleagues well as the effectiveness about implementing authentic
materials in their classroom practices.
The Impact of CFG on the EFL Instructors’ CPD
In an attempt to answer the fourth and the last research question of this study regarding
the influence of CFG on CPD, data were obtained from reflective essays. Specifically, all eight
EFL instructors were asked to write a reflective essay expressing their thoughts and feelings
about using authentic materials through CFG. They were also asked to highlight the impact of
CFG on their CPD. The findings revealed that CFG had positive influence on their teaching
practices, student participation in the lesson and lastly, collaboration between instructors.
As previously stated, one major impact of CFG was on the teaching practices of the
EFL instructors. All of the instructors stated that they benefited from CFG meeting and
discussions as it helped them to become more confident and efficient in developing
tasks/activities. In other words, CFG created awareness on their classroom practices and
encouraged them to make more informed decisions as shown in this assertion:
[…] After CFG meetings, I feel more comfortable and somewhat more qualified
about how to make decisions about using authentic materials and develop such
activities/tasks in my class. (Instructor 3, Reflective essay, 24th Feb., 2016)
Another aspect of CFG that the EFL instructors found beneficial was positive classroom
atmosphere. They all clearly expressed that they observed positive changes in their students’
motivation and participation as illustrated below:
[…] After CFG, I was able to create a more positive classroom environment.
Students were more motivated and eager to participate in the lesson. (Instructor
4, Reflective essay, 24th Feb., 2016)
Finally, the last strength of CFG suggested by the instructors was the idea of working
collaboratively. Working in a group created a positive and meaningful environment as well as
increased collaboration as displayed in this excerpt:
[…] One of the most beneficial aspects of CFG lies in its cooperative nature;
when teachers have the opportunity to come together to share and discuss
teaching practices and pedagogical styles – new ideas emerge, take shape and
the discussions facilitate more positive and meaningful exchanges. (Instructor
3, Reflective essay data, 24th Feb., 2016)
To wrap up, the findings based on the analysis of reflective essays from the instructors
indicated that participating in CFG raised the teachers’ awareness about creating
tasks/activities using authentic materials, enhanced students’ motivation and participation,
created a more positive and meaningful environment among instructors and lastly, improved
The findings of the present study supported the implementation of authentic materials
through CFG in language preparatory programs as well as the impact of CFG on the CPD of
the EFL instructors. Specifically, the qualitative data analysis revealed that CFG has
transformational impact on the instructors regarding their classroom practices as well as on
First of all, as previously mentioned, the first research question in this study aimed to
find out the perceptions of EFL instructors about incorporating authentic materials in their
classroom practices. The gathered results showed that the participating instructors were highly
aware about the implementation of such materials in their lesson plans after their CFG
experience. These findings support
who stated exposing learners to authentic
materials is an indispensable part of learning process due to their rich input.
Furthermore, all of the participants indicated the importance of authentic material use
with classrooms of higher proficiency levels such as upper-intermediate and advanced. Since
most authentic materials contain a more complex language, vocabulary items and structures, it
might be challenging and also interesting for higher group of learners, which would aid with
their language development. Besides, the type of authentic materials implemented by the EFL
instructors were mostly media enhanced sources such as videos and songs. A possible reason
behind this finding might be the fact that they can easily be reached and being online makes
these sources more popular for both the students and instructors.
On the other hand, pre-CFG lesson observations showed that the most common types
of authentic material used by the instructors were online videos. As stated in the previously,
the instructors might have chosen to use videos due to their availability on the Internet as well
as their popularity among students. In addition, videos provide a refreshing change from the
textbook and seem to draw students’ attention easily. These arguments are also supported by
Şaraplı (2011) who claim authentic materials are beneficial for learners’ motivation and
Besides, the other two most commonly used sources were pictures and articles. The
reason why written authentic materials were not preferred might be due to their level of
complexity and students’ lack of interest in dealing with written materials. As stated by
, using authentic materials frustrate and de-motivate the weak learners due to
their lack of required skills and vocabulary to deal with the required materials.
Furthermore, the importance of authentic materials was highlighted by all participating
instructors increasing the students’ engagement, connection with the real life and providing
more meaningful context. The reason for this might be the challenging nature of authentic
Finally, although all of the instructors were familiar with the idea of incorporating
authentic materials in EFL classrooms, they asked for extra training on how to use such
materials with different proficiency levels.
To summarize, the interview and observation findings revealed that EFL instructors
tend to use media enhanced sources, especially videos, with students with higher level of
language proficiency. They also focused more on the student engagement and motivational
aspect of authentic materials rather than dealing with them linguistically and/or culturally. It is
also possible to conclude that the perceptions and observed-behaviours of the EFL instructors
clearly showed the importance of incorporating authentic materials to foster students’ language
development of students.
As for the second research question, the possible reasons why instructors preferred to
use authentic materials were explored through pre-CFG interviews and classroom
observations. The analysis of the gathered responses revealed that there were various reasons
that encouraged the participating instructors to implement such materials into their lessons.
First of all, the most notable reason behind incorporating authentic materials for
instructors was making the lessons more effective, creative and engaging. Since authentic
materials can be more up-to-date in terms of language and content, students would be more
interested in the material. In addition, as stated by
, authentic materials are not
originally developed for pedagogical purposes; they contain examples of language that is more
natural and realistic.
Another reason expressed by the instructors, similar to the one mentioned above, was
about raising interest and motivating students. To put it briefly, authentic materials can
motivate learners to communicate more effectively because they help make communication
real. By providing variety of information about any topic, authentic materials also provide a
refreshing change from the textbook
In addition, the EFL instructors stated that they preferred to choose authentic materials
due to their challenging nature, which would be appropriate for students with higher level of
proficiency. In this case, students’ motivation can increase as they use more of what they know,
and deal with a material that serves a useful purpose. All these findings demonstrate that the
EFL instructors are paying attention to the use of authentic materials by designing their lessons
more student-centred to enhance student motivation and engagement.
Regarding the impact of CFG on the use of authentic materials in EFL classrooms, the
participating instructors were interviewed and observed after CFG meetings. The findings were
compared and the results revealed that there were observable changes in instructors’ use of
authentic materials after CFG meetings.
Considering the findings of post-CFG observations, dramatic changes were seen in the
classroom practices regarding the types of authentic materials, range of tasks and level of
proficiency To put it differently, the findings based on lesson observations displayed positive
changes of the participating teachers regarding the use of authentic material in their classroom
As for the focus of each CFG meeting, the decisions were made after pre-CFG
interviews and lesson observations. The most noticeable change was related to the
collaboration among instructors. During one of the CFG meetings, the instructors explored the
online sources available and exchanged their ideas together. This could have encouraged them
to try out new things in their lessons. Other significant changes were about the difficulty level
of authentic materials along with the authentic tasks used in the classroom practices. As
mentioned, CFG has the potential to influence the implementation of authentic materials
in teachers’ classroom practices quite positively as illustrated in this study as well.
Furthermore, parallel to the findings from post-CFG lesson observations, all of the
participants mentioned various positive impacts of CFG on their use of authentic materials.
Specifically, the interviews after CFG revealed that the EFL instructors mostly benefited from
the meetings in terms of material selection and implementation of various materials appropriate
for the students’ level of proficiency. Based on their responses, it is possible to say that CFG
meetings contributed to the incorporation of authentic materials in their classrooms in terms of
awareness raising, resource availability and educational context. The findings of this research
question confirmed the argument of
, showing that CFG meetings have provided
professionally significant transformations for the instructors taking part in these meetings. It
supported their teaching practices and provided them with to approach of authentic materials
use from different perspectives.
Finally, the last research question of the study addressed the impact of CFG on the EFL
instructors’ professional development. In other words, it attempted to identify what kind of
changes the instructors went through after their participation in CFG meeting. The findings of
the analysis of the reflective essays indicated that CFG is effective in terms of the classroom
practices of the instructors as well as their collaboration with their colleagues.
According to the gathered results, the most important benefit of CFG was about
improving teaching practices. The meetings encouraged teachers to become more reflective
and critical about their work in the classroom and therefore, inspired them to think of different
teaching styles. This finding supports the arguments of
that CFG helps teachers
to become more aware of what changes they personally need in their own educational practices.
Another important aspect pointed out by the instructors was working collaboratively.
Working together with their colleagues made the instructors feel more comfortable in
exchanging ideas and asking for advice. This aspect of CFG confirmed the studies conducted
by Constantino (2010) and
stating that CFG is significant for creating an
environment that was both supportive and positively critical. The participants reported feeling
less isolated and more supported by the other participants in the CFG. They were more
collaborative and reflective on their work as well as more open to give and receive feedback
about their practices. These findings confirmed the arguments of Vo and Nguyen (2010) in that
collaborative discussions as in CFG allows teachers to develop their own perspectives and to
model strengths for others.
Lastly, the impact of CFG on EFL instructors’ professional development were
confirmed in a similar study carried out by
in Turkey which revealed that CFG
process helped the EFL instructors to build up good work and social relationships, resulting in
a “sense of community” and a mutual understanding.
To conclude, the idea behind CFG is to create an environment for teachers with
opportunities to challenge their own instruction and practices. This challenge is critical since
improving practices bring positive changes that both the educators and the students need. A
successful CFG is achieved with the help of a group of “critical” friends, who share the same
purpose and offer support for each other.
. Accordingly, the reflections of
participants in this study supported these crucial aspects of CFG and the arguments that CFG
encourages collaboration and aids teachers with their professional development.
The present study has some limitations to be taken for consideration. During the study,
restricted amount of time was given to the CFG meetings due to the loaded time schedules and
different programs of the instructors. The researchers tried to minimize this limitation by taking
planned actions in each CFG meeting. Besides, as the context of the study was specific to only
one single group of ELF instructors, it is only possible to generalize the findings internally.
Adding a larger sample of instructors from different educational contexts or collecting data
from different participating groups such as students might lead to more in-depth results as well
as increase the credibility of this study.
The present study offers some pedagogical implications to be considered in language
education programs. As the study emphasized the use of authentic materials through CFG as
well as revealed the impact of CFG on the CPD of the EFL instructors, it is suggested that
course designers should focus more on the inclusion of authentic materials in text books.
Besides, teacher trainers should highlight the importance of CFG which would provide more
collaboration among instructors as well as have positive impact on their CPD. Finally, as the
institutions are now attaching more importance to professional development of their teachers,
teacher training programs should emphasize the importance of CFG and incorporation of
authentic materials in EFL classrooms to meet the needs of the institutions, teachers themselves
and the students.
Conclusion and Thoughts for Future Research
The findings of this study revealed that taking part in CFG has positive gains for the
EFL instructors enrolled in language preparatory programs. With this in mind, it is clear that
there is a consensus among the EFL instructors regarding the contribution of CFG to their use
of authentic materials, collaboration with their colleagues and students’ engagement in the
classroom practices. Therefore, the study suggests that program designers and administrators
should integrate more authentic materials in the language preparatory program and engage the
EFL instructors into CFG meeting to aid with their CPD.
This study has several important recommendations for further research. First of all, a
further study could be conducted over a longer period of time to add more perspectives and
insights into the impact of using authentic materials through CFG in various language programs
ranging from K-12 to preparatory schools. Continuous professional development activities are
an indispensable part of inspiring teachers to broaden their perceptions and pedagogical
practices. Therefore, it is recommended to replicate the present study with a larger sample and
explore the influence of implementing authentic materials through CFG in the long run.
Second, future research can explore the extent of the use of authentic materials in textbooks
and find out its effect on the language development of the students. Last but not least, further
research can look at the need for the use of authentic materials in language education programs.
Elif Basak Gunbay is an English instructor at a Language Preparatory Program of a
private university in Izmir, Turkey. She has been teaching English to different age groups for
8 years. Her chief research interests are qualitative research, language teacher education,
second language development and bilingual education. She can be contacted at
Enisa Mede is an Assistant Professor and the chair at the Faculty of Educational
Sciences, Department of English Language Teaching (ELT), Bahcesehir University, Istanbul,
Turkey. She has been offering Teaching Language Skills, Young Learners and Practicum
courses at the undergraduate level as well as Curriculum Development, Program Evaluation
and Second Language Acquisition courses at the graduate level of the ELT department. Her
chief research interests are program design and evaluation in language education, first/second
language development in young learners and bilingual education. She can be contacted at
Copyright 2017: Elif Basak Gunbay and Enisa Mede, and Nova Southeastern
Abdulhussein , F. R. ( 2014 ). Investigating EFL college teachers' and learners' attitudes toward using authentic reading materials in Misan . Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences , 136 , 330 - 343 .
Aktekin , N. Ç. ( 2013 ). The impact of in-service teacher education (inset) programme on professional development of EFL teachers through the critical friends group (CFG) . Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation , Çukurova University, Turkey.
Bacon , S. M. , & Finnemann , M. D. ( 1990 ). A study of the attitudes, motives, and strategies of university foreign language students and their disposition to authentic oral and written input . The Modern Language Journal , 74 ( 4 ), 459 - 473 .
Bambino , D. ( 2002 ). Critical friends . Educational Leadership , 59 ( 6 ), 25 - 27 .
Belaid , A. M. , & Murray , L. ( 2015 ). Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teacher attitudes and perceptions in Libyan universities . International Journal of Learning and Development , 5 ( 3 ), 25 - 37 .
Berardo , S. A. ( 2006 ). The use of authentic materials in the teaching of reading . The Reading Matrix, 6 ( 2 ), 60 - 69 .
Bernard , H. R. ( 2002 ). Research methods in anthropology: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed .). Walnut Creek, CA: Alta Mira Press.
Costantino , T. ( 2010 ). The critical friends group: A strategy for developing intellectual community in doctoral education . Inquiry in Education , 1 ( 2 ). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.nl.edu/ie/vol1/iss2/5
Creswell , J. W. ( 2009 ). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches , (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Creswell , J. W. , & Plano Clark , V. L. ( 2011 ). Designing and conducting mixed method research (2nd ed .). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fahey , K. M. ( 2011 ). Still learning about leading: A leadership critical friends group . Journal of Research on Leadership Education , 6 ( 1 ), 1 - 35 .
Franzak , J. K. ( 2002 ). Developing a teacher identity: The impact of critical friends practice on the student teacher . English Education , 34 ( 4 ), 258 - 280 .
Friedman , P. G. , Chidester , P. J. , Kidd , M. A. , Lewis , J. L. , Manning , J. M. , Morris , T. M. , Pilgram , M. D. , Richards , K. , Menzie , K. , & Bell , J. ( 2003 ). Analysis of ethnographic interview research procedures in communication studies: Prevailing norms and exciting innovations . National Communication Association , Miami, FL.
Ghaderpanahi , L. ( 2012 ). Using authentic aural materials to develop listening comprehension in the EFL classroom . English Language Teaching , 5 ( 6 ), 146 .
Gilmore , A. ( 2004 ). A comparison of textbook and authentic interactions . ELT Journal , 58 ( 4 ), 363 - 374 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/elt/58.4. 363
Graneheim , U. H. , & Lundman , B. ( 2004 ). Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness . Nurse Education Today , 24 , 105 - 112 .
Guba , E. G. , & Lincoln , Y. S. ( 1982 ). Establishing dependability and confirmability in naturalistic inquiry through an Audit. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association , New York, NY. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED216019.pdf
Key , E. ( 2006 ). Do they make a difference? A review of research on the impact of critical friends groups . In National School Reform Faculty Research Forum , Denver, CO.
Kersey , S. ( 2014 ). Building community in schools: Narratives of possibilities and limitations in critical friends groups . Doctoral Dissertation , Georgia State University.
Keyton , J. , King , T. , Mabachi , N. M. , Manning , J. , Leonard , L. L. , & Schill , D. ( 2004 ). Content analysis procedure book . Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.
Kılıçkaya , F. ( 2004 ). Authentic materials and cultural content in EFL classrooms . The Internet TESL Journal , 10 ( 7 ), 1 - 6 .
Levy , S. ( 1988 ). Information technologies in universities: An institutional case study . Unpublished doctoral dissertation , Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff.
Linder , D. ( 2000 ), Authentic Texts in ESL/EFL, TESOL Matters, 9 ( 6 ), 17 .
Mishan , F. ( 2005 ). Designing authenticity into language learning materials . Bristol: Intellect.
Nunan , D. ( 1999 ). Authenticity in language teaching . New Routes , 5 , 36 - 37 .
Omid , A. & Azam , R. ( 2015 ). Using authentic materials in the foreign language classrooms: Teachers` perspectives in EFL classes . International Journal of Research Studies in Education , 5 ( 2 ), 105 - 116 .
Patton , M. ( 2001 ). Qualitative research & evaluation methods . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Peacock , M. ( 1997 ). The effect of authentic materials on the motivation of EFL learners . ELT Journal , 51 ( 2 ), 144 - 156 .
Sarapli , O. ( 2011 ). The use of authentic materials in the second language classrooms: Advantages and disadvantages . Dil Dergisi , 154 , 37 - 43 .
Richards , J. C. & Schmidt , R. ( 2002 ). Dictionary of language teaching & applied linguistics . Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.
Thomas , C. ( 2014 ). Meeting EFL learners halfway by using locally relevant authentic materials . English Teaching Forum , 53 ( 3 ), 14 - 23 .
Tolivar , C. R. ( 2005 ). And then there is hope . Educational HORIZONS , 84 ( 1 ), 39 - 42 .
Yin , R. ( 1994 ). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
Yin , R. K. ( 2003 ). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Basak Gunbay , E. , & Mede , E. ( 2017 ). Implementing authentic materials through Critical Friends Group (CFG): A Case from Turkey . The Qualitative Report , 22 ( 11 ), 3055 - 3074 . Retrieved from http://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol22/iss11/16