Polymer Matrix Composites
Polymer Matrix Composites
0 1.-Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New York University, Tandon School of Engineering, 6 MetroTech Center , Brooklyn, NY 11201 , USA. 2.-Lightweight Materials Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka , Surathkal 575 025 , India. 3.-
1,3 and MRITYUNJAY DODDAMANI2
The light weight and high performance of polymer
matrix composites (PMCs) are attractive in many
applications that can benefit from weight saving.
Many advanced applications such as aircraft
structures are now using fiber-reinforced composites.
Future innovations are needed to further improve
the mechanical properties, develop
multifunctionality, and develop processing methods that are fast
and inexpensive. Consequently, there is significant
focus on finding reinforcements and processing
conditions that can fulfill such requirements.
The articles presented on this topic are focused on
polymer matrix composites. The topic is a
continuation of a set of articles published in the June issue
on metal matrix composites. Together, these two
topics cover a wide range of composite materials
relevant to modern industrial and structural
applications that require lightweight high-performance
composite materials. The topic stems from the
symposium Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites
III, which was organized as a part of the Materials
Science and Technology 2017 conference, but the
article submission was not limited to symposium
participants. Rapidly growing applications of
composite materials in a variety of fields such as
aerospace structures, marine structures, consumer
goods, and sports equipment resulted in strong
participation in the symposium, and the articles
capture some of important advancements in the
area of micro- and nano-composites.
Conventional composite materials that are now
used in aerospace and automotive applications are
reinforced with continuous or discontinuous carbon
or glass fibers. Production models of many luxury and
performance cars have numerous components made
of composite materials for weight-saving purposes
because of close control over the properties of
composites as a result of academic and industrial
research in the past decades. In addition, Kevlar
and polyethylene fiber-reinforced composites have
found applications in ballistic protection. With all
these applications already in place, the innovations
in the field of composites have moved to areas such as
nano- and multiscale composites, functional
composites with self-healing or electromagnetic interference
(EMI) shielding capabilities, and smart composites
with sensing and actuation capabilities. Innovations
also include surface modification of fillers for
improved compatibility with the matrix for effective
load transfer at the interface. The articles presented
in this collection are focused on some of these issues
for developing next-generation composites.
Use of industrial waste and natural materials
offer the possibility of developing low-cost
composites. The influence of marble dust (0–30 wt.%) on the
mechanical and thermal properties of
needlepunched nonwoven jute fiber/epoxy composites is
studied by Sharma and Patnaik. The composites
were synthesized using vacuum-assisted resin
transfer molding. The study found that the filler
addition increases the flexural strength,
interlaminar shear strength, and thermal conductivity, but
decreases the tensile strength.
The drilling mechanism of lightweight syntactic
foam, presented by Ashrith et al., is different from
that of conventional materials because the drill bit
experiences different resistance levels offered by the
abrasive hollow filler shell, matrix, and air pockets.
Based on the experimental results, Grey relation
analysis is conducted to identify processing
parameters that can provide the best hole quality. A
combination of lower filler content, cutting speed,
and drill diameter produces good quality holes. Drill
diameter is found to be a dominant factor in
determining the drilling hole quality. The results
can help industrial practitioners to set appropriate
parameters during drilling of syntactic foams.
A novel approach to microwave-assisted curing of
silicon carbide-reinforced epoxy composites is
presented by Pal et al. Dielectric properties,
particularly the loss factor, and thermal and mechanical
properties are found to increase with SiC loading.
Thermal and mechanical property enhancement is
observed for microwave-cured composites compared
with the composites pre-cured at room temperature
at the same SiC content.
Mishra et al. discuss the synthesis and
characterization of a nanographite-filled polyurethane
composite with a high dielectric constant.
Nanographite dispersed uniformly in the polyurethane
matrix, and the composite was studied for its
dielectric constant (e) as a function of frequency.
The composite exhibited a logarithmic decrease in e
from 3000 at 100 Hz to 225 at 60 kHz AC field
with a significant improvement compared with the
polyurethane dielectric constant. The material also
exhibited a stable dissipation factor (tan d) across
the applied frequencies implying ability to
withstand the current leak. The percolation threshold
was observed to be 3 wt.% of nanographite in the
composite. The composite also exhibited relatively
low dielectric loss with increasing frequency. These
properties show that such composites can be
suitable for EMI shielding applications.
The study by Buruga and Kalathi modified
halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with
c-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (c-MPS) to improve
their interaction with the polymethyl methacrylate
(PMMA) matrix. The nanocomposites were
fabricated using modified HNTs by miniemulsion
polymerization assisted by ultrasound. Differential
scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed
enhancement of the thermal stability of the
composite due to the HNT modification. The
improvement in dispersion of HNTs in the matrix resulting
in enhanced properties is attributed to the
combination of HNT surface treatment using c-MPS and
the ultrasound-assisted miniemulsion process.
Khalifa et al. discussed that addition of
nanoalumina trihydrate (ATH) and electrospinning
synergistically facilitate the enhancement of the b phase
of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) up to 10 wt.% filler
loading. Piezoelectric voltage output was the
maximum at the same ATH loading under both static and
tapping modes. The low cost of fabrication,
ecofriendliness of ATH, and improved piezoelectric
performance of the electrospun nanocomposite fibers
played a prominent role in energy harvesting and
self-powering of nanodevices.
Shishkin et al. discussed the process of coating a
metal layer around hollow glass particles. Such
lightweight particles can be used to synthesize
syntactic foams. Films as thick as the particle shell
could be deposited using a variety of metals. The
coated particles were sintered and tested for
compressive properties, and the properties were found
to depend on the sintering temperature. Infiltration
of polymer or metal matrix material in the bed of
coated particles can provide syntactic foams with
high mechanical properties.
The following papers are published under the
topic ‘‘Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites’’ in the
July 2018 issue (vol. 70, no. 7) of JOM and can be
accessed via the JOM page at http://link.springer.
‘‘Experimental Investigation on Mechanical and
Thermal Properties of Marble Dust
ParticulateFilled Needle-Punched Nonwoven Jute Fiber/
Epoxy Composite’’ by Ankush Sharma and Amar
‘‘Hole Quality Assessment in Drilling of Glass
Microballoon/Epoxy Syntactic Foams’’ by H.S.
Ashrith, Mrityunjay Doddamani, Vinayak
Gaitonde, and Nikhil Gupta.
‘‘Microwave-Assisted Curing of Silicon
CarbideReinforced Epoxy Composites: Role of Dielectric
Properties’’ by Ranu Pal, M.J. Akhtara, and
Kamal K. Kar.
‘‘Synthesis and Characterization of High
Dielectric Constant Nanographite and Polyurethane
Composite’’ by Praveen Mishra, Badekai
Ramachandra Bhat, B. Bhattacharya, and R.M.
‘‘Fabrication of c-MPS-Modified HNT-PMMA
Nanocomposites by Ultrasound-Assisted
Miniemulsion Polymerization’’ by Kezia Buruga
and Jagannathan T. Kalathi.
‘‘Synergism of Electrospinning and
Nano-alumina Trihydrate on Polymorphism, Crystallinity
and Piezoelectric Performance of PVDF
Nanofibers’’ by Mohammed Khalifa, B. Deeksha,
Arunjunairaj Mahendran, and S. Anandhan.
‘‘Metal-Coated Cenospheres Obtained via
Magnetron Sputter Coating: A New Precursor for
Syntactic Foams’’ by A. Shishkin, I. Hussainova,
V. Kozlov, M. Lisnanskis, P. Leroy, and D.