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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Immunization and Infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China

Background Among the Chinese population of 1.3 billion, there are an estimated 93 million carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk for HBV infection; however, the prevalence of HBV immunization and infection among Chinese MSM remains undetermined. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1,114 eligible participants was conducted in...

Dynamic cross-talk analysis among TNF-R, TLR-4 and IL-1R signalings in TNFα-induced inflammatory responses

Shih-Kuang Yang 0 Yu-Chao Wang 0 Chun-Cheih Chao Yung-Jen Chuang Chung-Yu Lan Bor-Sen Chen 0 0 Laboratory of Control and Systems Biology, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua

Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid β

Background Amyloid β (Aβ) accumulates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Microglial activation also occurs in AD, and this inflammatory response may contribute to disease progression. Microglial activation can be induced by Aβ, but the mechanisms by which this occurs have not been defined. The nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates microglial activation...

Global screening of potential Candida albicans biofilm-related transcription factors via network comparison

Background Candida albicans is a commonly encountered fungal pathogen in humans. The formation of biofilm is a major virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenesis and is related to antidrug resistance of this organism. Although many factors affecting biofilm have been analyzed, molecular mechanisms that regulate biofilm formation still await to be elucidated. Results In this study...

Identification of transcription factor cooperativity via stochastic system model

Yu-Hsiang Chang 0 Yu-Chao Wang 0 Bor-Sen Chen 0 0 Laboratory of Control and Systems Biology, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University , Hsinchu 300, Taiwan Motivation

MicroRNA 345, a methylation-sensitive microRNA is involved in cell proliferation and invasion in human colorectal cancer

Aberrant methylation has been shown to trigger the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes during tumorigenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been found deregulated in human colorectal cancer (CRC), and some of them may function as tumor suppressor genes. Here, we investigated CpG island promoter hypermethylation as a potential mechanism underlying miRNA disruption and identifed...

Survey of the transcriptome of Aspergillus oryzae via massively parallel mRNA sequencing

Aspergillus oryzae, an important filamentous fungus used in food fermentation and the enzyme industry, has been shown through genome sequencing and various other tools to have prominent features in its genomic composition. However, the functional complexity of the A. oryzae transcriptome has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we applied direct high-throughput paired-end RNA...

Global transcriptome profiles of Camellia sinensis during cold acclimation

Background Tea is the most popular non-alcoholic health beverage in the world. The tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) needs to undergo a cold acclimation process to enhance its freezing tolerance in winter. Changes that occur at the molecular level in response to low temperatures are poorly understood in tea plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cold...

Genetic Polymorphism of the Kinesin-Like Protein KIF1B Gene and the Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Background Frequent deletions of the kinesin-like protein gene 1B (KIF1B) have been reported in neural tumors. Recently, a genome-wide association study revealed an association between polymorphisms in the KIF1B gene and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and several case-control studies have further investigated this relationship. However, these studies have yielded...

Microglia and Microglia-Like Cell Differentiated from DC Inhibit CD4 T Cell Proliferation

The central nervous system (CNS) is generally regarded as a site of immune privilege, whether the antigen presenting cells (APCs) are involved in the immune homeostasis of the CNS is largely unknown. Microglia and DCs are major APCs in physiological and pathological conditions, respectively. In this work, primary microglia and microglia-like cells obtained by co-culturing mature...

Prohibitin 2 Regulates the Proliferation and Lineage-Specific Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Mitochondria

Background The pluripotent state of embryonic stem (ES) cells is controlled by a network of specific transcription factors. Recent studies also suggested the significant contribution of mitochondria on the regulation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecules involved in these regulations are still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we found that...

MiR-29a Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest through the Downregulation of p42.3 in Human Gastric Cancer

As a newly identified and characterized gene, p42.3 is associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. The expression of p42.3 is upregulated in human gastric cancer (GC), but its underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play vital regulatory roles in many cellular processes. Here we utilized bioinformatics and experimental...

The influence of social affiliation on individual vocal signatures of northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca)

Anna E Nousek () Peter J.B Slater Chao Wang Patrick J.O Miller 0 Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 1

β1 integrin mediates an alternative survival pathway in breast cancer cells resistant to lapatinib

Introduction The overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 in 20% of human breast cancers and its association with aggressive growth has led to widespread use of HER2-targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L). Despite the success of these drugs, their efficacy is limited in patients whose tumors demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy, with or without Taxanes, in Early or Operable Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Trials with 30698 Patients

Background Taxanes have been extensively used as adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of early or operable breast cancer, particularly in high risk, node-negative breast cancer. Previous studies, however, have reported inconsistent findings regarding their clinical efficacy and safety. We investigated disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and drug-related...

Par-1 Regulates Tissue Growth by Influencing Hippo Phosphorylation Status and Hippo-Salvador Association

Par-1 regulates the Hippo signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster by modifying the phosphorylation status of Hippo and also by inhibiting the interaction of Hippo and Salvador.

RNAi-mediated inhibition of presenilin 2 inhibits glioma cell growth and invasion and is involved in the regulation of Nrg1/ErbB signaling

Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. In this study, we found that the protein expression of presenilin 2 (PS2) was significantly increased in glioma tissues, at least partially because of promoter demethylation. We further...

Identification of sulfation sites of metabolites and prediction of the compounds’ biological effects

Characterizing the biological effects of metabolic transformations (or biotransformation) is one of the key steps in developing safe and effective pharmaceuticals. Sulfate conjugation, one of the major phase II biotransformations, is the focus of this study. While this biotransformation typically facilitates excretion of metabolites by making the compounds more water soluble...

Molecular mapping of the Pi2/9 allelic gene Pi2-2 conferring broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the rice cultivar Jefferson

BackgroundUtilization of broad-spectrum resistance (R) genes is an effective and economical strategy to control the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Among the cloned blast resistance genes, Pi9, Pi2 and Piz-t confer broad-spectrum resistance to diverse M. oryzae isolates and were isolated from the Pi2/9 locus on chromosome 6...