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Prohibitin 2 Regulates the Proliferation and Lineage-Specific Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in Mitochondria

Background The pluripotent state of embryonic stem (ES) cells is controlled by a network of specific transcription factors. Recent studies also suggested the significant contribution of mitochondria on the regulation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecules involved in these regulations are still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we found that...

MiR-29a Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest through the Downregulation of p42.3 in Human Gastric Cancer

As a newly identified and characterized gene, p42.3 is associated with cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. The expression of p42.3 is upregulated in human gastric cancer (GC), but its underlying mechanisms of action are not well understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play vital regulatory roles in many cellular processes. Here we utilized bioinformatics and experimental...

The influence of social affiliation on individual vocal signatures of northern resident killer whales (Orcinus orca)

Anna E Nousek () Peter J.B Slater Chao Wang Patrick J.O Miller 0 Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 1

β1 integrin mediates an alternative survival pathway in breast cancer cells resistant to lapatinib

Introduction The overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)-2 in 20% of human breast cancers and its association with aggressive growth has led to widespread use of HER2-targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L). Despite the success of these drugs, their efficacy is limited in patients whose tumors demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance...

Adjuvant Chemotherapy, with or without Taxanes, in Early or Operable Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 19 Randomized Trials with 30698 Patients

Background Taxanes have been extensively used as adjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of early or operable breast cancer, particularly in high risk, node-negative breast cancer. Previous studies, however, have reported inconsistent findings regarding their clinical efficacy and safety. We investigated disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and drug-related...

Par-1 Regulates Tissue Growth by Influencing Hippo Phosphorylation Status and Hippo-Salvador Association

Par-1 regulates the Hippo signaling pathway in Drosophila melanogaster by modifying the phosphorylation status of Hippo and also by inhibiting the interaction of Hippo and Salvador.

RNAi-mediated inhibition of presenilin 2 inhibits glioma cell growth and invasion and is involved in the regulation of Nrg1/ErbB signaling

Gliomas are the leading cause of death among adults with primary brain malignancies. Treatment for malignant gliomas remains limited, and targeted therapies have been incompletely explored. In this study, we found that the protein expression of presenilin 2 (PS2) was significantly increased in glioma tissues, at least partially because of promoter demethylation. We further...

Identification of sulfation sites of metabolites and prediction of the compounds’ biological effects

Characterizing the biological effects of metabolic transformations (or biotransformation) is one of the key steps in developing safe and effective pharmaceuticals. Sulfate conjugation, one of the major phase II biotransformations, is the focus of this study. While this biotransformation typically facilitates excretion of metabolites by making the compounds more water soluble...

Molecular mapping of the Pi2/9 allelic gene Pi2-2 conferring broad-spectrum resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae in the rice cultivar Jefferson

BackgroundUtilization of broad-spectrum resistance (R) genes is an effective and economical strategy to control the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Among the cloned blast resistance genes, Pi9, Pi2 and Piz-t confer broad-spectrum resistance to diverse M. oryzae isolates and were isolated from the Pi2/9 locus on chromosome 6...

Identification of antiviral mimetic peptides with interferon α-2b-like activity from a random peptide library using a novel functional biopanning method

Aim:To screen for interferon (IFN) α-2b mimetic peptides with antiviral activity.Methods:Selecting IFN receptor-binding peptides from a phage-display heptapeptide library using a novel functional biopanning method. This method was developed to identify peptides with activity against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) inducing cytopathic effects on WISH cells.Results:Sixteen...

A new measure of the robustness of biochemical networks

Motivation: The robustness of a biochemical network is defined as the tolerance of variations in kinetic parameters with respect to the maintenance of steady state. Robustness also plays an important role in the fail-safe mechanism in the evolutionary process of biochemical networks. The purposes of this paper are to use the synergism and saturation system (S-system...

Different mechanisms for resistance to trastuzumab versus lapatinib in HER2- positive breast cancers -- role of estrogen receptor and HER2 reactivation

Introduction The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapies trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L) show high efficacy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, but resistance is prevalent. Here we investigate resistance mechanisms to each drug alone, or to their combination using a large panel of HER2-positive cell lines made resistant to these drugs...

Purification and Characterization of Enterovirus 71 Viral Particles Produced from Vero Cells Grown in a Serum-Free Microcarrier Bioreactor System

Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and can cause neurological disease during acute infection. Principal Finding In this study, we describe the production, purification and characterization of EV71 virus produced from Vero cells grown in a five-liter serum-free bioreactor system...

Complete mitochondrial genomes of Taenia multiceps, T. hydatigena and T. pisiformis: additional molecular markers for a tapeworm genus of human and animal health significance

Background Mitochondrial genomes provide a rich source of molecular variation of proven and widespread utility in molecular ecology, population genetics and evolutionary biology. The tapeworm genus Taenia includes a diversity of tapeworm parasites of significant human and veterinary importance. Here we add complete sequences of the mt genomes of T. multiceps, T. hydatigena and T...

An updated tree of Y-chromosome Haplogroup O and revised phylogenetic positions of mutations P164 and PK4

Y-chromosome Haplogroup O is the dominant lineage of East Asians, comprising more than a quarter of all males on the world; however, its internal phylogeny remains insufficiently investigated. In this study, we determined the phylogenetic position of recently defined markers (L127, KL1, KL2, P164, and PK4) in the background of Haplogroup O. In the revised tree, subgroup O3a-M324...