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A novel approach for haplotype-based association analysis using family data

Background Haplotype-based approaches have been extensively studied for case-control association mapping in recent years. It has been shown that haplotype methods can provide more consistent results comparing to single-locus based approaches, especially in cases where causal variants are not typed. Improved power has been observed by clustering similar or rare haplotypes into...

Phylogenetic analysis of modularity in protein interaction networks

Background In systems biology, comparative analyses of molecular interactions across diverse species indicate that conservation and divergence of networks can be used to understand functional evolution from a systems perspective. A key characteristic of these networks is their modularity, which contributes significantly to their robustness, as well as adaptability. Consequently...

Generating samples for association studies based on HapMap data

Background With the completion of the HapMap project, a variety of computational algorithms and tools have been proposed for haplotype inference, tag SNP selection and genome-wide association studies. Simulated data are commonly used in evaluating these new developed approaches. In addition to simulations based on population models, empirical data generated by perturbing real...

Discovery of time-delayed gene regulatory networks based on temporal gene expression profiling

Background It is one of the ultimate goals for modern biological research to fully elucidate the intricate interplays and the regulations of the molecular determinants that propel and characterize the progression of versatile life phenomena, to name a few, cell cycling, developmental biology, aging, and the progressive and recurrent pathogenesis of complex diseases. The vast...

Haplotype-based quantitative trait mapping using a clustering algorithm

Background With the availability of large-scale, high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, substantial effort has been made in identifying disease-causing genes using linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping by haplotype analysis of unrelated individuals. In addition to complex diseases, many continuously distributed quantitative traits are of primary clinical and...

Prognostic significance of p53 expression in patients with esophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

Background The prognostic value of p53 protein expression in esophageal cancer has been evaluated, but the results remain inconclusive and no consensus has yet been achieved. This meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the prognostic significance of p53 expression in esophageal cancer. Methods Publications that assessed the clinical or prognostic significance of p53...

The prognostic significance of age in operated and non-operated colorectal cancer

Background The prognostic significance of age in colorectal cancer remains controversial. Our purpose was to determine the impact of age at diagnosis on cause- specific survival and overall survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 226,430 patients with colorectal cancer...

Effect of a group educational intervention on rural Chinese women’s knowledge and attitudes about human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccines

Background Statistics regarding HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates in rural China are high, however, low levels of HPV awareness and HPV-related knowledge pose a great challenge for cervical cancer control. Methods The authors conducted an educational intervention study, which was embedded in a cervical cancer screening project in Yangcheng county, Shanxi Province, China...

Differential expression patterns and clinical significance of estrogen receptor-α and β in papillary thyroid carcinoma

Background The incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is markedly higher in women than men during the reproductive years. In vitro studies have suggested that estrogen may play an important role in the development and progression of PTC through estrogen receptors (ERs). This study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of the two main ER subtypes, α and β1 (wild-type...

Breast cancer stage at diagnosis and area-based socioeconomic status: a multicenter 10-year retrospective clinical epidemiological study in China

Background Although socioeconomic status (SES) has been focused on as a key determinant of cancer stage at diagosis in western countries, there has been no systemic study on the relationship of SES and breast cancer stage at diagnosis in China. Methods The medical charts of 4,211 eligible breast cancer patients from 7 areas across China who were diagnosed between 1999 and 2008...

Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of HER-2/neu and VEGF expression in colon carcinomas

Background HER-2/neu and VEGF expression is correlated with disease behaviors in various cancers. However, evidence for their expression in colon cancer is rather contradictory both for the protein expression status and prognostic value. HER-2/neu is found to participate in VEGF regulation, and has known correlation with VEGF expression in some tumors. In this study, we...

A Nation-Wide multicenter 10-year (1999-2008) retrospective clinical epidemiological study of female breast cancer in china

Background According to the very limited cancer registry, incidence and mortality rates for female breast cancer in China are regarded to be increasing especially in the metropolitan areas. Representative data on the breast cancer profile of Chinese women and its time trend over years are relatively rare. The aims of the current study are to illustrate the breast cancer profile...

Pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary arterial hypertension induced right ventricular dysfunction by modulating the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly accompanied with the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by downregulating the...

Pulmonary artery denervation improves pulmonary arterial hypertension induced right ventricular dysfunction by modulating the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is commonly accompanied with the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) reduces PAH partly through the inhibition of RAAS. Analogically, we hypothesized that pulmonary artery denervation (PADN) could reverse PAH and PAH-induced right ventricular (RV) dysfunction by...

National trends in hospital length of stay for acute myocardial infarction in China

China is experiencing increasing burden of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the face of limited medical resources. Hospital length of stay (LOS) is an important indicator of resource utilization. We used data from the Retrospective AMI Study within the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events, a nationally representative sample of patients hospitalized...

National trends in hospital length of stay for acute myocardial infarction in China

Background China is experiencing increasing burden of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the face of limited medical resources. Hospital length of stay (LOS) is an important indicator of resource utilization. Methods We used data from the Retrospective AMI Study within the China Patient-centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events, a nationally representative sample of...

The CXC chemokine cCAF stimulates precocious deposition of ECM molecules by wound fibroblasts, accelerating development of granulation tissue

Background During wound repair, fibroblasts orchestrate replacement of the provisional matrix formed during clotting with tenascin, cellular fibronectin and collagen III. These, in turn, are critical for migration of endothelial cells, keratinocytes and additional fibroblasts into the wound site. Fibroblasts are also important in the deposition of collagen I during scar formation...

Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles

Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at...

Global analysis of saliva as a source of bacterial genes for insights into human population structure and migration studies

Background The genetic diversity of the human microbiome holds great potential for shedding light on the history of our ancestors. Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent example as its analysis allowed a fine-scale resolution of past migration patterns including some that could not be distinguished using human genetic markers. However studies of H. pylori require stomach...

The needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia management in primary care: a qualitative study in Beijing

Informal caregivers of people with dementia in Beijing are increasingly called upon to provide home-based care for their patients due to the increasing number of dementia patients and the shortage of standardized institutional solutions of care for patients in China. This study aimed to clarify the needs of informal caregivers and barriers of primary care workers toward dementia...