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Mountain Pine Beetle in Colorado: A Story of Changing Forests

The mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is one of the most prevalent disturbance agents in western conifer forests. It utilizes various species of pines (Pinus spp.) as host trees. Eruptive populations can cause extensive tree mortality. Since the late 1990s, extensive outbreaks have occurred from the southern Rockies to British Columbia. In Colorado, lodgepole...

Temperature-Dependent HfO2/Si Interface Structural Evolution and its Mechanism

In this work, hafnium oxide (HfO2) thin films are deposited on p-type Si substrates by remote plasma atomic layer deposition on p-type Si at 250 °C, followed by a rapid thermal annealing in nitrogen. Effect of post-annealing temperature on the crystallization of HfO2 films and HfO2/Si interfaces is investigated. The crystallization of the HfO2 films and HfO2/Si interface is...

Logistics of Implementing a Large-scale Typhoid Vaccine Trial in Kathmandu, Nepal

Typhoid fever is estimated to affect over 20 million people per year worldwide, with infants, children, and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia experiencing the greatest burden of disease. The Typhoid Vaccine Acceleration Consortium (TyVAC) aims to support the introduction of typhoid conjugate vaccines into Gavi-eligible countries in an effort to reduce morbidity and...

A Review of the Economic Evidence of Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines

Typhoid places a substantial economic burden on low- and middle-income countries. We performed a literature review and critical overview of typhoid-related economic issues to inform vaccine introduction. We searched 4 literature databases, covering 2000–2017, to identify typhoid-related cost-of-illness (COI) studies, cost-of-delivery studies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs...

Improvement of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) tools for predicting Ames mutagenicity: outcomes of the Ames/QSAR International Challenge Project

The International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) M7 guideline allows the use of in silico approaches for predicting Ames mutagenicity for the initial assessment of impurities in pharmaceuticals. This is the first international guideline that addresses the use of quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models in lieu of actual toxicological studies for human health...

Simultaneous Generation of Multiple Three-Dimensional Tractor Curve Beams

A tractor beam, which has the ability to attract objects, is a class of special optical beams. Currently, people are using the holographic technology to shape complex optical tractor beams for both fundamental research and practical applications. However, most of the work reported is focusing on generating two-dimensional (2D) tractor beams and simple three-dimensional (3D...

Facile Preparation of Carbon Nanotube-Cu2O Nanocomposites as New Catalyst Materials for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

The effective synthesis and self-assembly of nanocomposites were of key importance for a broad range of nanomaterial applications. In this work, new carbon nanotube (CNT)-Cu2O nanocomposites were successfully synthesized via a facile approach. CNT was selected as the anchoring substrate to load Cu2O nanoparticles to prepare composite catalysts with well stability and good...

Gender Differentiation of Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Drug Addicted Individuals (Indirect Self-Destructiveness in Addicted Women and Men)

The use of psychoactive substances is considered to be a typical self-destructive behaviour with addiction itself regarded as one of the self-destructiveness forms. The aim of this work was to explore the gender differentiation of the indirect self-destructiveness syndrome (and its particular categories) in drug addicted individuals treated in drug addiction treatment centres...

Congenital Zika Syndrome and Extra-Central Nervous System Detection of Zika Virus in a Pre-term Newborn in Mexico

During pregnancy, the Zika virus (ZIKV) replicates in the placenta and central nervous system (CNS) of infected fetuses; nevertheless, the ability of ZIKV to replicate in other fetal tissues has not been extensively characterized.

Diagnose- oder Befunderhebungsfehler? Ein medizintheoretisch fundiertes Abgrenzungsmodell

ZusammenfassungOriginal erschienen in Medizinrecht 36. Jahrgang, Heft 12, S. 950–958, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00350-018-5096-4

Clinical and Epidemiologic Patterns of Chikungunya Virus Infection and Coincident Arboviral Disease in a School Cohort in Haiti, 2014–2015

Beginning in December 2013, an epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection spread across the Caribbean and into virtually all countries in the Western hemisphere, with >2.4 million cases reported through the end of 2017.

Gastric Parietal Cell and Intestinal Goblet Cell Secretion: a Novel Cell-Mediated In Vivo Metal Nanoparticle Metabolic Pathway Enhanced with Diarrhea Via Chinese Herbs

Up to date, the way in which metal nanoparticles are cleared in vivo has yet to be elucidated well. Herein, we report a novel intestinal goblet cell-mediated in vivo clearance pathway to remove metal nanoparticles. Typical metal nanoparticles such as triangular silver nanoplates, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanorods, and gold nanoclusters were selected as representative examples...

The Influence of CTAB-Capped Seeds and Their Aging Time on the Morphologies of Silver Nanoparticles

Contrast to the polydisperse nanorods formed by common seed-mediated growth method without the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in seed solution, we successfully obtained silver nanoparticles with different morphologies in the same reaction system by addition of CTAB in the seed solution. In this work, an appropriate amount of CTAB was added into the solution to...

Investigation of direct inkjet-printed versus spin-coated ZrO2 for sputter IGZO thin film transistor

In this work, a low leakage current ZrO2 was fabricated for sputter indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistor using direct inkjet-printing technology. Spin-coated and direct inkjet-printed ZrO2 were prepared to investigate the film formation process and electrical performance for different process. Homogeneous ZrO2 films were observed through the high-resolution TEM...

Cytidine deaminase enables Toll-like receptor 8 activation by cytidine or its analogs

Toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8), a sensor for pathogen-derived single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), binds to uridine (Uri) and ssRNA to induce defense responses. We here show that cytidine (Cyd) with ssRNA also activated TLR8 in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and a myeloid cell line U937, but not in an embryonic kidney cell line 293T. Cyd deaminase (CDA), an enzyme highly expressed in...