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Rapid bioerosion in a tropical upwelling coral reef

(>30%) may influence seawater carbon chemistry. This is evident by measurements of an elevated seawater pH (>8.2) and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag >3) at Matapalo Reef during the upwelling period ... , San JoseA? , Costa Rica , 5 Senckenberg am Meer, Wilhelmshaven, Germany , 6 University of Bremen, Faculty of Biology & Chemistry, Marine Ecology Department , Bremen , Germany 1 Editor: Even Moland

The interplay between voluntary food intake, dietary carbohydrate-lipid ratio and nutrient metabolism in an amphibian, (Xenopus laevis)

of the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, especially Herman De Rycke for the analysis carried out, the Laboratory of Applied and Physical Chemistry, the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Animal Product ... Analytical Chemists . 13rd ed. Washington, USA; 1984 . 47. Van Rooijen C , Bosch G , van del Poel A , Wierenga P , Alexander L , Hendriks W. Quantitation of Maillard reaction products in commercially available

Geosphere-Biosphere Interactions in Bio-Activity Volcanic Lakes: Evidences from Hule and Rìo Cuarto (Costa Rica)

phylogenetic groups, water and gas chemistry in both lakes is controlled by the same prokaryotic functions, especially regarding the CO2-CH4 cycle. Addition of hydrothermal CO2 through the bottom of the lakes ... . This paper presents the geochemical (water and dissolved gas chemistry) and microbiological results obtained from samples collected in 2010 during the 7th Workshop of the Commission on Volcanic Lakes

Prioritizing options for multi-objective agricultural development through the Positive Deviance approach

data-driven approach 2 / 20 that cuts through analytical complexity to provide suggestions on viable interventions, based on empirical, qualitative insights. Existing studies, however, did not explore

Large-scale climatic phenomena drive fluctuations in macroinvertebrate assemblages in lowland tropical streams, Costa Rica: The importance of ENSO events in determining long-term (15y) patterns

]). Our previous studies have shown that ENSO conditions are associated with deviations in the patterns of nutrient chemistry in streams of LSBS. Long-term monitoring of SRP concentrations in streams ... chemistry in both the P-enriched and the reference streams. Nutrient effect in our study streams appear to be highly variable. We did not observe an effect of SRP or any other nutrient on macroinvertebrate

Do Foliar, Litter, and Root Nitrogen and Phosphorus Concentrations Reflect Nutrient Limitation in a Lowland Tropical Wet Forest?

and C was measured with an elemental analyzer (ECS 4010, Costech Analytical, Valencia, CA, USA). Total P was measured using ash digestion [43] followed by colorimetric determination of ortho-phosphate ... foliar samples collected one and two years after initial fertilization. To evaluate the effect of fertilization on community-level foliar, litter and root chemistry over the course of the experiment, and

Effects of Seasonal Upwelling on Inorganic and Organic Matter Dynamics in the Water Column of Eastern Pacific Coral Reefs

photosynthesis and respiration are more important drivers for oxygen and carbonate chemistry variation directly on the reef than upwelling. Although minimum oxygen values in the early mornings were decreased ... analytical support. Two anonymous reviewers contributed to this work by providing constructive comments on the manuscript. Conceived and designed the experiments: IS CW JC TR AM. Performed the experiments: IS

Assessing the links among environmental contaminants, endocrinology, and parasites to understand amphibian declines in montane regions of Costa Rica

contamination and pesticide control in developing countries: Costa Rica, Central America . In: Richardson ML , editor. Chemistry, agriculture and the environment . Royal Society of Chemistry Press, Cambridge

Multidecadal stability in tropical rain forest structure and dynamics across an old-growth landscape

ridgetops on the more nutrient-poor residual soils; and on steeply-sloped sites on the residual soils. The plots' soil chemistry is discussed in detail in [24] (see their Appendix L for original soil ... chemistry data). In general soil nutrient stocks (P, K, Ca) are higher on the old alluvial soils compared to residual soils, and increase downslope from ridgetops to swales on the residual soils [24]. While

Characteristics of seasonal influenza A and B in Latin America: Influenza surveillance data from ten countries

sometimes exceed 100%. Analyses and figures were generated using the freely available analytical software Epipoi [14]. Results Data included in the present analysis originated from surveillance systems ... . 1996 ; 90 ( 3 ): 225 ± 41 . PMID: 8758138 14. Alonso WJ , McCormick BJ . EPIPOI: A user-friendly analytical tool for the extraction and visualization of temporal parameters from epidemiological time

T cell receptor repertoire among women who cleared and failed to clear cervical human papillomavirus infection: An exploratory proof-of-principle study

the IMGT database (www.imgt.org). The assay is quantitative, having used a complete synthetic repertoire of TCRs to establish an amplification baseline and adjust the assay chemistry to correct for

Diatoms and Other Epibionts Associated with Olive Ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) Sea Turtles from the Pacific Coast of Costa Rica

paper and its Supporting Information files. Funding: University of Costa Rica organized samplings while the II University of Naples provided reagents and analytical tools (including scanning electron ... . Biologist 54 : 52 - 93 24. Hoagland KD , Rosowski JR , Gretz MR , Roemer SC ( 1993 ) Diatom extracellular polymeric substances: function, fine structure, chemistry, and physiology . J Phycol 29 : 537 - 566 25

Scattering of Light by Colloidal Aluminosilicate Particles Produces the Unusual Sky-Blue Color of Río Celeste (Tenorio Volcano Complex, Costa Rica)

anions and cations as well as metal species following standardized analytical procedures at the Department of Earth Sciences of Utrecht University [16]. Samples were filtered in the laboratory with 0.45 mm ... -conductivity detector with a thermally controlled conductivity cell, a Midas Spark auto-sampler and a system controller. An anionic exchange resin Dionex IonPac analytical column (AS14, 9-mm particle size, 46250

Is local trait variation related to total range size of tropical trees?

] and "ape" [ 57 ]. We used two alternative analytical approaches to compare the intraspecific variation of traits between endemic and widespread species. First, the CV of each trait was compared

Dynamics of Ecosystem Services during Forest Transitions in Reventazón, Costa Rica

analytical framework, followed by a section presenting evidence of ES transition in Costa Rica from literature and secondary data. After a description of material and methods used for the modeling of ES, the ... changes of forest areas and ES are reported and discussed. Background and Analytical Framework Given the importance of forests for biodiversity, water, timber and climate, forest dynamics have been widely

Colouration in amphibians as a reflection of nutritional status: The case of tree frogs in Costa Rica

. Colon. Waterbirds . 1997 ; 20 ( 3 ): 492 ± 504 . 35. Cathers T , Lewbart G , Correa M . Serum Chemistry and Hematology Values for Anesthetized American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) . J Zoo Wildl Med

Clostridium perfringens Phospholipase C Induced ROS Production and Cytotoxicity Require PKC, MEK1 and NFκB Activation

-Daz M , Alape-Giron A, Alonso A , Goni FM ( 2009 ) Phospholipase C and sphingomyelinase activities of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin . Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 159 : 51 - 57 . 10. Flores ... deficiency causes hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C . The Journal of Biological Chemistry 273 : 24433 - 24438 . 15. Flores-Daz M , Alape-Giron A, Clark G

What Matters Most for Predicting Survival? A Multinational Population-Based Cohort Study

assessments, most of which were conducted or provided by the interviewer. Analytical Strategy To minimize selection biases resulting from missing data, we followed standard practices of multiple imputation to

ASPM and the Evolution of Cerebral Cortical Size in a Community of New World Monkeys

model of neutral evolution (p = 0.235). Although our exon-wide lineage-specific results within the Atelidae stand in contrast with those of Ali and Meier [18], we also followed their analytical approach ... three was used to rule out replication errors. All sequencing was done using standard dye terminator chemistry on PCR products at UC Berkeley sequencing facilities with an Applied Biosystems 96

What are the prospects for citizen science in agriculture? Evidence from three continents on motivation and mobile telephone use of resource-poor farmers

motivations, expectations and types of rewards farmers would like to receive for sharing agronomic information were analyzed qualitatively. This analytical approach involves a close examination of textual data