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States of nature and states of mind: a generalized theory of decision-making

, or to act impulsively. This generalized decision theory is applied to explain the crowding-out effect, irrational educational investment decisions, persistent social inequalities, the pervasive ... strictly weaker assumption set which underlies our generalized decision theory. Therefore, future theoretical research should explicitly consider whether the Neoclassical ‘single-self’ assumption is

Real Flight Application of a Monocular Image-Based Aircraft Collision Decision Method

This paper considers real flight application of a monocular image-based aircraft collision decision algorithm developed in a previous paper. First, it briefly summarizes the theory based on the ... flight and presents some results about intruder detectability. Finally, Section 6 concludes the paper. 2. Theory of 3D Collision Possibility Decision This section includes a summary of the results obtained

Reduced Elective Operation Rates and High Patient Satisfaction After the Implementation of Decision Aids in Patients with Gallstones or an Inguinal Hernia

selected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate operation rates before and after implementation of decision aids (DAs) and to assess patient compliance with the use of DAs.MethodsA single-centered ... associated with reduced elective operation rates and is associated with high DA compliance. This research was presented at a congress of the Dutch Society of Surgeons—November 30, 2018. Introduction

Approval-directed agency and the decision theory of Newcomb-like problems

and evidential decision theory. Since the main goal of artificial intelligence research is to create machines that make instrumentally rational decisions, the disagreement pertains to this field. In ... theory of Newcomb-like scenarios is a central foundational issue which will plausibly become practically important in the longer term. The problem for AI research posed by the disagreement among decision

Cascade hydropower systems optimal operation: implications for Iran’s Great Karun hydropower systems

Water resources optimal allocation in large complex water systems such as multi-reservoir dams is a challenging task for decision makers. Wide range of decision variables as well as difficult ... water resources planning and management studies, especially in reservoir operation problems. Reservoir operation is a complex problem that involves many decision variables, multiple objectives as well as

Governance in health: a conceptual and analytical approach to research

political sciences and health. Researchers' understanding of governance varies, and the concept is used heterogeneously within academic circles, with ignorance of the term on the part of decision-makers and ... confusion and ambiguity in the meanings used by researchers and decision-makers in the health sector. Instead of the prevailing normative use, promoted by most international agencies, a conceptual and

Decision aids that facilitate elements of shared decision making in chronic illnesses: a systematic review

Shared decision making (SDM) is a patient-centered approach in which clinicians and patients work together to find and choose the best course of action for each patient’s particular situation. Six ... reporting of patient Decision Aid Evaluation studies Declarations Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Amsterdam Public Health research institute for providing a travel grant which enabled THW to

Conceptual framework of equity-focused implementation research for health programs (EquIR)

Implementation research is increasingly used to identify common implementation problems and key barriers and facilitators influencing efficient access to health interventions. To develop and propose ... developed a country-focused program to facilitate improvements in program, policy and system implementation through research embedded within existing processes. The stakeholder analysis involved decision

The Effects of Brain Tumours upon Medical Decision-Making Capacity

systematic review of studies of capacity to consent for treatment or research in patients with intracranial tumours. The search retrieved 1597 papers of which 8 were considered eligible for ... /psychiatric evaluation or more formal tests for capacity to consent for treatment or research. KeywordsBrain tumour Capacity Shared decision-making Legal consent Glioma Brain metastasis  This article is

TODIM strategy for multi-attribute group decision making in trapezoidal neutrosophic number environment

based on prospect theory has received more attention due to its great performance in considering the bounded rationality of decision makers. In this paper, we develop a TODIM strategy to deal with multi ... decision making. In: Smarandache F, Pramanik S (eds) New trends in neutrosophic theory and applications. Pons Editions, Brussels, pp 161–174Google Scholar 7. Smarandache F, Pramanik S (eds) (2016) New

Variable weights theory and its application to multi-attribute group decision making with intuitionistic fuzzy numbers on determining decision maker’s weights

weights theory, and an alternative decision can be computed. Finally, the converted value of the achieved IFS of each alternative is calculated, and the best appropriate alternative is acquired. Two ... averaging (IFWA) operator is applied to obtain weighted decision matrix based on the prior given DMs' and attributes' weights. Second, the DMs' weights are obtained based on variable weights theory, and an

An Optimization Method for Operation Adjustment of High-Speed Delayed Trains

to recover a schedule via timely and rapid operation adjustments must be investigated. In this paper, a complete final real-time adjustment scheme is proposed for the train dispatcher of a railway ... mathematical process of graph traversal was established by Büker et al. [10]. Based on these studies, a train operation process model using the Max-Plus algebra theory to record the train operation status of

Linking democracy and biodiversity conservation: Empirical evidence and research gaps

a standardized statistical framework as research priorities to improve policies against the global biodiversity loss. ... (Carpenter et al. 2006; Harmon et al. 2018). Elsewhere, the formal and informal rules shaping the decision-making and the implementation of biodiversity management have been highlighted as paramount (Wells

Medical Decision Analysis in Infectious Diseases

. Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, 3rd edn . New York: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1953 . 18. Holloway CA. Decision Making Under Uncertainty: Models and Choices . Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall ... G:...allen.vp Wed Dec Medical decision analysis in infectious diseases Upton D Allen MBBS MSc FAAP FRCPC 0 0 Division of Infectious Diseases, The Hospital for Sick Children , Toronto, Ontario

Decision-making in everyday moral conflict situations: Development and validation of a new measure

new measure to assess decision-making in everyday moral conflict situations. All vignettes required a decision between an altruistic versus an egoistic behavioral response alternative. In three ... investigated by moral dilemmas presented as short stories about situations involving moral conflicts (see [ 2 ] for review). To date, most studies in various research areas (e.g., judgment and decision-making

Implementation of Teledermatology: Theory and Practice

, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework developed for implementation research. We introduce this framework to encourage a thorough examination of teledermatology’s implementation including its ... , Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM, discussed below) [17, 18, 19]; (2) Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research [20]; (3) Theory of Diffusion of Innovations [21]; (4

Decision-making at the limit of viability: the Austrian neonatal choice context

We aimed to explore the shared decision-making context at the limit of viability (weeks 22–25 of gestation) through analyzing neonatologist’s communication strategies with parents and their possible ... decision-making is well supported by research from behavioural sciences [9] and hence it is assumed that the same applies to the NICU context of choice. The design in which the options of choices are

Ösophaguskarzinom: minimalinvasive Ösophagektomie sicherer als offene Operation

Patienten mit Ösophaguskarzinom profitieren von der hybriden minimalinvasiven Ösophagektomie im Vergleich zur offenen Operation: Vor allem schwere pulmonale Komplikationen lassen sich verhindern ... Plattenepithel- oder Adenokarzinom im mittleren oder unteren Drittel des Ösophagus’ (Stadium I, II oder III). 103 Patienten wurden auf die hybride Operation, 104 auf die offene Operation randomisiert. Primärer

Theoretical research without projects

individual research units. Our work must be understood as a first step towards a mathematical theory of the research activity. ... , most research policies rely on the unfortunate idea that there is just one way of conducting science. In fact, there are two: experiments and theory, and science cannot advance without either

Concept of information laser: from quantum theory to behavioural dynamics

Recently, the methods of quantum theory, especially quantum information, started to be widely applied outside of physics: in cognitive, social sciences, economics, finance, decision making and