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Sequential monitoring of lymphocyte subsets and of T-and-B cell neogenesis indexes to identify time-varying immunologic profiles in relation to graft-versus-host disease and relapse after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

T and B lymphocyte subsets have been not univocally associated to Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and relapse of hematological malignancies after stem cell transplantation (SCT). Their sequential assessment together with B and T cell neogenesis indexes has been not thoroughly analysed in relation to these changing and interrelated immunologic/clinic events yet. Lymphocyte...

Less Frequent and Less Severe Flu-Like Syndrome in Interferon Beta-1a Treated Multiple Sclerosis Patients with at Least One Allele Bearing the G>C Polymorphism at Position -174 of the IL-6 Promoter Gene

One of the most common adverse event of interferon beta (IFNβ) therapy for multiple sclerosis is flu-like syndrome (FLS), which has been reportedly related to increased levels of cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Average cytokine levels can be affected by single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene promoter regions. To investigate...

Long-Lasting Production of New T and B Cells and T-Cell Repertoire Diversity in Patients with Primary Immunodeficiency Who Had Undergone Stem Cell Transplantation: A Single-Centre Experience

Valotti,1 Alessandra Sottini,1 Arnalda Lanfranchi,2 Federica Bolda,2 Federico Serana,1 Diego Bertoli,1 Viviana Giustini,1 Marion Vaglio Tessitore,1 Luigi Caimi,1 and Luisa Imberti1 1CREA, Diagnostics

Use of V(D)J recombination excision circles to identify T- and B-cell defects and to monitor the treatment in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies

T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) are circular DNA segments generated in T and B cells during their maturation in the thymus and bone marrow. These circularized DNA elements persist in the cells, are unable to replicate, and are diluted as a result of cell division, thus are considered markers of new lymphocyte...

Pre-Existing T- and B-Cell Defects in One Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Patient

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) usually occurs in patients with severe immunosuppression, hematological malignancies, chronic inflammatory conditions or receiving organ transplant. Recently, PML has also been observed in patients treated with monoclonal antibodies. By taking advantage of the availability of samples from a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient treated...

Effects of combined antiretroviral therapy on B- and T-cell release from production sites in long-term treated HIV-1+ patients

Background The immune system reconstitution in HIV-1- infected patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy is routinely evaluated by T-cell phenotyping, even though the infection also impairs the B-cell mediated immunity. To find new laboratory markers of therapy effectiveness, both B- and T- immune recovery were evaluated by means of a follow-up study of long-term...

Identification of a public CDR3 motif and a biased utilization of T-cell receptor V beta and J beta chains in HLA-A2/Melan-A-specific T-cell clonotypes of melanoma patients

Background Assessment of T-cell diversity, besides giving insights about the molecular basis of tumor antigen recognition, has clinical implications since it provides criteria for evaluating antigen-specific T cells clinically relevant for spontaneous and vaccine-induced anti-tumor activity. Melan-A is one of the melanoma antigens most frequently recognized by peripheral and...

Type I interferon-dependent gene MxA in perinatal HIV-infected patients under antiretroviral therapy as marker for therapy failure and blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells depletion

Background To determine the role of interferon-alpha in controlling HIV infection we phenotypically and functionally analyzed circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), which are known to be the highest interferon-alpha producing cells, in 33 perinatally infected HIV+ patients undergoing standard antiretroviral therapy. Methods Circulating pDC were identified by flow...

Insights into SEN Virus Prevalence, Transmission, and Treatment in Community-Based Persons and Patients with Liver Disease Referred to a Liver Disease Unit

To document the prevalence and routes of transmission of SEN virus (SEN-V) in community-based individuals and patients referred to a liver disease unit, stored serum samples obtained from 160 Canadian Inuit and 140 patients with liver disease were tested for SEN-V DNA by polymerase chain reaction. In the community-based population, SEN-V was present in 57 (36%) of 160 persons...

Detection of Clonal T Cell Populations with Closely Related T Cell Receptor Junctional Sequences in Persons at High Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and in Patients Acutely Infected with HIV

, Luisa Imberti, Alessandra Sottini, Eugenia Quiros-Roldan, Massimo Puoti, Francesco Castelli, Gian Pietro Cadeo, Roberto Gorla, and Daniele Primi The T cell repertoires were characterized for CD4 + and