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Search: authors:"Arvid Sjölander"

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On the relationship between the heritability and the attributable fraction

Heritability is the most commonly used measure of genetic contribution to disease outcomes. Being the fraction of the variance of latent trait liability attributable to genetic factors, heritability of binary traits is a difficult technical concept that is sometimes misinterpreted as the more-easily understandable concept of attributable fraction. In this paper we use the...

Estimation of causal effect measures with the <Emphasis FontCategory=

Measures of causal effects play a central role in epidemiology. A wide range of measures exist, which are designed to give relevant answers to substantive epidemiological research questions. However, due to mathematical convenience and software limitations most studies only report odds ratios for binary outcomes and hazard ratios for time-to-event outcomes. In this paper we show...

Shift work and risk of incident dementia: a study of two population-based cohorts

This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and incident dementia in two population-based cohorts from the Swedish Twin Registry (STR). The STR-1973 sample included 13,283 participants born 1926–1943 who received a mailed questionnaire in 1973 that asked about status (ever/never) and duration (years) of shift work employment. The Screening Across the...

Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records

Background The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth’s surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Methods Life cycle...

Doubly robust estimation of attributable fractions

The attributable fraction (AF) is a widely used measure to assess the impact of an exposure on a disease. It is commonly estimated through maximum likelihood, which requires a regression model for the outcome. Recently, it was demonstrated that the AF can also be estimated through inverse probability weighting, which requires a model for the exposure. In this paper, we derive...

Background risk of breast cancer and the association between physical activity and mammographic density

Introduction High physical activity has been shown to decrease the risk of breast cancer, potentially by a mechanism that also reduces mammographic density. We tested the hypothesis that the risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years according to the Tyrer-Cuzick prediction model influences the association between physical activity and mammographic density. Methods We...

ESR1 and EGF genetic variation in relation to breast cancer risk and survival

Introduction Oestrogen exposure is a central factor in the development of breast cancer. Oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is the main mediator of oestrogen effect in breast epithelia and has also been shown to be activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We sought to determine if common genetic variation in the ESR1 and EGF genes affects breast cancer risk, tumour...

Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of CHEK2: Common Variation and Breast Cancer Risk

Background Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2) averts cancer development by promoting cell cycle arrest and activating DNA repair in genetically damaged cells. Previous investigation has established a role for the CHEK2 gene in breast cancer aetiology, but studies have largely been limited to the rare 1100delC mutation. Whether common polymorphisms in this gene influence breast cancer...