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Modal Logic Axioms Valid in Quotient Spaces of Finite CW-Complexes and Other Families of Topological Spaces

Topological Spaces Maria Nogin 0 Bing Xu 0 Ram U. Verma 0 Department of Mathematics, California State University , Fresno, CA , USA In this paper we consider the topological interpretations of L?, the

Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Neural Tube Defects and Detection of Geographical Factors in Shanxi Province, China

Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are congenital birth defects that occur in the central nervous system, and they have the highest incidence among all birth defects. Shanxi Province in China has the world’s highest rate of NTDs. Since the 1990s, China’s government has worked on many birth defect prevention programs to reduce the occurrence of NTDs, such as pregnancy planning...

Insight of the Cytotoxicity of the Aggregates of Peptides or Aberrant Proteins: A Meta-Analysis

University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: Co-author Bing Xu is a PLOS ONE Editorial Board

Nanonets Collect Cancer Secretome from Pericellular Space

Identifying novel cancer biomarkers is important for early cancer detection as it can reduce mortality rates. The cancer secretome, the collection of all macromolecules secreted by a tumor cell, alters its composition compared to normal tissue, and this change plays an important role in the observation of cancer progression. The collection and accurate analysis of cancer...

Global spatiotemporal and genetic footprint of the H5N1 avian influenza virus

Background Since 2005, the Qinghai-like lineage of the highly pathogenic avian influenza A virus H5N1 has rapidly spread westward to Europe, the Middle East and Africa, reaching a dominant level at a global scale in 2006. Methods Based on a combination of genetic sequence data and H5N1 outbreak information from 2005 to 2011, we use an interdisciplinary approach to improve our...

Lipopolysaccharide treatment induces genome-wide pre-mRNA splicing pattern changes in mouse bone marrow stromal stem cells

Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a gram-negative bacterial antigen that triggers a series of cellular responses. LPS pre-conditioning was previously shown to improve the therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow stromal cells/bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for repairing ischemic, injured tissue. Results In this study, we systematically evaluated the effects of...

Metabolic labeling with stable isotope nitrogen (15N) to follow amino acid and protein turnover of three plastid proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

conception and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data; Bing Xu contributed to the analysis and processing of the data for the protein turnover. 2) All three have been involved in ... Xu 0 Fedora Sutton 0 0 Plant Science Department, South Dakota State University , Brookings, SD 57007 , USA 1 Bayer CropScience , 3500 Paramount Parkway, Morrisville, NC 27560 , USA Background: The

Spatial, temporal and genetic dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in China

Background The spatial spread of H5N1 avian influenza, significant ongoing mutations, and long-term persistence of the virus in some geographic regions has had an enormous impact on the poultry industry and presents a serious threat to human health. Methods We applied phylogenetic analysis, geospatial techniques, and time series models to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of...

Risk Factors for Infectious Diseases in Backyard Poultry Farms in the Poyang Lake Area, China

Emergence and transmission of infectious diseases have an enormous impact on the poultry industry and present a serious threat to the health of humans and wild birds. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as backyard poultry facilities in China, are potential sources of virus exchange between commercial poultry and wild birds. It is particularly critical in wetland areas where...

Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Pathway Supports Cancer Cell Growth during Cancer Radiotherapy

Tumor growth after radiotherapy is a commonly recognized cause of therapeutic failure. In this way, we examined tumor cell growth after radiotherapy by establishing a cancer cell growth model in vitro. We accomplished this model by seeding non-irradiated firefly luciferase2 and green fluorescent protein fusion gene (Fluc) labeled living cancer reporter cells onto a feeder layer...

High-Level Expression, Purification and Characterization of a Constitutively Active Thromboxane A2 Receptor Polymorphic Variant

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit some level of basal signaling even in the absence of a bound agonist. This basal or constitutive signaling can have important pathophysiological roles. In the past few years, a number of high resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have been reported, including two crystal structures of constitutively active mutants (CAM) of the dim...

Changes in Rodent Abundance and Weather Conditions Potentially Drive Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Outbreaks in Xi’an, China, 2005–2012

Background Increased risks for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) caused by Hantaan virus have been observed since 2005, in Xi’an, China. Despite increased vigilance and preparedness, HFRS outbreaks in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were larger than ever, with a total of 3,938 confirmed HFRS cases and 88 deaths in 2010 and 2011. Methods and Findings Data on HFRS cases and weather...

Animal Reservoir, Natural and Socioeconomic Variations and the Transmission of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Chenzhou, China, 2006–2010

Background China has the highest incidence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) worldwide. Reported cases account for 90% of the total number of global cases. By 2010, approximately 1.4 million HFRS cases had been reported in China. This study aimed to explore the effect of the rodent reservoir, and natural and socioeconomic variables, on the transmission pattern of...

Combining Spatial-Temporal and Phylogenetic Analysis Approaches for Improved Understanding on Global H5N1 Transmission

Background Since late 2003, the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 had initiated several outbreak waves that swept across the Eurasia and Africa continents. Getting prepared for reassortment or mutation of H5N1 viruses has become a global priority. Although the spreading mechanism of H5N1 has been studied from different perspectives, its main transmission agents and spread route...

Replication Stress Induces Micronuclei Comprising of Aggregated DNA Double-Strand Breaks

Background Micronuclei (MN) in mammalian cells serve as a reliable biomarker of genomic instability and genotoxic exposure. Elevation of MN is commonly observed in cells bearing intrinsic genomic instability and in normal cells exposed to genotoxic agents. DNA double-strand breaks are marked by phosphorylation of H2AX at serine 139 (γ-H2AX). One subclass of MN contains massive...

Environmental Factors Contributing to the Spread of H5N1 Avian Influenza in Mainland China

BackgroundSince late 2003, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreaks caused by infection with H5N1 virus has led to the deaths of millions of poultry and more than 10 thousands of wild birds, and as of 18-March 2008, at least 373 laboratory-confirmed human infections with 236 fatalities, have occurred. The unrestrained worldwide spread of this disease has caused great...

Spatial analysis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in China

Background Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is endemic in many provinces with high incidence in mainland China, although integrated intervention measures including rodent control, environment management and vaccination have been implemented for over ten years. In this study, we conducted a geographic information system (GIS)-based spatial analysis on distribution of...