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Mucosal cell populations may contribute to peripheral immune abnormalities in HIV-infected subjects introducing cART with moderate immune-suppression

and the staff members of the Clinic of Infectious Diseases, San Paolo University Hospital in Milan, Italy. Author Contributions Conceptualization: Camilla Tincati, Giulia Marchetti. 8 / 11 Data ... curation: Matteo Basilissi, Camilla Tincati, Giuseppe Ancona, Elisa Borghi, Francesca Borgo, Alessandra Barassi. Formal analysis: Matteo Basilissi, Esther Merlini, Giuseppe Ancona, Elisa Borghi, Francesca

Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) Cells in HAART-Treated, HIV-Positive Patients with Bone and Cardiovascular Impairment

Background Invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells represent a determinant in the course of infections and diseases, however, their role in the pathogenesis of non-infectious co-morbidities in HIV-positive patients is unknown. Methods Flow cytometry was used to investigate iNKT cell frequency, phenotype and function in HIV-infected patients on HAART with bone and/or...

Immune activation and microbial translocation in liver disease progression in HIV/hepatitis co-infected patients: results from the Icona Foundation study

Background We evaluated whether immune activation (IA) and microbial translocation (MT) might play a role in accelerating liver disease progression in HIV-HBV/HCV co-infected patients. Methods ART-naïve HIV/viral hepatitis co-infected patients from Icona with a CD4 cell count >200/μl and with a known date of prior HIV neg/pos tests and ≥1 plasma sample stored were included in the...

Role of In Vitro Stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide on T-Cell Activation in HIV-Infected Antiretroviral-Treated Patients

Rudinì 8, 20142 Milan, Italy Received 31 August 2011; Revised 8 November 2011; Accepted 10 November 2011 Academic Editor: Carlo Torti Copyright © 2012 Camilla Tincati et al. This is an open access

Association between peripheral T-Lymphocyte activation and impaired bone mineral density in HIV-infected patients

Background HIV-infected patients display an increased and early incidence of osteopenia/osteoporosis. We investigated whether bone metabolism disorders in HIV-infected patients are related to immune hyperactivation and premature immune senescence. Methods Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): low BMD (LBMD) was defined as T-score or z...

Evidence for Polymicrobic Flora Translocating in Peripheral Blood of HIV-Infected Patients with Poor Immune Response to Antiretroviral Therapy

In advanced HIV infection, the homeostatic balance between gastrointestinal indigenous bacteria and gut immunity fails and microbes are able to overcome the intestinal barrier and gain the systemic circulation. Because microbial translocation is not fully controlled by antiviral therapy and is associated with inefficient CD4+ reconstitution, we investigated the profile of...

Circulating sCD14 Is Associated with Virological Response to Pegylated-Interferon-Alpha/Ribavirin Treatment in HIV/HCV Co-Infected Patients

Objectives Microbial translocation (MT) through the gut accounts for immune activation and CD4+ loss in HIV and may influence HCV disease progression in HIV/HCV co-infection. We asked whether increased MT and immune activation may hamper anti-HCV response in HIV/HCV patients. Methods 98 HIV/HCV patients who received pegylated-alpha-interferon (peg-INF-alpha)/ribavirin were...

The Absence of CD4+ T Cell Count Recovery Despite Receipt of Virologically Suppressive Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Clinical Risk, Immunological Gaps, and Therapeutic Options

Up to 30% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients who are receiving long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy do not exhibit a marked increase in the CD4+ T cell count, despite achieving complete suppression of the HIV load. These patients are referred to as “immunological nonresponders.” When treating immunological nonresponders, the practicing clinician has...

A Comprehensive Ex Vivo Functional Analysis of Human NKT Cells Reveals Production of MIP1-α and MIP1-β, a Lack of IL-17, and a Th1-Bias in Males

NKT cells contribute to the modulation of immune responses and are believed to be important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases, as well as cancer. Variations in the composite NKT cytokine response may determine individual disease susceptibility or severity. Due to low frequencies in peripheral blood, knowledge of the breadth of ex vivo human NKT cell...

CD57 Expression and Cytokine Production by T Cells in Lesional and Unaffected Skin from Patients with Psoriasis

Background The immunopathogenic mechanisms leading to psoriasis remain unresolved. CD57 is a marker of replicative inability and immunosenescence on CD8+ T cells and the proportion of CD57 expressing CD8+ T cells is increased in a number of inflammatory conditions. Methodology We examined the expression of CD57 on T cells in the skin of patients affected with psoriasis, comparing...

IL-2 Immunotherapy to Recently HIV-1 Infected Adults Maintains the Numbers of IL-17 Expressing CD4+ T (TH17) Cells in the Periphery

Lishomwa C. Ndhlovu Elizabeth Sinclair Lorrie Epling Qi Xuan Tan Terence Ho Aashish R. Jha Ijeoma Eccles-James Camilla Tincati Jay A. Levy Douglas F. Nixon Frederick M. Hecht Jason D. Barbour