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DPTIP, a newly identified potent brain penetrant neutral sphingomyelinase 2 inhibitor, regulates astrocyte-peripheral immune communication following brain inflammation

DPTIP, a newly identified Camilo Rojas Elena Barnaeva Ajit G. Thomas Xin Hu Noel Southall Juan Marugan Amrita Datta Chaudhuri Seung-WanYoo Niyada Hin Ondrej Stepanek Ying Wu Sarah C. Zimmermann

ANÁLISIS JURÍDICO EN RELACIÓN CON LA APLICACIÓN PROVISIONAL DE TRATADOS EN COLOMBIA: UNA PERSPECTIVA DE DERECHO INTERNACIONAL Y NACIONAL

JUAN CAMILO ROJAS-ARIAS* * Abogado egresado de la Universidad de La Sabana con Maestría en Derecho Internacional y especialista en Derecho Comercial; ha sido profesor de cátedra de la asignatura

Netupitant and palonosetron trigger NK1 receptor internalization in NG108-15 cells

Current therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting includes the use of both 5-HT3 and NK1 receptor antagonists. Acute emesis has largely been alleviated with the use of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, while an improvement in preventing delayed emesis has been achieved with NK1 receptor antagonists. Delayed emesis, however, remains a problem with a significant portion of...

High-Throughput Assay Development for Cystine-Glutamate Antiporter (xc-) Highlights Faster Cystine Uptake than Glutamate Release in Glioma Cells

The cystine-glutamate antiporter (system xc-) is a Na+-independent amino acid transporter that exchanges extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate. It is thought to play a critical role in cellular redox processes through regulation of intracellular glutathione synthesis via cystine uptake. In gliomas, system xc- expression is universally up-regulated while that of...

Selective CNS Uptake of the GCP-II Inhibitor 2-PMPA following Intranasal Administration

Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP-II) is a brain metallopeptidase that hydrolyzes the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) to NAA and glutamate. Small molecule GCP-II inhibitors increase brain NAAG, which activates mGluR3, decreases glutamate, and provide therapeutic utility in a variety of preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases wherein excess...

Targeting the Glutamatergic System for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders

The accumulation of excess glutamate in the extracellular space as a consequence of CNS trauma, neurodegenerative diseases, infection, or deregulation of glutamate clearance results in neuronal damage by excessive excitatory neurotransmission. Glutamate excitotoxicity is thought to be one of several mechanisms by which HIV exerts neurotoxicity that culminates in HIV-associated...

Cambinol, a Novel Inhibitor of Neutral Sphingomyelinase 2 Shows Neuroprotective Properties

Ceramide is a bioactive lipid that plays an important role in stress responses leading to apoptosis, cell growth arrest and differentiation. Ceramide production is due in part to sphingomyelin hydrolysis by sphingomyelinases. In brain, neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (nSMase2) is expressed in neurons and increases in its activity and expression have been associated with pro...

Glutamate carboxypeptidase activity in human skin biopsies as a pharmacodynamic marker for clinical studies

Background Glutamate excitotoxicity is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. One potential source of glutamate is N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) which is hydrolyzed to glutamate and N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) in a reaction catalyzed by glutamate carboxypeptidase (GCP). As a result, GCP inhibition is thought to be beneficial for the treatment...