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Progress in Typhoid Fever Epidemiology

Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever and a human host–restricted organism. Our understanding of the global burden of typhoid fever has improved in recent decades, with both an increase in the number and geographic representation of high-quality typhoid fever incidence studies, and greater sophistication of modeling...

Global Typhoid Fever Incidence: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Contemporary incidence estimates of typhoid fever are needed to guide policy decisions and control measures and to improve future epidemiological studies.

Self-medication with non-prescribed pharmaceutical agents in an area of low malaria transmission in northern Tanzania: a community-based survey

Self-treatment with antimicrobials is common in sub-Saharan Africa. Little is known about the prevalence of this practice where malaria transmission intensity is low, and little is known about the prevalence of self-treatment with other medications such as antihypertensives and antihyperglycemics.

Incidence of human brucellosis in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania in the periods 2007–2008 and 2012–2014

Brucellosis causes substantial morbidity among humans and their livestock. There are few robust estimates of the incidence of brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Using cases identified through sentinel hospital surveillance and health care utilization data, we estimated the incidence of brucellosis in Moshi Urban and Moshi Rural Districts, Kilimanjaro Region, Tanzania, for the...

Global Trends in Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever

Typhoid and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and Southeast Asia, where enteric fever is associated with poor sanitation and unsafe food and water. High-quality incidence data from Asia are underpinning efforts to expand access to typhoid vaccines. Efforts are underway to develop...

Lopinavir/Ritonavir Monotherapy as Second-line Antiretroviral Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Week 104 Analysis of AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5230

Background. The AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5230 study evaluated lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy following virologic failure (VF) on first-line human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) regimens in Africa and Asia.

Two Decades of Disseminated Tuberculosis at a University Medical Center: The Expanding Role of Mycobacterial Blood Culture

We describe the clinical presentation, predisposing conditions, diagnostic approach, and outcome for 52 patients with disseminated tuberculosis who presented at Duke University Medical Center (Durham, NC) from 1980 through 1999. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range, 2–93 years). Fever and weight loss were common at presentation, and delays in the initiation of therapy...

Utilization of Healthcare in the Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program

Background.  Assessing healthcare utilization is important to identify weaknesses of healthcare systems, to outline action points for preventive measures and interventions, and to more accurately estimate the disease burden in a population.

The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP): Clinical, Diagnostic, and Epidemiological Methodologies

Background.  New immunization programs are dependent on data from surveillance networks and disease burden estimates to prioritize target areas and risk groups. Data regarding invasive Salmonella disease in sub-Saharan Africa are currently limited, thus hindering the implementation of preventive measures. The Typhoid Fever Surveillance in Africa Program (TSAP) was established by...

Bacterial Contamination of Animal Feed and Its Relationship to Human Foodborne Illness

Animal feed is at the beginning of the food safety chain in the “farm-to-fork” model. The emergence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease has raised awareness of the importance of contaminated animal feed, but less attention has been paid to the role of bacterial contamination of animal feed in human foodborne illness. In the United States, animal feed is frequently contaminated...

Q Fever, Spotted Fever Group, and Typhus Group Rickettsioses Among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

Background. The importance of Q fever, spotted fever group rickettsiosis (SFGR), and typhus group rickettsiosis (TGR) as causes of febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown; the putative role of Q fever as a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is unclear.

Predictors of Incomplete Adherence, Virologic Failure, and Antiviral Drug Resistance among HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania

Background. Access to antiretroviral therapy is rapidly expanding in sub-Saharan Africa. Identifying the predictors of incomplete adherence, virologic failure, and antiviral drug resistance is essential to achieving long-term success.