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19 papers found.
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The potential role of the osteopontin–osteocalcin–osteoprotegerin triad in the pathogenesis of prediabetes in humans

Aims To examine the relationship between hormones involved in bone remodeling and glucose metabolism alterations in prediabetes. Methods Individuals (n = 43) with NGT (BMI = 31.1 ± 1.1 kg/m2) and individuals (n = 79) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) (BMI = 31.9 ± 1.2 kg/m2) including subjects with IFG, IGT, and IFG-IGT underwent OGTT and DXA. Osteopontin (OPN), osteocalcin...

Pioglitazone is equally effective for diabetes prevention in older versus younger adults with impaired glucose tolerance

institutions in Phoenix and San Diego, which contributed their resources and the use of their facilities. Sara Espinoza, Nicolas Musi, Devjit Tripathy, and Ralph A. DeFronzo are supported, in part, by the South

Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance Is the Primary Defect in Type 2 Diabetes

RALPH A. DEFRONZO DEVJIT TRIPATHY I ture of type 2 diabetes and plays a mansulin resistance is a characteristic feajor role in the pathogenesis of the disease (1,2). Although -cell failure is the

Pioglitazone improves glucose metabolism and modulates skeletal muscle TIMP-3–TACE dyad in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, mechanistic study

Aims/hypothesisPioglitazone (PIO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist insulin-sensitiser with anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of low-dose PIO (15 mg/day) on glucose metabolism and inflammatory state in obese individuals with type 2 diabetes.MethodsA randomised, double-blind, placebo...

Baseline Adiponectin Levels Do Not Influence the Response to Pioglitazone in ACT NOW

Pioglitazone in ACT NOW Devjit Tripathy Stephen C. Clement Dawn C. Schwenke MaryAnn Banerji George A. Bray Thomas A. Buchanan Amalia Gastaldelli Robert R. Henry Abbas E. Kitabchi Sunder Mudaliar Robert E

Transcriptomic Identification of ADH1B as a Novel Candidate Gene for Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Human Adipose Tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES)

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin...

Contributions of β-Cell Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance to the Pathogenesis of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose

MUHAMMAD A. ABDUL-GHANI 0 PHD DEVJIT TRIPATHY 0 PHD RALPH A. DEFRONZO 0 0 From the Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas. sity of Texas

Circulating Fibroblast Growth Factor-21 Is Elevated in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes and Correlates With Muscle and Hepatic Insulin Resistance

ALBERTO O. CHAVEZ MARJORIE MOLINA-CARRION MUHAMMAD A. ABDUL-GHANI PHD FRANCO FOLLI PHD RALPH A. DEFRONZO DEVJIT TRIPATHY PHD C a r d i o v a s c u l a r a n d OBJECTIVE Fibroblast growth factor

Contribution of Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake and Basal Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity to Surrogate Measures of Insulin Sensitivity

OBJECTIVE—The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—The homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin resistance (IR) and the insulin sensitivity index (Si) from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were compared with the M value from a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in...

Prevention of Diabetes With Pioglitazone in ACT NOW: Physiologic Correlates

Ralph A. DeFronzo Devjit Tripathy Dawn C. Schwenke MaryAnn Banerji George A. Bray Thomas A. Buchanan Stephen C. Clement Amalia Gastaldelli Robert R. Henry Abbas E. Kitabchi Sunder Mudaliar Robert E

Prediction of Diabetes Based on Baseline Metabolic Characteristics in Individuals at High Risk

RALPH A. DEFRONZO DEVJIT TRIPATHY PHD DAWN C. SCHWENKE PHD MS MARYANN BANERJI FACP GEORGE A. BRAY THOMAS A. BUCHANAN STEPHEN C. CLEMENT ROBERT R. HENRY T e c h n o l o g i e s OBJECTIVEdIndividuals

Free Fatty acids (FFA) and endothelial dysfunction; role of increased oxidative stress and inflammation

0 Devjit Tripathy, Ahmad Aljada, Paresh Dandona Millard Fillmore Hospital, Diabetes Endocrinol. Center, State University of New York , New York, USA - To the Editor: The review by Steinberg and

Insulin Secretion and Action in Subjects With Impaired Fasting Glucose and Impaired Glucose Tolerance: Results From the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study

This study was conducted to observe changes in insulin secretion and insulin action in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). A total of 319 subjects were studied with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and every 30 min during the OGTT. Fifty-eight...

Importance of Obtaining Independent Measures of Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity During the Same Test: Results with the Botnia clamp

OBJECTIVE—To validate and apply a method for independent assessment of insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity (SI) during the same test; that is, an intravenous glucose tolerance test followed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, also called the Botnia clamp. This test was then applied to nondiabetic subjects with (FH+) and without (FH−) a first-degree family history of...

Control of Postprandial Plasma Glucose by an Oral Insulin Product (HIM2) in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE—The objectives of this exploratory study were to assess the postprandial glucose-lowering effects and evaluate the safety and tolerability of single, escalating doses of an oral insulin product, hexyl-insulin monoconjugate 2 (HIM2), in patients with type 2 diabetes. Subcutaneous insulin and oral placebo were also administered for comparison. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS...

Elevation of Free Fatty Acids Induces Inflammation and Impairs Vascular Reactivity in Healthy Subjects

To test the possible acute proinflammatory effects of fatty acids, we induced an increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations after a lipid and heparin infusion for 4 h in 10 healthy subjects. We determined the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) binding activity in mononuclear cells (MNCs), the p65 subunit of NF-κB, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by MNC, and...

Proteomics Reveals Novel Oxidative and Glycolytic Mechanisms in Type 1 Diabetic Patients' Skin Which Are Normalized by Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation

Background In type 1 diabetes (T1D) vascular complications such as accelerated atherosclerosis and diffused macro-/microangiopathy are linked to chronic hyperglycemia with a mechanism that is not yet well understood. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) worsens most diabetic complications, particularly, the risk of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease is increased...

Relationship Between Testosterone Levels, Insulin Sensitivity, and Mitochondrial Function in Men

OBJECTIVE— The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between serum testosterone levels and insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial function in men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 60 men (mean age 60.5 ± 1.2 years) had a detailed hormonal and metabolic evaluation. Insulin sensitivity was measured using a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Mitochondrial function...

Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates

Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant. Aims To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic...