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Loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification for asymptomatic malaria detection in challenging field settings: Technical performance and pilot implementation in the Peruvian Amazon

Concytec (008-2014-FONDECYT) to Prof Dionicia Gamboa Ð and the AcadeÂmie de Recherche et d'Enseignement SupeÂrieur Commission de la CoopeÂration au DeÂveloppement of Belgium (ARESCCD, PRD-Peru 2014-2019) to ... , Iveth J. GonzaÂlez, Anna Rosanas Urgell, Dionicia Gamboa. Formal analysis: Elisa Serra-Casas, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar. Funding acquisition: Elisa Serra-Casas, Niko Speybroeck, Iveth J. GonzaÂlez, Anna

Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru...

The history of 20th century malaria control in Peru

Malaria has been part of Peruvian life since at least the 1500s. While Peru gave the world quinine, one of the first treatments for malaria, its history is pockmarked with endemic malaria and occasional epidemics. In this review, major increases in Peruvian malaria incidence over the past hundred years are described, as well as the human factors that have facilitated these events...

Assessment of an automated capillary system for Plasmodium vivax microsatellite genotyping

Background Several platforms have been used to generate the primary data for microsatellite analysis of malaria parasite genotypes. Each has relative advantages but share a limitation of being time- and cost-intensive. A commercially available automated capillary gel cartridge system was assessed in the microsatellite analysis of Plasmodium vivax diversity in the Peruvian Amazon...

Relationship of regulatory T cells to Plasmodium falciparum malaria symptomatology in a hypoendemic region

Background Previous data have suggested that regulatory T cells (Tregs) balance protective immune responses with immune mediated pathology in malaria. This study aimed to determine to test the hypothesis that Treg proportions or absolute levels are associated with parasitaemia and malaria symptoms. Methods Treg cells were quantified by flow cytometry as CD4+ CD25+, Foxp3...

Plasmodium vivax malaria at households: spatial clustering and risk factors in a low endemicity urban area of the northwestern Peruvian coast

Background Peru has presented a decreasing malaria trend during the last decade, particularly in areas on northwestern coast; however, a limited number of cases continues to be reported yearly mainly in malaria hotspots. Methods A two-phase study was conducted to identify spatial and temporal clusters of incident Plasmodium vivax malaria, as well as to determine risk factors...

Genome-Level Determination of Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Targets of Malarial Clinical Immunity in the Peruvian Amazon

Background. Persons with blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in the absence of symptoms are considered to be clinically immune. We hypothesized that asymptomatic subjects with P. falciparum parasitemia would differentially recognize a subset of P. falciparum proteins on a genomic scale. Methods and Findings. Compared with symptomatic subjects, sera from clinically...

Hotspots of Malaria Transmission in the Peruvian Amazon: Rapid Assessment through a Parasitological and Serological Survey

Background With low and markedly seasonal malaria transmission, increasingly sensitive tools for better stratifying the risk of infection and targeting control interventions are needed. A cross-sectional survey to characterize the current malaria transmission patterns, identify hotspots, and detect recent changes using parasitological and serological measures was conducted in...

Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

Background Characterizing the parasite dynamics and population structure provides useful information to understand the dynamic of transmission and to better target control interventions. Despite considerable efforts for its control, vivax malaria remains a major health problem in Peru. In this study, we have explored the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax isolates from...

Modelling the potential of focal screening and treatment as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon Region

Background Focal screening and treatment (FSAT) of malaria infections has recently been introduced in Peru to overcome the inherent limitations of passive case detection (PCD) and further decrease the malaria burden. Here, we used a relatively straightforward mathematical model to assess the potential of FSAT as elimination strategy for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the...

Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria Diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon: Impact of pfhrp2 Gene Deletions and Cross-Reactions

Background In the Peruvian Amazon, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria are endemic in rural areas, where microscopy is not available. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide quick and accurate diagnosis. However, pfhrp2 gene deletions may limit the use of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) detecting RDTs. Further, cross-reactions of P. falciparum with P. vivax...

Placental Histopathologic Changes Associated with Subclinical Malaria Infection and Its Impact on the Fetal Environment

and Hygiene. Authors addresses: Falgunee K. Parekh, 20408 Shore Harbour Drive, #P, Germantown, MD 20874. Billie B. Davison, 300 Reine Street, Mandeville, LA 70471. Dionicia Gamboa, Instituto de

Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South America Use an Atypical Red Blood Cell Invasion Pathway Associated with Invasion Ligand Polymorphisms

Villasis Ricardo L. D. Machado Marinete M. Po voa Joseph M. Vinetz Silvia Blair Dionicia Gamboa Sara Lustigman Thomas J. Templeton, Weill Cornell Medical College, United States of America Studies of

Anti-Plasmodium falciparum invasion ligand antibodies in a low malaria transmission region, Loreto, Peru

Background Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum is a complex process that involves two families; Erythrocyte Binding-Like (EBL) and the Reticulocyte Binding-Like (PfRh) proteins. Antibodies that inhibit merozoite attachment and invasion are believed to be important in mediating naturally acquired immunity and immunity generated by parasite blood stage vaccine candidates...

Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents

Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999–2008. Diversity was highest in South...

Population structure and spatio-temporal transmission dynamics of Plasmodium vivax after radical cure treatment in a rural village of the Peruvian Amazon

Background Despite the large burden of Plasmodium vivax, little is known about its transmission dynamics. This study explored the population structure and spatio-temporal dynamics of P. vivax recurrent infections after radical cure in a two-year cohort study carried out in a rural community of the Peruvian Amazon. Methods A total of 37 P. vivax participants recruited in San...

Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (Parascreen™) for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

-Cuentas Jorge Escobedo Dionicia Gamboa Background: The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT) constitute a fast and opportune alternative for noncomplicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is

Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

Background While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the...