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Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors

. McManus 1 Hong You 1 0 School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland , Woolloongabba, QLD , Australia , 3 Institute for Molecular Bioscience , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Australia , 4

Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni

Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an...

Circulating miRNAs: Potential Novel Biomarkers for Hepatopathology Progression and Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Two Murine Models

Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health issue, with an estimated 230 million people infected worldwide. Novel tools for early diagnosis and surveillance of schistosomiasis are currently needed. Elevated levels of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are commonly associated with the initiation and progression of human disease pathology. Hence, serum miRNAs are emerging...

An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Hepatic Schistosomiasis and the Effect of Released Protein from Dying Eggs

Background We report the use of an ex vivo precision cut liver slice (PCLS) mouse model for studying hepatic schistosomiasis. In this system, liver tissue is unfixed, unfrozen, and alive for maintenance in culture and subsequent molecular analysis. Methods and Findings Using thick naive mouse liver tissue and sterile culture conditions, the addition of soluble egg antigen (SEA...

Lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP) – preliminary study on a hidden antigen target for vaccination against schistosomiasis

, Charlene Willis, Jason Mulvenna, Donald P. McManus & Malcolm K. JonesStructural Chemistry Program, Eskitis Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld 4111, AustraliaAndreas HofmannFaculty of Veterinary ... Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Andreas Hofmann in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google ScholarSearch for Donald P. McManus in:Nature Research journals • PubMed • Google

Characterisation of a secretory serine protease inhibitor (SjB6) from Schistosoma japonicum

Background Proteins belonging to the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily play essential physiological roles in many organisms. In pathogens, serpins are thought to have evolved specifically to limit host immune responses by interfering with the host immune-stimulatory signals. Serpins are less well characterised in parasitic helminths, although some are thought to be...

Proteomic Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Miracidium

Despite extensive control efforts, schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in developing nations in the tropics and sub-tropics. The miracidium, along with the cercaria, both of which are water-borne and free-living, are the only two stages in the life-cycle of Schistosoma mansoni which are involved in host invasion. Miracidia penetrate intermediate host...

Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential

To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain...

Discovery of novel Schistosoma japonicum antigens using a targeted protein microarray approach

Background Novel vaccine candidates against Schistosoma japonicum are required, and antigens present in the vulnerable larval developmental stage are attractive targets. Post-genomic technologies are now available which can contribute to such antigen discovery. Methods A schistosome-specific protein microarray was probed using the local antibody response against migrating larvae...

Geographical genetic structure of Schistosoma japonicum revealed by analysis of mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers

Background Schistosoma japonicum is a significant public health risk in parts of China and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. To gain an insight into the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica, a detailed investigation of S. japonicum genetic population structure is needed. Methods Using three mitochondrial DNA fragments and ten microsatellite loci, we investigated the genetic...

Schistosoma japonicum Eggs Induce a Proinflammatory, Anti-Fibrogenic Phenotype in Hepatic Stellate Cells

Hepatic fibrosis induced by egg deposition is the most serious pathology associated with chronic schistosomiasis, in which the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) plays a central role. While the effect of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on the fibrogenic phenotype of HSCs has been investigated, studies determining the effect of eggs of S. japonicum on HSCs are lacking. Disease caused by S...

A Systematic Review of Preventive Health Educational Videos Targeting Infectious Diseases in Schoolchildren

Research Scholarship. Darren J. Gray is an Australian Research Council Fellow. Donald P. McManus is a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia Senior Principal Research Fellow. Disclosure ... , Queensland, Australia, E-mail: . Donald P. McManus, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Herston, Queensland, Australia, E-mail: .

School-Based Health Education Targeting Intestinal Worms—Further Support for Integrated Control

. McManus 0 1 Stefanie Knopp, Natural History Museum, United Kingdom 0 Funding: This work was supported by UBS Optimus Foundation , Zurich , Switzerland. FAB was a holder of a University of Queensland

Immunology and Immunodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis: An Update

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval cystic stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. This complex multicellular pathogen produces various antigens which modulate the host immune response and promote parasite survival and development. The recent application of modern molecular and immunological approaches has revealed novel insights...

Transcriptional Responses of In Vivo Praziquantel Exposure in Schistosomes Identifies a Functional Role for Calcium Signalling Pathway Member CamKII

Treatment for clinical schistosomiasis has relied centrally on the broad spectrum anthelmintic praziquantel; however, there is limited information on its mode of action or the molecular response of the parasite. This paper presents a transcriptional and functional approach to defining the molecular responses of schistosomes to praziquantel. Differential gene expression in...

Real-time PCR Demonstrates High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: Implications for Surveillance and Control

Background The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching...

Echinococcus granulosus infection reduces airway inflammation of mice likely through enhancing IL-10 and down-regulation of IL-5 and IL-17A

Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a near cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the dog tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. E. granulosus infection induces a polarized T-helper type 2 (Th2) systematic immune response in its intermediate hosts. However, it is not known whether the infection modulates lung inflammation by regulating local immune response. In this...

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have...

Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate...

Mapping the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections in the Philippines

Background In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection...