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Identification of Host Insulin Binding Sites on Schistosoma japonicum Insulin Receptors

. McManus 1 Hong You 1 0 School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland , Woolloongabba, QLD , Australia , 3 Institute for Molecular Bioscience , The University of Queensland , Brisbane , Australia , 4

Ionotropic Receptors Identified within the Tentacle of the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria glabrata, an Intermediate Host of Schistosoma mansoni

Biomphalaria glabrata (B. glabrata) is an air-breathing aquatic mollusc found in freshwater habitats across the Western Hemisphere. It is most well-known for its recognized capacity to act as a major intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni, the human blood fluke parasite. Ionotropic receptors (IRs), a variant family of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR), have an...

Circulating miRNAs: Potential Novel Biomarkers for Hepatopathology Progression and Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Japonica in Two Murine Models

Background Schistosomiasis remains a major public health issue, with an estimated 230 million people infected worldwide. Novel tools for early diagnosis and surveillance of schistosomiasis are currently needed. Elevated levels of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are commonly associated with the initiation and progression of human disease pathology. Hence, serum miRNAs are emerging...

An Ex Vivo Model for Studying Hepatic Schistosomiasis and the Effect of Released Protein from Dying Eggs

Background We report the use of an ex vivo precision cut liver slice (PCLS) mouse model for studying hepatic schistosomiasis. In this system, liver tissue is unfixed, unfrozen, and alive for maintenance in culture and subsequent molecular analysis. Methods and Findings Using thick naive mouse liver tissue and sterile culture conditions, the addition of soluble egg antigen (SEA...

Proteomic Analysis of the Schistosoma mansoni Miracidium

Despite extensive control efforts, schistosomiasis continues to be a major public health problem in developing nations in the tropics and sub-tropics. The miracidium, along with the cercaria, both of which are water-borne and free-living, are the only two stages in the life-cycle of Schistosoma mansoni which are involved in host invasion. Miracidia penetrate intermediate host...

Suppression of the Insulin Receptors in Adult Schistosoma japonicum Impacts on Parasite Growth and Development: Further Evidence of Vaccine Potential

To further investigate the importance of insulin signaling in the growth, development, sexual maturation and egg production of adult schistosomes, we have focused attention on the insulin receptors (SjIRs) of Schistosoma japonicum, which we have previously cloned and partially characterised. We now show, by Biolayer Interferometry, that human insulin can bind the L1 subdomain...

Schistosoma japonicum Eggs Induce a Proinflammatory, Anti-Fibrogenic Phenotype in Hepatic Stellate Cells

Hepatic fibrosis induced by egg deposition is the most serious pathology associated with chronic schistosomiasis, in which the hepatic stellate cell (HSC) plays a central role. While the effect of Schistosoma mansoni eggs on the fibrogenic phenotype of HSCs has been investigated, studies determining the effect of eggs of S. japonicum on HSCs are lacking. Disease caused by S...

School-Based Health Education Targeting Intestinal Worms—Further Support for Integrated Control

. McManus 0 1 Stefanie Knopp, Natural History Museum, United Kingdom 0 Funding: This work was supported by UBS Optimus Foundation , Zurich , Switzerland. FAB was a holder of a University of Queensland

Transcriptional Responses of In Vivo Praziquantel Exposure in Schistosomes Identifies a Functional Role for Calcium Signalling Pathway Member CamKII

Treatment for clinical schistosomiasis has relied centrally on the broad spectrum anthelmintic praziquantel; however, there is limited information on its mode of action or the molecular response of the parasite. This paper presents a transcriptional and functional approach to defining the molecular responses of schistosomes to praziquantel. Differential gene expression in...

Real-time PCR Demonstrates High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines: Implications for Surveillance and Control

Background The Philippines has a population of approximately 103 million people, of which 6.7 million live in schistosomiasis-endemic areas with 1.8 million people being at risk of infection with Schistosoma japonicum. Although the country-wide prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in the Philippines is relatively low, the prevalence of schistosomiasis can be high, approaching...

High Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum and Fasciola gigantica in Bovines from Northern Samar, the Philippines

The cause of zoonotic schistosomiasis in the Philippines is Schistosoma japonicum, which infects up to 46 mammalian hosts, including humans and bovines. In China, water buffaloes have been identified as major reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis japonica, contributing up to 75% of human transmission. In the Philippines, water buffaloes (carabao; Bubalus bubalis carabanesis) have...

Discrimination between E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus Using a Multiplex PCR Assay

Background Infections of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s), E. multilocularis and E. shiquicus are commonly found co-endemic on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China, and an efficient tool is needed to facilitate the detection of infected hosts and for species identification. Methodology/Principal Findings A single-tube multiplex PCR assay was established to differentiate...

Mapping the Risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthic Infections in the Philippines

Background In order to increase the efficient allocation of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) disease control resources in the Philippines, we aimed to describe for the first time the spatial variation in the prevalence of A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and hookworm across the country, quantify the association between the physical environment and spatial variation of STH infection...

Local Immune Responses of the Chinese Water Buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, against Schistosoma japonicum Larvae: Crucial Insights for Vaccine Design

. McManus 0 Els N. T. Meeusen 0 Adrian Paul Mountford, University of York, United Kingdom 0 1 Biotechnology Research Laboratories, School of Biomedical Sciences, Monash University , Melbourne, Victoria

Health Access Livelihood Framework Reveals Potential Barriers in the Control of Schistosomiasis in the Dongting Lake Area of Hunan Province, China

Hunan Province, China Julie Balen Zhao-Chun Liu Donald P. McManus Giovanna Raso Ju rg Utzinger Shui- Yuan Xiao Dong-Bao Yu Zheng-Yuan Zhao Yue-Sheng Li Andrea Gazzinelli, Universidade Federal de Minas

Impact of Increased Economic Burden Due to Human Echinococcosis in an Underdeveloped Rural Community of the People's Republic of China

Donald P. McManus 0 Hector H. Garcia, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Peru 0 1 Ningxia Medical University , Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, 2 Molecular

Synthesising 30 Years of Mathematical Modelling of Echinococcus Transmission

Background Echinococcosis is a complex zoonosis that has domestic and sylvatic lifecycles, and a range of different intermediate and definitive host species. The complexities of its transmission and the sparse evidence on the effectiveness of control strategies in diverse settings provide significant challenges for the design of effective public health policy against this disease...

Gene Atlasing of Digestive and Reproductive Tissues in Schistosoma mansoni

Background While considerable genomic and transcriptomic data are available for Schistosoma mansoni, many of its genes lack significant annotation. A transcriptomic study of individual tissues and organs of schistosomes could play an important role in functional annotation of the unknown genes, particularly by providing rapid localisation data and thus giving insight into the...

Schistosomiasis Research in the Dongting Lake Region and Its Impact on Local and National Treatment and Control in China

Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease that has often been neglected because it is a disease of poverty, affecting poor rural communities in the developing world. This is not the case in the People's Republic of China (PRC), where the disease, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, has long captured the attention of the Chinese authorities who have, over the...