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Basal position of two new complete mitochondrial genomes of parasitic Cymothoida (Crustacea: Isopoda) challenges the monophyly of the suborder and phylogeny of the entire order

Isopoda is a highly diverse order of crustaceans with more than 10,300 species, many of which are parasitic. Taxonomy and phylogeny within the order, especially those of the suborder Cymothoida Wägele, 1989, are still debated. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are a useful tool for phylogenetic studies, but their availability for isopods is very limited. To explore these phylogenetic...

PM2.5 exposure aggravates oligomeric amyloid beta-induced neuronal injury and promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation in an in vitro model of Alzheimer’s disease

Numerous studies suggested that PM2.5 exposure was associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). But the precise mechanisms by which PM2.5 contributed to AD pathogenesis have not been clarified. In the presence or absence of neurons, oligomeric amyloid beta (oAβ)-primed microglia were stimulated with PM2.5. Firstly, we determined the effects of PM2.5 exposure on...

Association between acute gastrointestinal injury and biomarkers of intestinal barrier function in critically ill patients

To assess the associations of biomarkers of intestinal barrier function and other clinical variables with acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grade, and of these clinical variables with mortality in critically ill patients. This was a single-center, observational, prospective study. Patients were included if they were diagnosed with AGI and underwent tests for the measurement of...

A gene-signature progression approach to identifying candidate small-molecule cancer therapeutics with connectivity mapping

, UK 1 Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology (CCRCB), Queen's University Belfast , Belfast , UK 2 Peter W. Hamilton and Shu-Dong Zhang are joint senior authors 3 Scientific Computing Department

Distribution of immunoglobulin G antibody secretory cells in small intestine of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus)

Background To explore the morphological evidence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) participating in intestinal mucosal immunity, 8 healthy adult Bactrian camels used. First, IgG was successfully isolated from their serum and rabbit antibody against Bactrian camels IgG was prepared. The IgG antibody secretory cells (ASCs) in small intestine were particularly observed through...

Inhibitory effects of HNF4α on migration/maltransformation of hepatic progenitors: HNF4α-overexpressing hepatic progenitors for liver repopulation

Background Although they are expandable in vitro, hepatic progenitors are immature cells and share many immunomarkers with hepatocellular carcinoma, raising potential concerns regarding maltransformation after transplantation. This study investigated the effects of hepatic nuclear factor (HNF) 4α on the proliferation, migration, and maltransformation of hepatic progenitors and...

Evolution and divergence of SBP-box genes in land plants

Background Squamosa promoter binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that control many important biological functions, including phase transition, inflorescence branching, fruit ripening, and copper homeostasis. Nevertheless, the evolutionary patterns of SBP-box genes and evolutionary forces driving them are still not well understood...

Localization of neonatal Fc receptor for IgG in aggregated lymphoid nodules area in abomasum of Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) of different ages

Background The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) plays a crucial role in transporting IgG and associated antigens across polarized epithelial barriers in mucosal immunity. However, it was not clear that FcRn expression in aggregated lymphoid nodules area (ALNA) in abomasum, a unique and important mucosal immune structure discovered only in Bactrian camels. In the present study, 27...

Defective autophagy leads to the suppression of stem-like features of CD271 + osteosarcoma cells

Background As an important stress-response mechanism, autophagy plays crucial role in the tumor formation and drug resistance of cancer cells including osteosarcoma (OS). OS cancer stem cells (CSCs) also are considered a key factor of tumorigenesis, drug resistance and tumor recurrence. However, the relationship between autophagy and OS CSCs still remains unclear. Methods CD271...

Computational cancer biology: education is a natural key to many locks

Background Oncology is a field that profits tremendously from the genomic data generated by high-throughput technologies, including next-generation sequencing. However, in order to exploit, integrate, visualize and interpret such high-dimensional data efficiently, non-trivial computational and statistical analysis methods are required that need to be developed in a problem...

QUADrATiC: scalable gene expression connectivity mapping for repurposing FDA-approved therapeutics

contributor. Ken I. Mills and Shu-Dong Zhang are joint senior authors Background: Gene expression connectivity mapping has proven to be a powerful and flexible tool for research. Its application has been shown

Transcriptome analysis reveals the effects of sugar metabolism and auxin and cytokinin signaling pathways on root growth and development of grafted apple

Background The root architecture of grafted apple (Malus spp.) is affected by various characteristics of the scions. To provide information on the molecular mechanisms underlying this influence, we examined root transcriptomes of M. robusta rootstock grafted with scions of wild-type (WT) apple (M. spectabilis) and a more-branching (MB) mutant at the branching stage. Results The...

Combination of double negative T cells and anti-thymocyte serum reverses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

Background Double-negative (DN) T cells could delay the onset and the progression of autoimmune diabetes, yet they were less efficient on reversing autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the combination of DN T cells and anti-thymocyte serum (ATS) could reverse new-onset diabetes in NOD mice. Methods The regulation of different subsets of T cells in...

Association between abnormal default mode network activity and suicidality in depressed adolescents

Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15- to 29-year-olds in China, and 60 % of suicidal patients have a history of depression. Previous brain imaging studies have shown that depression and suicide may be associated with abnormal activity in default mode network (DMN) regions. However, no study has specifically investigated the relationship between DMN...

Dry computational approaches for wet medical problems

This is a report on the 4th international conference in ‘Quantitative Biology and Bioinformatics in Modern Medicine’ held in Belfast (UK), 19–20 September 2013. The aim of the conference was to bring together leading experts from a variety of different areas that are key for Systems Medicine to exchange novel findings and promote interdisciplinary ideas and collaborations.

Impact of primordial ultracompact minihaloes on the intergalactic medium and first structure formation

The effects of dark matter annihilation on the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the early Universe will be more important if the dark matter structure is more concentrated. Ultracompact minihaloes (UCMHs), which formed through dark matter accretion on to primordial black holes (PBHs) or an initial dark matter overdensity produced by a primordial density perturbation...

Radiation pressure-driven galactic winds from self-gravitating discs

We study large-scale winds driven from uniformly bright self-gravitating discs radiating near the Eddington limit. We show that the ratio of the radiation pressure force to the gravitational force increases with height above the disc surface to a maximum of twice the value of the ratio at the disc surface. Thus, uniformly bright self-gravitating discs radiating at the Eddington...

Laparoscopy-assisted posterior low anterior resection of rectal cancer

Background Laparoscopy-assisted low anterior resection (LAR) of colorectal cancer, using a posterior surgical approach, is a difficult and controversial procedure to perform. We report successful operations on 13 patients with clear surgical margins and no serious complications. Methods Thirteen patients [10 males and three females, age range: 48 to 69 years (median: 61 years...

Connectivity mapping using a combined gene signature from multiple colorectal cancer datasets identified candidate drugs including existing chemotherapies

Background While the discovery of new drugs is a complex, lengthy and costly process, identifying new uses for existing drugs is a cost-effective approach to therapeutic discovery. Connectivity mapping integrates gene expression profiling with advanced algorithms to connect genes, diseases and small molecule compounds and has been applied in a large number of studies to identify...

Global identification of the genetic networks and cis-regulatory elements of the cold response in zebrafish

The transcriptional programs of ectothermic teleosts are directly influenced by water temperature. However, the cis- and trans-factors governing cold responses are not well characterized. We profiled transcriptional changes in eight zebrafish tissues exposed to mildly and severely cold temperatures using RNA-Seq. A total of 1943 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were...